“Work Life balance of Female Workers: A Study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh”
A Thesis submitted to the Department of Business Studies, Stamford University Bangladesh in partial fulfillment the requirements for the degree of
BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
SUBMITTED TO
ELLINA MAHABUBA SHAHID
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Business Administration
Stamford University Bangladesh
SUBMITTED BY
Md Sohel Khan
ID: BBA 04113070
Batch: 41D
Stamford University Bangladesh
Submission Date: 30th October 2013
Letter of Transmittal
To
Ellina Mahabuba ShahidAssistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Stamford University Bangladesh
Subject: Submission of the Thesis Paper on Work life balance of Female workers: A study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh.

Dear Madam,
With a great pleasure I have submitted thesis paper on the “Work life balance of Female workers: A study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh” which has been done as the main part of the requirement of the course under the supervision of you.

While doing my thesis, I have the opportunity to meet all employees in that factory. Almost each of the people I came across had been very helpful.

However, should you need any clarification I will be obligated to provide with further explanation.

Thank you
Yours sincerely
…………………………
Md. Sohel Khan
ID: BBA 04113070
Batch: 41D
Major: Finance
Stamford University Bangladesh
Student’s Declaration

I am Md Sohel Khan hereby declare the presented the reports on “Work life balance of Female workers: A study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh” is uniquely prepared by me.

I also confirm that this report has not been submitted by me for any degree, diploma, title or recognition before.

____________________
Md. Sohel Khan
ID: BBA 04113070
Batch: 41D
Major: Finance
Stamford University Bangladesh
Supervisor’s Declaration
This is to certify that the presented internship report on “Work life balance of Female workers: A study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh” submitted for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) major in Finance to the Stamford University Bangladesh is a bona-fide research carried out by Md. Sohel Khan under my supervision. No part of the reports has been submitted for any degree, diploma, title or recognition before. She is permitted to submit the reports.

017589500
Ellina Mahabuba ShahidAssistant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Stamford University Bangladesh
Acknowledgements
At first, I thank the Almighty Allah who has given me the chance to come to this beautiful world and enjoy every little thing. I also have to put my heartfelt respect and gratitude for His kindness and help that were provided to me to complete my assigned thesis on the topic “Work life balance of Female workers: A study on Garment Industry of Bangladesh”
Moreover, thanks to Ellina Mahabuba Shahid, my faculty, who have guided me in every part of my report. She has checked all my rough drafts and gave better suggestions to improve my writings.
Next, I would thank my family members including parents especially my elder brother Md. Sohag Khan, officer, National Bank Ltd who had helped me every time while I did my survey in different respondents.
Lastly, I would thank the people who have got irritated of me when I asked them to fill up my questionnaire.

Executive Summary
This case project purpose investigates the work-life balance level of women in garment workers of Bangladesh. The study disclosed that both family and job of female garment workers of Bangladesh are being affected due to work-life balance situation. But, familial life is more affected due to job. Thus, work interference with family is more of an issue than family interference with work for the female garment workers in Bangladesh. Finally, the study suggests good salary, reduced work load, residential facility (near to workplace/factory), transport facility, child care center, flexible working hours (roistered days off and family friendly starting and finishing times) and child schooling facility for female garment workers of Bangladesh with a view to improve their work-life balance status.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………….11
1.1 Preliminaries………………………………………………………………………………………11
1.2 The Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………….…..12
1.3 Purpose/Objective of the Study ……………………………………………………………….12
1.3.1 Specific Objective ………………………………………………………………….….…. …12
1.3.2 Border Objectives……………………………………………………………………….……..12
1.4 Scope of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………12
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study………………….………………….…………………13
1.6 Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………………………….13
CHAPTER TWO: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Research Methodology…………………………………………………………………………….16
2.2 Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………16
2.3 The Population and Sampling Techniques………………………………………………….16
2.4 Sampling Procedures……………………………………………………………………………..16
2.5 Questionnaire Design……………………………………………………………………………….16
2.6 Data Collection Procedure ……………………………………………………………………….17
2.7 Statistical Tools Applied in Analysis………………………………………………………….17
2.8 Data Processing Procedure……………………………………………………………………….17
2.9 Research Outline …………………………………………………………………………………….17
2.9 Gantt Chart …………………………………………………………………………………………….18
2.10 Time Management for the Study …………………………………………………………….19
CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………………21
3.2 Organization of Literature…………………………………………………………………………21
3.3 Work Life Balance ………………………………………………………………………………….21
3.3.1 Theoretical Definitions………………………………………………………………………….21
3.3.2 Theories of Work Life Balance……………………………………………………………….21
3.3.3 Factors of Work Life Balance………………………………………………………………..22
3.3.3.1 Individual Factors Influencing WLB…………………………………………………….22
3.3.3.2 Societal Factors Influencing WLB……………………………………………..………24
3.3.4. Outcomes of Work Life Balance……………………………………………………………24
3.3.4.1 WLB and Work Related Outcomes……………………………………………………..24
3.3.4.2 WLB and Non-Work Related Outcomes……………………………………………….26
3.4 Empirical Review…………………………………………………………………………………….26
3.4.1 Bangladesh Section……………………………………………………………………………….26
3.4.2 Global Section …………………………………………………………………………………….28
CHAPTER FOUR: INDUSRTY ANALYSIS
4.1 Historical overview and women in RMG……………………………………………………31
4.2 Development and contribution of RMG …………………………………………………….31
4.3 Feminization and labor flexibility………………………………………………………………32
4.4 Women involvement in RMG……………………………………………………………………33
4.4.1 Background………………………………………………………………………………………….33
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Descriptive Analysis ……………………………………………………………………………….34
4.1.1 Age of Respondents …………………………………………………………………………….35
4.1.2 Normal Working Days in a Week. …………………………………………………………36
4.1.3 Normal Working Hours in a Day……………………………………………………………37
4.1.4 Hours Spend on Traveling to Go to Work. ………………………………………………38
4.1.5 Marital Status……………………………………………………………………………………….39
4.1.6 Having Children…………………………………………………………………………………..40
4.1.7 Care taker for Children………………………………………………………………………….41
4.1.8 Hours Spend with Children…………………………………………………………………….42
4.1.9 Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables…………………………………….43
4.1.10 Time Spend for Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables……………44
4.1.11 Work Related Worry…………………………………………………………………………..45
4.1.12 Shifts Based Working Hour………………………………………………………………….46
4.1.13 Time Spending with Family…………………………………………………………………47
4.1.14 Tired or Depressed because of work …………………………………………………….48
4.1 .15 Separate Policies for Work-Life Balance………………………………………………49
4.1.16 Flexible working hours………………………………………………………………………..49
4.1.17 Counseling services ……………………………………………………………………………50
4.1.18 Health programs………………………………………………………………………………….51
4.1.19 Family Support Programs…………………………………………………………………….53
4.1.20 Opportunity to Return to the Same Job after Maternity……………………………54
CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Findings…………………………………………………………………………………………………57
5.2 Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………57
5.2.1. To the Human Resource Management Department ………………………………….58
5.2.2. To the Workers……………………………………………………………………………………58
5.2.3. To the Government………………………………………………………………………………58
5.2.4. To BKMEA ……………………………………………………………………………………….59
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………60
6.2 General Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………….60
6.3 Implications for Study and Practice…………………………………………………………..60
6.4 Research Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………61
6.5 Future Research………………………………………………………………………………………62
REFERRENCE…………………………………………………………………63-66
Appendix ………………………………………………………………………67-71
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1. Introduction
1.1 Preliminaries
Work-life balance is about creating and maintaining supportive and healthy work environments, which will enable employees to have balance between work and personal responsibilities and thus strengthen employee loyalty and productivity. Today’s workers have many competing responsibilities such as work, children, housework, volunteering, spouse and elderly parent care and this places stress on individuals, families and the communities in which they reside. The recent ups and downs in the readymade garment industry bring the industry in light from Bangladeshi context. The readymade garment industry of Bangladesh is a labor- intensive industry. Because of the industry’s nature, the matters relating to human resource management comes first. Work life balance signifies the whole scenario of human resources, mainly the workers working in the industry. Human resource plays vital role in the success of any organization, because most of the problems in organizations are human and social rather than physical or technical. A good work life balance not only attracts new talent but also retain the existing talent. Work life balance involves job security, good working conditions, adequate and fair compensation and equal employment opportunity all together. WLB aims to meet the twin goals of enhanced effectiveness of organization and improved quality of life at work for employees. But today’s employee would not believe in such values of work. Employees work for salary, and continue to work, if the conditions of work are encouraging and pleasant and terms of employment are favorable to him. Women are considered as the major working group the textile and garment industries of the country. These industries are more labor intensive and require finest output at the end. WLB consists of opportunities for active involvement in group working arrangements or problem solving that are of mutual benefit to employees or employers, based on labor management cooperation.

