ZAMBIA OPEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
NAME OF STUDENT: ANNETY KALYANGILE
STUDENT NUMBER: 21730179
PROGRAMME: BACHELOR OF PUBIC ADMINISTRATION
COURSE: TECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT
COURSE CODE: DS 10
LECTURER: MRS M. MULUNGA
YEAR: SECOND YEAR
ASSIGNMENT NO: 1
DUE DATE: 9TH MARCH, 2018
PHONE NUMBER: 0976840775
POSTAL ADDRESS: ZIMBA TOWN COUNCIL
This paper is an attempt to discuss the relationship between science, technology and production.
The paper begins by defining key definitional terms before giving a detailed discussion about the relationship between science, technology and production. Thereafter a conclusion is drawn to wrap up the discussion.
Science (from Latin scientia, meaning knowledge) is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanation and predictions about the universe.
Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural science which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, by R. Feynman1966).
First recorded in 1605-15, Technology is from the Greek word (techno logia) systematic treatment. Technology is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use the technical means and their interrelation with life, society and the environment drawing upon such objects as industrial arts engineering applied science and pure practical ends.
Production is a process of combining various materials inputs and immaterial, inputs (plans, know, how) in order to make something for consumption (the outputs). It is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contribute to the utility of individuals. Economic well-being is created in a production process, meaning all economic activities that aim directly or indirectly to satisfy human wants or needs. The degree to which the need are satisfied is often accepted as a measure of economic well-being. In production there are two features which explain increasing economic well-being. They are improving quality-price-ration of goods and services and increasing income from growing and more efficient market production. By saari,2006. The most important forms of production are Market production, Public production and Household production.
The relationship between Science, Technology and Production, these three component work together very well without Science Technology cannot exist and production without these two cannot exist as well. It is surprising that so far little interest has been paid by the sociology of science to the study of technology let alone to the comparative analysis of science and technology and the relation between these two areas of knowledge production. The sociology of science is concerned with science and this term more often than not has the meaning of pure academic science. Even though the range of analysis has widened in recent years the sociological fascination is focused on the phenomena of science as an institutionalized subsystems of society, differentiated from similar systems such as technology and hardy touching upon the classic professions such as medicine or law. This is surprising if one considers some of the major theoretical concerns of the sociology of science, namely to determine the respective import of internal and external factors in the development of science knowledge of systematic and everyday knowledge or particular condition of the production of science knowledge. R. Hahn, 1971
Much public debate about science and technology has been going implicitly dominated by a “pipeline” model of the innovation process in which new technological ideas emerge as a result of new discoveries in science and move through a progression from applied research, design manufacturing and finally, commercialization and marketing. This model seemed to correspond with some of the most visible success stories of world war II, sure as the atomic bomb, radar, and the proximity fuze, and appeared to be further exemplified by development such as the transistor, the laser, the computer and most recently, the nascent biotechnology industry arising out of the discovery of recombinant DNA techniques.
Perhaps inadvertently legitimated by the influential Bush report, Science, the Endless Frontier, which over time come to be interpreted as saying that if the nation supported scientist to carry out research according to their own sense of what was important and interesting, technologies useful to health, and nation security, and the economy would have follow almost automatically once the potential opportunities opened up by new scientific discoveries became widely known to the military, the health professions, and the private entrepreneurs operating in national economy. See Frederickson, (1993). the body of research knowledge was thought of as a kind of intellectual bank on which society as a science, technology and innovation each represent successively larger category of activities which are highly interdependent but distinct. Science contributes to technology in at least six ways:
New knowledge which serves as a direct source of ideas for new technological possibilities, Source of tools and techniques for more efficient engineering design and a knowledge base for evaluation of feasibility of designs, research instrumentation, laboratory techniques and analytical methods used in research that eventually finds their way into design or industrial practices, often through intermediate disciplines; practice of research a source for development and assimilation of new human skill and capabilities eventually useful for technology; creation of knowledge base that becomes increasingly important in the assessment of technology in terms of its wider social and environmental impacts; knowledge base that enables more efficient strategies of applied research, development, and refinement of new technology.
