Work performance depends on the employees’ ability, opportunity, and motivation in order to contribute towards the organization and maintain their well-being. So many attention has been given past 10 years for the definition and exploration of work performance based on the perspective of organizational behavior research. The most inspired work directed by United States Army Selection and Classification of Project conducted by John Campbell and his colleagues (Campbell, Gasser, ; Oswald, 1996). Based on their viewpoint, individual performance known as actual behavior which can be measured and scaled based on proficiency rather than outcomes which the employing organization perceived from the performance. So, job performance consisted of work behavior which are related to organizational goal, self-control of individual, and measurable (Viswesvaran ; Ones, 2000). The measurement of job performance is quite complex since it depends on changes over time and situation and comprises with multiple dimensions (Hough ; Oswald, 2001). Thus, job performance remains as abstract construct with many judgements from researchers. However, there are several researchers have been developed job performance related theories which speculate that some of the latent performance dimensions have been applied across different range of jobs Borman ; Motowidlo, 1993; Campbell, 1990a; Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, ; Sager, 1993).
Viswesvaran (1993) introduced an effective comprehensive review of the conceptualization of job performance. The researcher further highlighted that the literature which investigating the structure of job performance is incomplete. Based on the early conceptualization by Brogden ; Taylor, 1950), mentioned that they have given importance to economic value of individual behavior in organization. However, many researchers begin to emphasis on the measurements that revealed the productivity of worker and effort expenditure after the development of literature on expectancy theory (Viswesvaran 1993). Finally, the research on counterproductive behavior in the workplace has been focused broadly (Ones, Viswesvaran, ; Schmidt, 1993). Counterproductive behavior measures related to honesty and integrity of employees in the organization. Campbell (1990) have been constructed the first model of several dimensions of performance into comprehensive model. He introduced general latent structure of job performance which consisted of eight dimensions. The eight dimensions are (1) job specific task proficiency (2) non-job specific task proficiency (3) written and oral communication (4) demonstrating efforts, (5) maintain personal discipline (6) facilitating peer and team performance (8) supervision and management or administration. However, Campbell et.al (1996) deny that these dimensions are not necessary existed to every jobs and not necessary to define the performance domain.
Viswesvaran (1993) suggested latent structure for the concept of job performance. The job performance measures (486 items) listed by Viswesvaran have been published in articles over the years. The ten dimensions have been derived from job performance are (1) overall job performance (2) job performance or productivity (3) effort (4) job knowledge (5) interpersonal competence (6) administrative competence (7) quality (8) communication competence (9) leadership (10) compliance with rules. The definition for each dimensions has been provided by Viswesvaran (1993). Overall job performance known as overall effectiveness and work reputation while job performance or productivity defined as ratings of quantity and volume of work produced. Interpersonal competence measure on the level of an individual get along with others whereas administrative competence known as the measurement of proficiency expressed by individual by managing different roles in organization. Quality was defined as the job done well by employees and job knowledge is based on expertise of individual in organization. Communication competence is to measure how well an individual interact despite of the job content. Leadership defined as the ability of an individual successfully demonstrate additional performance from others and compliance with rules shows about the acceptance of individual on the rules and regulations in the organization.
Apart from that, Borman ; Motowidlo (1993) explained about the dimensions of job performance consisted task, Task performance emphasizes on performing role based activities whereas contextual performance related to productive behavior. The researcher further explains that contextual performance is about the willingness of an individual to put extra efforts to successfully complete own task, willingness to carry out task activities which is not part of the job, helping and cooperating with others, following rules and procedures in the organization and endorsing, supporting and defending the organizational objectives. However, performance models provided by Campbell (1990a), Borman and Motowidlo (1993), and Viswesvaran (1993) are important aspects which helps to develop comprehensive theories of work performance.