1.2 The Problem Statement
Work life balance is significant in relation to job and overall performance in the organization. The work-life balance must be kept effectively to ensure that all workers are running at their peak potential and free from stress and strain. Work life balance helps the employees and workers to feel secure and like they are being thought of and cared for by the organization in which they work. An organization’s HR department assumes responsibility for the effective running of the work life balance for their employees or workers. But now-a-days employees are dissatisfied with the several functions of the job and dealing with social relationship in the organization consequent upon the mechanization and automation of the industry. Additionally disregard by others and less utilization of skills caused stress and disappointment among the workforce. They experience alienation, which may result from poor design of socio-technical systems. Poor quality of work life may lead to increased absenteeism, stress and ultimately job dissatisfaction. This being the real fact and since there was absenteeism and lack of job satisfaction among the workers in Savar Upazila. I have made an attempt in this regard and have undertaken the current study to analyze the work life balance among female workers with special reference to garment industry in Savar Upazila.

1.3 Purpose/Objective of the Study
1.3.1 Specific Objective
To find out the prevailing condition of work life balance/ quality of work life of female workers working in garment industry of Bangladesh.

1.3.2 Border Objectives
To find out the normal working hours in a day and weekly working days for the garment industry along with the normal traveling hours to reach the working place.

To find out age of working women, marital status, and having children and the number of children. To investigate how often they think or worry about work as well as how they feel about the amount of time spend at work. To disclose whether industry provides counseling services to improve their mental pressure. To inspect whether industry provides health program facility for the female non- management employees,
1.4 Scope of the Study
The study is on female workers of garment industry of Bangladesh. The study related to the issues of work life balance of female workers of garment industry. Work is an integral part of our everyday life, be it our livelihood or career or business. On an average we spend around twelve hours daily in the work place, that is one third of our entire life; it does influence the overall quality of our life. It should yield job satisfaction, give peace of mind, a fulfillment of having done a task, as it is expected, without any flaw and having spent the time fruitfully, constructively and purposefully. An assured good quality of work life will not only attract young and new talent but also retain the existing experienced talent. This being the virtual fact, the current study on work life balance among female workers with special reference to garment industry in Savar Upazila – A textile, is expected to prove extremely useful for the organization to improve the quality of work life among its female workers with the help of the recommendations given by me.

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
Hypothesis 1
Ho – Most of the workers feel that there are worries due to work.

Ha – Most of the workers feel that there are not worry due to work.

Conclusion: Null hypothesis is accepted that is Most of the workers feel that there are worries due to work.

Hypothesis 2
Ho – Workers feel that the company provides better counseling facility.

Ha – Workers feel that there is no proper counseling facility provide by the company.

Conclusion: Null hypothesis is accepted that is Most of the workers feel that the company provides better counseling facility.

Hypothesis 3
H0: The sample proves that 83.73% worker can be disagree or strongly disagree if the mean of responses is 20 %
Ha: The sample proves that 83.73% worker can be disagree or strongly disagree if the mean of responses is 20 %. The value of “P (T<=t) two-tail” is near at 40% which is greater than significant label 5%. So, we can say that the null hypothesis is significant. On the other hand, “T Critical two – tail” value is 12.70620474 which are greater than “t Stat” value 1.357770391. So, we can say that the Null hypothesis is accepted.

1.6 Limitations of the Study
Every study area is a new world full of new problems requiring perhaps new thinking and understanding. I, an apprentice, tried my best to conduct the study being free from personal bias. The problems and limitations that I have faced during conducting my study following. A tendency was seen among the respondents to conceal their sensitive information. Some of the respondents could not understand some of the questions. Respondents were not so much educated .They is not well informed about all policy of the industry. All of the respondents were garment workers. They did not have enough time to participation in the long time conversation. So it was not possible in all cases to dip in the very deep of the events. It was very difficult to collect information from the part of the respondents because they had no experience regarding the structured questionnaire. The results may not represent the whole sample population, as convenient sampling and a relatively small sample size were employed. The data were collected only from Savar area and therefore the findings of the study cannot be extended to other areas.