The converse impact of technology on science is of at least equal importance: through providing a fertile source of novel scientific questions and thereby as helping to justify the allocation of resource needed to address these questions in an efficient and timely manner, extending the agenda of science; As a source of otherwise unavailable instrumentation and techniques needed to address novel and more difficult scientific question more efficiently. Specific examples of each of these two-way interactions are discussed.
Because of many indirect as well as direct connection between science and technology the research portfolio of potential social benefit is much broader and more diverse than would be suggested by looking only at the direct connections between science and technology. Research policy 23(1994). Scientific and technology progress has hand various effects on the society. These effects have not been limited to the improvement of societies materials wealth, but have also extended to altering the paradigms under which the society operates information and telecommunications technology (IT) is one of the example of a paradigm-changing technology. Furthermore, as progress in science and technology has broadened and enlivened human activity, new issues have appeared in society, and these have in turn led to demands for new science and technologies capable of resolving the issues arising from the changes in society. Science and technology have formed the foundations for progress in society, and have helped to make people’s lives more materially prosperous. In particular, since the rise of the Industrial Revolution in the later part of the 18th century, science and technology have shown accelerated progress in energy, physical materials, and many other sectors, resulting in vast improvements in people’s health, economic prosperity, and living conveniences. Progress in energy and materials technologies has given rise to a variety of new transport modes, such as the railroad, the automobile, and the airplane, vastly improving human mobility in terms of both time and space. Inventions in machine tools have been linked to advances in energy technology to achieve automation and acceleration of manufacturing processes. The result has been large-volume production of goods in ever-shorter period of time. Moreover, progress in materials technology has resulted in the ability to produce diverse types of material items. Meanwhile, progress in medical technology has greatly extended people’s average life spans and reduced infant and child mortality rate.
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, the role of putting the results of science and technology to practical use in society was assumed mainly by entrepreneurs. These entrepreneurs used scientific and technological results for the development of products and improvement of production systems in order to return a profit. Where new scientific and technological results to led to the creation of new industries, the needs of entrepreneurs also led to the creation of new sciences and technologies. Basically, the interaction between scientists, technologists, and entrepreneurs resulted in scientific and technological progress, and the people of society received the benefits of scientific and technological results. Brooks, H., 1973. Science is that boundary less knowledge that never stops growing and never stops amazing us. Technology is something that grows out of science and it is more human centric. It shows how many times money changes hands. It is well known that every time money changes hands there is either a loss or gain and since humans will not transact to lose money it is usually gain. Now to transact humans need to produce something that can be sold for money. This production essentially means taking something available as it is, then adding value to it by working on it. So you can collect natural rubber and cotton and produce tennis balls. You will of course pay for the natural rubber and cotton to the person who grows and produces those two commodities. After the tennis ball is maker “works” on the two commodities the tennis ball is produced. Who is responsible for increasing the productivity? The engineer. So that is how the engineer and his antecedents the technologist and the scientists help in improving the productivity. Science helps you to understand the intricate details of the topic you are researching upon or any other for that matter, engineer helps you to create or modify the path you are arrive at your product and technology helps you to automate it and do it at a faster pace with the help of engineering techniques. It allows you to showcase your work to the world more rapidly and also review any suggestion to improvise upon. Technology has helped develop more advanced in production (including today’s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
In conclusion, this paper has highlighted the meaning of Science, Technology and Production and has given an in-depth discussion, on the relationship between the three, and the contributions of science to technology, technology to science and science, technology to production and all Technology and Production are all derived from the same science.
Brooks, H., 1973, The state of the art: technology assessment as a process, International social science journal 22, (3) (UNESCO, Paris).
Cf. R. Hahn, (1971) the Anatomy of a scientific institution-the Paris Academy of sciences.
Feynman, R (1974) Cargo cult Science Center for Technology Neuroscience. Columbia University.
Fredrickson, Donald, S., (1993), Biomedical Science and the Culture wrap.
5. Saari, S. (2006). Productivity, Theory and measurement in Business Espoo, Finland:
European Productivity Conference.