CHAPTER TWO:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1 Research Methodology
Research methodology is a way to systematically elucidate the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. This chapter contains research design, population of the study, sampling procedure and data collection procedures and data analysis.

2.2 Research Design
The research design is a general plan of how a researcher intends to go about in answering their research questions. It guides the researcher in planning and implementing the study in a way that is likely to achieve the intended goals. I used descriptive research design. According to Cooper and Schindler (2000) a descriptive research design is concerned with finding out the; who, what, where, when and how. Descriptive research design method proves quantitative data cross section of the chosen population. The design provided further insight into research problem by describing the variables of interest. The design was used to identify work-life balance practices among female workers in the garment sector.

2.3 The Population and Sampling Techniques
The targeted population was female workers of garment industry. According to BGMEA (2013) there were 4 million workers in which 90% workers are female workers in this industry. My respondents were from Savar area. The method adopted for the sample size of this research is convenient random sampling technique.

2.4 Sampling Procedures
Non-probability sampling was used where a group of female worker from the different garment whom believed to be reliable for the study was selected. Therefore a total number of 50 female worker was selected so that to accomplish the necessary information of the study.

2.5 Questionnaire Design
The study was conducted using structured questionnaire, questions belong to closed ended patterns, and these closed ended questions are framed using the following type such as
a) Multiple choices
b) Rating scale.

2.6 Data Collection Procedure
An organized questionnaire was developed related to female workers such as age, working hours, number of children, responsibility on adults as well as a five point Likert Scale ranging from 1= strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree was used to collect primary data related to working facility of women worker . Secondary data also used for the preliminary part and literature review. It was collected from the internet, books on related issues and research reports relevant to the study.

2.7 Statistical Tools Applied in Analysis
The statistical tools applied for the analysis of data are.

1) Tabulation
2) Bar diagram
3) Pie-diagram
2.8 Data Processing Procedure
After processing the data and correcting the errors done by the correspondents the data analysis was undertaken. The questionnaires were edited for accuracy, consistency and completeness. I used Microsoft Excel for data analysis. Findings were presented using tables to illustrate the diverse findings of the study.

Research Outline:

2.9 Gantt Chart:

2.10 Time Management for the Study
Name of Task Starting Date Ending Date Total Days % of Total Days
Preliminary Phase 10-December-17 1-January-18 23 18.69%
Analysis Phase 2-January-18 10-March-18 69 56.09%
Paper Preparation 11-March-18 26-March-17 16 13.00%
Submission Phase 27-March-17 10-April-18 15 12.19%
Total 10-December-17 10-April-18 123 Days 100 %
Table2.2: Time Management for the Study

Chart 2.1: Time Management for the Study
CHAPTER THREE:
LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 Introduction
Work life balance is an issue that has become an area of interest because women are pursuing jobs and careers while having families. The purpose of this chapter explored the literature related to how women balance their lives with the responsibilities from both work and family. Balancing job demands and household tasks, including household and childcare demands, has been documented as a huge barrier that prevents women from achieving work-life balance. By investigating the challenges women face, the strategies they implement, and the support systems they utilize, future working women mothers can better understand how to balance work and family life.

3.2 Organization of Literature
Organization of literatures on work life balance has been conceptualized mainly under four parts. Initially theoretical background of the subject is elicited through various definitions and theories pertaining to the area. The second part along with the third part is devoted to discussion on the various factors influencing WLB and their consequences. Final part empirical studies undertaken in this direction internationally and nationally are presented separately. The total organization of literature review is as per the following Chart.

3.3 Work Life Balance
3.3.1 Theoretical Definitions
Work-life balance is a broad concept, defined in different ways by different researchers using diverse dimensions. The origins of research on work-life balance can be essentially traced back to studies on women having multiple roles. Work life balance was initially termed as work family conflict, Kahn et al. defined as “a form of inter role conflict in which the role pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. That is, participation in the work (family) role being made more difficult by virtue of participation in the family (work) role”. Kirchmeyer also defined a balanced life as achieving satisfying experiences in all life domains.

3.3.2 Theories of Work Life Balance
Zedeck and Mosier and later O’Driscoll identified typically five main models used to explain the relationship between work and life of an individual. The first model is known as segmentation model, which hypothesizes that work and non-work are two distinct domains of life that are lived quite independently and have no influence on each other. This appears to be presented as a theoretical prospect rather than a model with practical support. In contrast to the first model, a spill over model put forward suggested that one domain can influence the other domain in either a positive or negative way. While, sufficient research to support this model has been reported, need exists for more comprehensive propositions about the nature, causes and consequences of spillover. The third model, termed as compensation model proposes work and family as to be two spheres of life and what may be lacking in one sphere, in terms of demands or satisfactions may be derived from the other sphere of life. For example, albeit work being regular and unchallenging, this could be compensated for by a key role in local area activities outside work. A fourth model referred to as an instrumental model, proposes that activities of one sphere may facilitate success in the other sphere, classically exemplified by, an instrumental worker may explore ways to maximize earnings by undertaking hectic overtime work lasting several days against a routine job to purchase a home or a car for their family. Another model referred to as conflict model suggests that individuals encountering high levels of demand in all spheres of life and compelled to make difficult choices may end up in experiencing psychological conflicts with significant overload
3.3.3 Factors of Work Life Balance
Many studies have been devoted in search of antecedents influencing perception of work life balance among individuals. These antecedents can be broadly grouped based on the major dimensions of WLB namely, individual, organizational and societal factors. The following sections present notable contributions of the researchers in these directions.

3.3.3.1 Individual Factors Influencing WLB
The studies undertaken in determining the Individual factors influencing the perception of work life balance among employees is explained in terms of personality, well-being and emotional intelligence.

Personality and WLB
McCrae ; John proposed Big Five factor model of personality traits in terms of five basic dimensions namely: (i) Extraversion – describing active, assertive, energetic enthusiastic and Sociable individuals, (ii)Agreeableness–characterizing cooperation, forgivingness, kindness and trust, (iii) Conscientiousness–pertaining to achievement orientation, dependability, orderliness, efficiency, responsibility and hardworking, (iv)Neuroticism- referring to anxiety, insecurity, tension, and worry, and (v) Openness to Experience – characterized by intelligence, imagination, curiosity, creativity, and originality. In general personality can be defined as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interact with others.

Well-being and WLB
Grope and Kuhl observed that need fulfilment plays a mediating role in the relationship between work life balance and subjective well-being. The study utilized two components of subjective well-being namely, a cognitive component (life satisfaction) and an affective component (emotional wellbeing). Findings reported that females experience higher wellbeing compared to males and consequently exhibit higher work life balance in terms of lower work-family ; family-work conflict.

Work Life Balance Policies and Programs and WLB
Straub had investigated the contribution of work life balance practices and policies in 14 European countries towards enhancing the career advancement of women to senior management positions. The study identified that only the payment of additional emoluments during maternity leave had a positive impact on WLB.

Work Support and WLB
Tremblay, Genin ; Loreto illustrated the importance of organizational support to work- life balance in a demanding work environment among police officers. The findings substantiated the importance for organizations to offer formal and informal support to employees in the work environment to balance their work and family aspects.

Job Stress ; WLB
Bell, Rajendran and Theiler investigated the relationships between job-related stress, health, work-life balance and work-life conflict among Australian academia. The results indicated that high levels of job stress to be positively associated with increased work family conflict and ill-being, while negatively correlated to work life balance and wellbeing.

Technology and WLB
Lester identified that technology can either facilitate or hinder work life balance by creating a more accessible and flexible environment at all times of day and night enabling individual to work anywhere, any time.

3.3.3.2 Societal Factors Influencing WLB
The studies undertaken in determining the societal factors influencing the perception of work life balance among individuals is explained in terms of childcare responsibilities, family ; social support along with other societal factors Childcare Responsibilities and WLB. Various studies had suggested that family related factors such as number of children and childcare responsibilities lead to imbalance in work and family roles. Elliott investigated on major difficulties faced by the employed parents of small children particularly of age below six years, in providing adequate child care.

Family Support and WLB
Societal factors namely family support including spouse support was observed to have an impact on work life balance of individuals. Edralin investigated on balancing work demands with personal needs and family responsibilities by Filipina entrepreneurs (EntrePinays), in order to sustain their business and at the same time live a meaningful and happy life. Findings revealed that both positive and negative spillover effects of work-life relationships.

Other Societal Factors and WLB
Greenhaus and Beutell had identified family domain factors that have a vital role in developing work family conflict and these factors comprised of the number of children, spouse employment, family quarrel, low spouse support and expectations for affection and openness.

3.3.4. Outcomes of Work Life Balance
The impact of perceived WLB on employees can result in varied consequences in the work place as well as in the personal and societal life. The literature reported on studies undertaken in investigating the outcomes of WLB is broadly categorized in to work related outcomes and non-work related outcomes and are highlighted in the ensuing sections.

3.3.4.1 WLB and Work Related Outcomes
Varatharaj ; Vasantha conducted an exploratory study among women service sector employees .Their study revealed that greater part of the women employees feel comfortable in their work place irrespective of their personal and work place disturbances and demonstrated ability to balance their duties ; responsibilities both in job as well as families.

3.3.4.2 WLB and Non-Work Related Outcomes
Better work-life balance and minimal work-life conflict can also be related to non-work related outcomes namely, life satisfaction, family satisfaction, marital and leisure satisfaction and family performance.

Childcare Responsibilities and WLB
Various studies had suggested that family related factors such as number of children and childcare responsibilities lead to imbalance in work and family roles. Elliott investigated on major difficulties faced by the employed parents of small children particularly of age below six years, in providing adequate child care
Family Support and WLB
Societal factors namely family support including spouse support was observed to have an impact on work life balance of individuals. Edralin investigated on balancing work demands with personal needs and family responsibilities by Filipina entrepreneurs (EntrePinays), in order to sustain their business and at the same time live a meaningful and happy life. Findings revealed that both positive and negative spillover effects of work-life relationships.

Other Societal Factors and WLB
Greenhaus and Beutell had identified family domain factors that have a vital role in developing work family conflict and these factors comprised of the number of children, spouse employment, family quarrel, low spouse support and expectations for affection and openness.

3.3.4. Outcomes of Work Life Balance
The impact of perceived WLB on employees can result in varied consequences in the work place as well as in the personal and societal life. The literature reported on studies undertaken in investigating the outcomes of WLB is broadly categorized in to work related outcomes and non-work related outcomes and are highlighted in the ensuing sections.

3.3.4.1 WLB and Work Related Outcomes
Varatharaj ; Vasantha conducted an exploratory study among women service sector employees .Their study revealed that greater part of the women employees feel comfortable in their work place irrespective of their personal and work place disturbances and demonstrated ability to balance their duties ; responsibilities both in job as well as families.

3.3.4.2 WLB and Non-Work Related Outcomes
Better work-life balance and minimal work-life conflict can also be related to non-work related outcomes namely, life satisfaction, family satisfaction, marital and leisure satisfaction and family performance.

Individual
Factors Organizational Factors Societal Factors Other Factors
1. Personality
2. Well being
3.Emotional intelligence 1. Work arrangements
2. Work life balance practices ; policies
3.Organisation support
4. Superior support
5. Colleague support
6. Job stress
7. Role overload
8. Technology 1.Child care arrangements
2. Spouse support
3. Family support
4. Social support
5. Personal ; family demands
6.Dependent care issues
7. Family quarrel 1. Age
2. Gender
3. Marital status
4. Parental status
5. Experience
6. Income
7. Type of family
Table 3.1: Factors of WLB
3.4 Empirical Review
3.4.1 Bangladesh Section
Ahmed Chowdhury, et al. (2015) investigated the work life balance of female garment workers of Bangladesh that affected due to work life balance situation. They suggested good salary, reduce work load, residential facility, transport facility, child care center, flexible working hours and child schooling facility for female garments workers with a view to improve their work life balance status. Sikdar, et al. (2014) depicted the socio-economic conditions of female garment workers in Dhaka city of Bangladesh and found that women were doing work on an average 11.12 hours per day while their average salary is very few. So, it can be said that women should get standard salary to lead their life with joy. Begum, et al. (2010) found that there are different factors that are responsible for the harassment of women garment workers in Bangladesh. Most of the female garments workers are employed at lower category of like, helper, operator etc. Female workers are sexually harassed by their co-workers in the factory or by police or by eve-teasers in the street several times, but no measures are taken by the respective authorities. Akterujjaman (2013) studied on satisfaction of garment workers that is related to the productivity of the employees. He found that when the workers are more satisfied productivity and profit maximization will be high. He did not consider the livelihood and environmental perspective of female garments workers separately. But the present study of us will give emphasis on this issue. Ahmed ; Raihan (2014) revealed that the majority of female workers health is not so good in the garment sector of Bangladesh and they suffer from the disease like problems in bones, abortion complexity, dermatitis, back pain, fatigue, fever, abdomen pain, common cold etc. It is suggested that to improve the working conditions of garment workers their health condition should be improved and importance should be given on this issue. Heath ; Mobarak (2015) explored that the remarkable development of Bangladeshi readymade garments sector basing on lives of women workers, whereas the women workers were neglected in every sphere in the factory and not considered as human being. Tabassum, Rahman ; Jahan (2011) studied the work life of employees of private commercial banks in Bangladesh and found that no initiative was taken to identify whether there is any significant difference among the male and female employees of the private commercial banks in Bangladesh. Thus, the study aimed to make a comparative learning of the existing quality work life between the males and females of the private commercial banks through quantitative survey on 128 male and 64 female employees. The study revealed that a significant difference exists between male and female employee’s quality work life and in the following factors of quality work life; adequate and fair compensation, flexible work schedule and job assignment, attention to job design, and employee relations. In our study the quality work life is more or less termed as the work life balance of employees and we are especially working to show the present conditions of work life and family life and how female bankers of Bangladesh are handling the situations. Kumari (2012) with the intention of observing about the employee’s perception of their work life balance policies and practices in the public sector banks. By using quota sampling method the survey was conducted and data was investigated on the basis of responses provided by 350 respondents. The outcomes of the study highlighted that each of the work life balance factors on its own is a salient predictor of job satisfaction and ensures a significant gap among the female and male respondents with job satisfaction with respect to various factors of work life balance. The positive correlation indicates that job satisfaction is an important indicator of work life balance. Uddin at el. (2013) conducted a survey on 62 education institutions of Bangladesh with a sample of 320 teachers to know the real status of work-life balance. The study shows that the work-life balance situation is moderate which can be enhanced by confirming flexible working hours(family friendly starting and finishing times), transport facility, residential facility, childcare center, flexible work arrangements/ job sharing , reduced working hours ; workload and child schooling for the female teachers. Hoque ; Kabir (2015) investigate the work-life balance status of female garment workers of Bangladesh by conducting a survey on 570 respondents. The study reveals that in Bangladesh work-life balance situation affects both family and job of female garment workers. However, family life is more affected than the work life. They also suggest that ensuring fair salary range, reduced work load, housing facilities near to workplace, transporting, child care and schooling, flexible working hours may upgrade the work life balance status of female garments workers of Bangladesh. Nawaz (2016) conducted a study on 350 respondents from 5 commercial banks of all the divisions of Bangladesh with an objective to show whether there is a relationship between work life balance and employee job satisfaction in banking sector. The study indicates that employee job satisfaction has a negative relationship with long working hours and job stress however it has a positive relationship with job knowledge, job rotation and home maid service. The study concluded that job satisfaction and work life balance are linked to each other and the relationship is mostly affected by long working hours, job stress and job knowledge. Tasnim, Hossain, ;Enam (2017) conducted a research on a sample of 40 female employees from different organizations to reveal the reasons that lead to the reason on an imbalance work-life. The study shows that the reasons for which female employees are facing trouble to maintain a work-life balance are mostly because of: long working hours, job rigidity, work overload, responsibilities related to child care, discrimination ; biasness at work place , lack of supervisory support, dominant managerial style and scarce family support.

3.4.2 Global Section
J. Sudha Dr. P. Karthikayan (2014) titled “Work Life balance of Women Employee” in Literature review, have identified the various aspects such as work stress, carrier advancement, carrier aspiration work family conflict and family work conflict ,child care in context with Work life Balance. This paper also reveals the issues and various challenges faced by the women employees to achieve Work life Balance and also the role of women in balancing the Work. Vijayamani (2013) titled “work Life Balance of Women Employees have examined the factors influencing the WLB of women employment in India such as role conflict, lack of recognition, gender discrimination, child care issues, problems in time management and lack of proper social support. G. Delina and Dr. R. Prabhakar Raja (2013) in their titled “A Study on Work Life Balance in working women “attempt to explore the tough challenges faced by women in maintaining a balance between their works and family. The various factors affecting the Work Life Balance of married women have been examined in this study. K. Santhana Lakshmi and S.Sujatha Gopinath (2013) in their titled “Work Life Balance of Women Employees with Reference to Teaching Facilities “Focus on the importance of work life Balance of teaching faculties. It reveals the effects of family life on women’s job performance and work attitude. It explains the three aspects of Work life balance – Time, Involvement and Satisfaction. Lokanadha Reddy. M Mohan Reddy.P (2010) said many factors determine the meaning of Quality of Work Life (QWL), one of which is work environment. QWL consists of opportunities for active involvement in group working arrangements or problem solving that are of mutual benefit to employees or employers, based on labor management cooperation. Jeyarathnam.M, Malarvizhi .V.R (2011) inferred the intensity of working conditions and the behavioral aspects of the employees in the study area. It concludes that the basic strategy for improving the quality of work life is to identify employee’s important needs and to satisfy those needs. The study also indicated that dissatisfaction might happen due to lack of recognition, tedious work, unhealthy peer relations, poor working conditions, low self-esteem, occupational stress, heavy work load, monotony, fatigue, time pressures, job insecurity, instability of job. Indumathy.R, Kamalraj.S (2012), found that the major factors that influence and decide the Quality of Work Life are attitude, environment, opportunities, nature of job, people, stress level, career prospects, challenges, growth and development and risk involved in the work and rewards.

CHAPTER FOUR:
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Historical overview and women in RMG
As the central concern of this study is to know the work life balance of non-management employees in RMG before starting to analyze this, it is very essential to understand what is the meaning of readymade garment industry and why readymade garment industry arose in Bangladesh and how it’s contributing to whole economy. In addition, it is also very important to know the present situation and why women are getting more chance in this garment sector and how this sector is influencing to change women lives. I studied some prior research articles taking in mind the above concepts and tried to understand on what aspects these researches focused. Moreover, all these concepts are very important to get some basic idea on the context of my study field which will strengthen my knowledge to conduct this study. Further, these studied articles will help me to justify my findings with their findings and to find out the knowledge gap if exists in previous researches. After considering the above points in mind, in this chapter, at first I focused on development and feminization and labour flexibility of industry
4.2 Development and contribution of RMG
The garment industry is the key export earning sector and salient force in the field of industrialization for Bangladesh. It started during late 1970’s and prolonged rapidly within a short period (Ahamed, 2013). Before describing historical profile of Readymade Garment (RMG) in
Bangladesh. We have to know what exactly mean by RMG. The RMG sector is a sub sector of the textiles and clothing sectors, comprised of two independent industries e.g. woven and knitwear industry. It consists of a range of manufacturing activities and processes integrated by backward and forward linkages which includes textiles, handlooms, processing and printing, dying, woven and knitwear, embroidery and spinning and processing of cotton. This implies that the workforce involved in RMG are divided into different categories such as preparation of textile fiber, spinners and winders, weaving and knitting machine setters and pattern card prepares, weavers and related workers, knitting, sewers and embroiders etc. (Hossain During 1980s, Bangladesh experienced a sudden boom of RMG. It is noted that garment manufacturing is not a new tradition of Bangladesh at all. It had a historic reputation for producing “Maslin Sharee”. Once Dhaka (the capital of Bangladesh) had kept long reputation for producing this “Maslin Sharee” during Mughal regimes (1526 – 1858) but didn’t keep its pace in the following centuries (Rashid, 2006). During 1970s, the government of Bangladesh took initiative to denationalize and remove barriers and limits to private investment. This encouraged private entrepreneurs to invest more in business and also created new opportunity for small and medium entrepreneurs. Manufacturer could make direct contact with their leading buyers. Numerous entrepreneurs initially started their careers to make garments but later diversified into spinning, weaving, dyeing or finishing operations (Ahamed, 2013). Some of them started manufacturing of threads, buttons, zippers and packaging materials. In
1978, there were only nine export oriented garment manufacturing units which generated export earnings of barely one million dollars.

4.3 Feminization and labour flexibility
Women workers involvement in global manufacturing sector is happened due to strong influence of globalization. In patriarchal Bangladesh, a woman’s bargaining power outside the household tends to be affected by sex stereotyping. Kate Young’s (1988) analysis has highlighted the sex stereotyping of the labour market. According to Young (1988), “sex stereotyping” is a common mechanism of exclusion and it appears to work in such a way that women may exclude themselves from certain types of work”. But standing (1989), argues that the feminization as well as flexibility of labour force have caused displacement of male workers by female workers.

The feminization of the labour force is due to several factors such as deregulation in industries, erosion of labour rights, in security in jobs and nature of work. Generally, feminization of workforce allows mass entry of women into the formal labour force (Momen, 2006). There are two different meanings of “feminization of labour”. First it is used to refer to the sharp increase of women’s participation from agriculture to industrial sector. Second it is used to describe increased flexibility in labour works of men and women (Hossain, 2013). Labour flexibility denotes temporary employment pattern which is constituted by part-time and casual workers where employers have chance to increase their workforces during higher production volumes and can reduce workforce during small volumes of production (Ofrenio, 2010). Moreover, the concept of feminization and labour flexibility is very important in this study because in Bangladesh, women participation is increasing in manufacturing sector drastically due to limited job opportunities especially for women. The financial condition of these women is not good which forced women to involve themselves in industry in order to meet their family needs. The labour flexibility offers women a new opportunity to enter into the industry rather than male. The reason behind this shifting is due to the fact that it is easy to get female workers for such part-time or overtime jobs and females are also highly interested to do this type of work. Producers and Multinational corporations (MNCs) also preferred women workers rather than male workers because of their higher productivity, more consciousness and passive nature. As a result, the presence of women workers in global manufacturing sector is overwhelming, which characterize the feature of feminization of workforce. Actually feminization and labour flexibility are linked with each other and it is difficult to undifferentiated. The combination of feminization and labour flexibility form a two-fold process that increases women participation in industrial sector. Women’s are encouraged because the need job. On the other hand, employers run the industry depending on flexible labour because surplus labour constituted by women is abundant (Smithson and Stokoe,
2005).

4.4 Women involvement in RMG
4.4.1 Background
The readymade garment is an export oriented industry which has expanded rapidly over the last few decades and has provided employment to millions of women workers. Nowadays it is a common scenario in Bangladesh that every morning from 6.00 to 8.00 hours, thousands of women garment workers are walking in different streets of the city (Zaman, 2001). Most of the workers involved in RMG have come from different areas of the country and have moved to city for seeking employment. Islam (2012) shows that most of these women workers come from Rajshahi division followed by Chittagong, Barisal, Khulna and Sylhet divisions, while Akter et al. (2013) argues that they come from areas of Mymensingh and Barisal districts due to less job opportunity over there. However, there is a financial diversity among these households and most of these families have to face a difficulty to meet their survival needs. Actually all of these families have monetary debts and few of them have some assets and small savings in their homestead (Kibria, 1998). The largest part of the garment workers are young, unmarried women and come from poor families (Paul-Majumder, 2000). Alam (2011) reported that about 86% of the women are between 18 and 32 years old. Many of them do not have any prior working experience. However, some characteristics of female workers have changed over time. Some of these characteristics differ from worker to worker who employed in the garment industries located in the DEPZ and those located outside the DEPZ (Paul-Majumder, 2000). There are several factors which motivate these women to migrate towards this industry for seeking employment opportunities. First of all, the job opportunities especially for women are very limited. Furthermore, the socioeconomic condition particularly poverty and unemployment and vulnerability to natural disasters are also the main driving forces that compels women to move towards the employment. In addition, the natures of job and remuneration package in the garment industry are also attracting women to be involved in this sector (Zaman, 2001).

64135154940004.1 Descriptive Analysis
Survey Respondents and Organizations
Organization Name Number of Workers
Azmat Apparels Ltd. 7
Youngone8
Snowtex8
Al-Muslim Group 5
AB Group 7
Tendering 8
Dekko Apparels Ltd. 7
Respondent’s Post
Organization Name Operator Helper
Al-Muslim 4 1
Snowtex6 2
AB Group 6 1
Youngone5 3
Azmat Apparels Ltd. 0 7
Dekko Apparels Ltd. 5 2
Tending 2 6
Total 28 22
4.1.1 Age of Respondents
S. No Age in Years No. of Respondents Percent
1 Under 19 years 10 20%
2 20-30years 35 70%
3 31-40years 5 10%
4 41-50 years 0 0%
Total 50 100
Table 4.1: Age of Respondents
Table contains age range of workers, number of workers in different range and percentage. Total respondents are 50. They are from savar area including different organization of garments industry

Chart 4.1: Age of Respondents
The bar chart shows out of 50 respondents that 35 workers’ age range 20-30 years, less than 19 years 10 workers and 5 belongs to 31-40 years. Most number of workers is 20-30 years.

lefttop00From the pie chart, it is inferred that 70% workers age are 20-30 years where second most respondents belong to less than 19 years and some are 31-40 years 10%.

Interpretation:
Young ladies are more prone to work in garments industry livelihood.

4.1.2 Normal Working Days in a Week
Normal Working Days in a Week
Frequency Percentage Cumulative
Percentage
Days Less than 5
days 5 days 6 days 50 100 100
7 days Table 4.2: Normal Working Days in a Week

Chart 4.3: Normal Working Days in a Week
All Female who are currently working in garments, especially in Bangladesh have to work at least 6 days in week. They got weakly holiday on Friday.

4.1.3 Normal Working Hours in a Day
Normal Working Hours in a Day
Working Hours Frequency Percent Cumulative
Percent
7-8 hours 0 0 8-9 hours 0 0 9-10 hours 28 56 56
10-12 hours 19 38 94
More Than 12 3 6 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.3: Normal Working Hours in a Day
The table includes different working hours 7-8 hours, 8-9 hours, 9-10 hours and 10-12 hours, frequency of workers, percent and cumulative percent

Chart 4.4: Normal Working Hours in a Day
Out of 50 respondents, 28 respondents answered that 9-10 hours is normal working hours is a day and the other 2 options that is 10-12 hours and more than 12 hours 19 ; 3 respondents agreed with this.

Chart 4.5: Normal Working Hours in a Day
Normal working hours in garments for female workers varies to some extent. Most of the respondents shown their choice as they have to work 9-10 hours per day and the number of respondent for this option is 28 out of 50 and it is 56% total response as well as 19 out of 50 finds they have to work 10-12 hours per day which is 38%. 3 out of 50 female workers in garments in Bangladesh they observe that they have to work more than 12 hours 6%.

4.1.4 Hours Spend on Traveling to Go to Work.

Hours spend on
traveling Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Less than half an hour 0 0 Nearly one hour 20 40 40
Nearly two hours 22 44 84
More than two hours 8 16 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.4: Hours Spend on Traveling to Go to Work
20 respondents answered that nearly one hour is spend on traveling to work a day, 22 respondents answered that nearly two hours ,8 respondents reply that more than two hour and none respondents less than half an hour spend on traveling to work.

Chart 4.6: Hours Spend on Traveling
Here most of the respondents, about 44% show that they have to spend nearly two hour to reach their work place, and 40% identified that they have to spend nearly one hour to reach in work place from their resident.

4.1.5 Marital Status
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Single 16 32 32
Married 34 68 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.5: Marital Status

Chart 4.7: Marital Status
34 out of 50 female workers got married their age limit 20-30 and 16 respondents are single. Most of them got married early age and they have to work to maintain their families. The married woman has more duty and responsibility to their family than an unmarried woman.

4.1.6 Having Children
Do you have children Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Yes 31 91.18 91.18
No 3 8.82 100
Total 34 100 Table 4.6: Having Children

Chart 4.8: Having Children

Chart 4.9: Having Children
The study finds that 31 out of 34 married female workers in Bangladesh having child. It means that at least 91% married female has child. Who has children or more children she has more duty than who has no children or less children. Only 3 female workers do not have children which is 9%. After they got married, they bear child early.

4.1.7 Care taker for Children
Frequency Percent Cumulative
Spouse 14 45.16 45.16
In-Laws 4 12.90 58.06
Parents 13 41.94 100
Servants Total 31 100 Table 4.7: Care taker for Children

Chart 4.10: Care taker for Children
This study reveals that women working in garments industry of Bangladesh prefers to have their children taken care by their spouse, in-laws, parents 45.16% (14 workers) keeps to Spouse, 41.94% (13 respondents) keeps to Parents, and 12.9% (4 respondents) keeps to In- Laws. Large number of women keeps their children spouse and parents.

4.1.8 Hours Spend with Children
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Less than 2 hours 31 100 100
2-3 hours 3-4 hours 4-5 hours More than 5 hours Total 31 100 Table 4.8: Hours Spend with Children

Chart 4.11: Hours Spend with Children

Chart 4.12: Hours Spend with Children
The study reveals that all workers spend less than 2 hours with their children because they have to go out early in the morning for the work and back to home at evening.

Interpretation:
As they do not get enough time to spend with their children, the children become isolated from their mother and involve with different illegal activities.

4.1.9 Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Old People 8 16 16
Dependent Adults 7 14 30
Adults with Disabilities 1 2 32
Children with disabilities 0 0 32
None 34 68 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.9: Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables

Chart 4.13: Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables
34 out of 50 do not need to look after anyone which represents 68% workers out of total respondents and 16 need to take care old people, dependents one, adults with disabilities which is 32% where 16% old people, 14% dependents one and 2% adults with disability.

4.1.10 Time Spend for Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables
Frequency Percent (%) Cumulative Percent
Less than 2 hours 15 93.75 93.75
2-3 hours 1 6.25 100
3-4 hours 4-5 hours More than 5 hours Total 16 Table 4.10: Time Spend for Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables
The garments worker spending much time in working does not get opportunity to spend more time with family member. They only get time on Friday to spend with family members. The workers who need to take care others get very little time to spend.15 out of 16 respondents who are to take care other spend less than 2 hours which is 93.75% and 1 gets 2-3 hours.

Chart 4.14: Time Spend for Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables

Chart 4.15: Time Spend for Taking Care of Adults, Dependents and Disables
4.1.11 Work Related Worry
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Never Rarely 1 2 2
Sometimes 6 12 14
Often 34 68 82
Always 9 18 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.11: Work Related Worry

Chart 4.16: Work Related Worry

Chart 4.17: Work Related Worry
34 Out of 50 respondents opine that they were often worry about the work and 9 of them which is 18% of total response always become worry about their work. 6 of the 50 that means 12% respondents sometimes think or worry about their work. 1 respondent rarely feels worry.

4.1.12 Shifts Based Working Hour
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Never 50 4.1.12 Shifts Based Working Hour
100 100
Rarely Sometimes Often Always Total 50 100
Chart 4.18: Shifts Based Working Hour
Workers do not work in sifts. They never work in sifts. They always work on same time morning to evening.

4.1.13 Time Spending with Family
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Never 0 0 0
Rarely 0 0 0
Sometimes 13 26 26
Often 26 52 78
Always 11 22 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.13: Time Spending with Family

Chart 4.19: Time Spending with Family
26 respondents answered that they often feel unable to spend enough time with their family which almost half number of respondents 52%. 22% respondents feel always unable to spend enough time with their family which is 11 out of 50 and some 13 respondents sometimes find out themselves unable to spend enough time with their family.

4.1.14 Tired or Depressed because of work
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Never 0 0 0
Rarely 0 0 0
Sometimes 15 30 30
Often 20 40 70
Always 15 30 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.14: Tired or Depressed because of work

Chart 4.20: Tired or Depressed because of work

Chart 4.21: Tired or Depressed because of work
In this graph when we ask this question most of the answer often they feel tired or depressed because of work here 20 out of 48 respondents and this percentage 40%. 15 respondents said always feel tired or depressed, 15 respondents said sometimes they feel tired which is 30%.

4.1.15 Separate Policy for Work-Life Balance
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Yes 49 98 98
No 0 98
Not aware 1 2 100
Total 50 100 Table 4.3: Separate Policy for Work-Life Balance

Chart 4.22: Separate Policy for Work-Life Balance
4.1.16 Flexible working hours
Sl. No Scale No of Respondents Percentage
1 Strongly agree 2 Agree 3 Neutral 1 2.04%
4 Disagree 27 55.10%
5 Strongly Disagree 21 42.86%
Total 49 100%
Table 4.16: Flexible working hours
From the table, it is seen that 27 workers disagree with flexible working hours which is 55.10% of total respondents and strongly disagree 21 (42.86%) workers and 1 is neutral. They always go to work place in fixed time.

Chart 4.23: Flexible working hours

Chart 4.24: Flexible working hours
4.1.17 Counseling services
Sl. No Scale No of Respondents Percentage
1 Strongly agree 48 97.96%
2 Agree 1 2.04%
3 Neutral 4 Disagree 5 Strongly Disagree Total 49 100%
Table 4.17: Counseling services
Table shows the number of respondents and percentage of respondents who answer to different scale

Chart 4.25: Counseling Services

Chart 4.26: Counseling service
From the above table out of 49 (100%) employees 48(97.96%) employees strongly agree, 1(2.04%) employees agree.

Interpretation:
Most of the employees strongly agreed that they are provided with better counseling facility.

4.1.18 Health programs
Sl. No Scale No of Respondents Percentage
1 Strongly agree 45 91.83%
2 Agree 4 8.17%
3 Neutral 4 Disagree 5 Strongly Disagree Total 49 100
Table 4.18: Health programs

Chart 4.27: Health programs
From the above graph out of 49 employees, 45 employees strongly agree, 4 employees agree.

Interpretation:
Most of the employees strongly agreed that the organization provides health checkup.

Chart 4.28: Health program
Pie chart presents 100%.In this question 91.83% strongly agree that their organization provides health program facility and 8.17% agree. This scenario affirms that industry is eager to provide medical facility to workers.

4.1.19 Family Support Programs
Sl. No Scale No of Respondents Percentage
1 Strongly agree 0 0%
2 Agree 1 2.04%
3 Neutral 7 14.28%
4 Disagree 28 57.14%
5 Strongly Disagree 13 26.54%
Total 49 100
Table 4.19: Family Support Programs

Chart 4.29: Family Support Programs
From the above graph , out of 49 respondents 28 respondents are disagree, 13 respondents are strongly disagree, 7 neutral and 1 agree. The industry is not much interested in supporting family program.

Chart 4.30: Family support programs
Total 100 percent where 57.14% respondents are disagree, 26.54% respondents are strongly disagree and 14.24% neutral.

4.1.20 Opportunity to Return to the Same Job after Maternity
Sl. No Scale No of Respondents Percentage
1 Strongly agree 42 85.71%
2 Agree 3 6.12%
3 Neutral 4 8.17%
4 Disagree 0 00%
5 Strongly Disagree 0 00%
Total 49 100
Table 4.20: Opportunity to Return to the Same Job after Maternity

Chart 4.31: Opportunity to Return to the Same Job after Maternity
Bar chart shows that out of 49 respondents 42 respondents are strongly agree, 3 respondents are agree and 4 neutral. The industry is conscious about the maternity leave.

Chart 4.32: Opportunity to Return to the Same Job after Maternity
Pie chart shows the percentage of the total respondents who answer in different scale. 85.71% is strongly agreed, 8.17% is agreed and 6.12% is neutral. Workers are satisfied with the opportunity given by the industry.

CHAPTER FIVE:
FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings
I. Majority of the female workers in the garment industry are in the age bracket of 20-35 years which is 70% of total surveyed respondents.

II. All of the workers are to work 6 days in a week. They get a holiday in a week special on Friday.

III. Most of the female workers working in garment industry of Bangladesh work 9-10 and 10-12 hours which creates heavy load on them.

IV. Most of the respondents spend nearly two hours travelling (44% workers) to their work place and nearly one hour 20 respondents (40%).Some organization provides transport facility to workers.

V. Marital status of workers highly influences their work-life balance as 68% of respondents are married mostly and 32% respondents are single.
VI. 31 out of 34 married women have children which is almost 91%.

VII. Most of the respondents who are mothers rely on their in-laws, their spouses and parents in taking care of their children.45.16% workers depend on their spouse and 41.94% on their parents in taking care of their children.

VIII. Garment workers do not get enough time spending with their children. All of them spend less than 2 hours with their children in a day.

IX. Some workers also need to look after their family member who are old and disable.

X.Majority (68%) of female workers who are working in garment industry of Bangladesh often think or worry about their work but 18% of them is always concern and or worry about their work and rarely 2%.

XI. They never work in sifts system. They always go out for work early in the morning.

XII. Most of the workers are little time with family and friends without any pressure. Due to long time working hours, 52% respondent feel that they often unable to spend enough time with their family and 22% always.

XIII. Two-Fifth of female bankers (about 40%) often feel they are depressed or tired of working.

XIV. The industry provides different facility although they are not specifically aware of all facilities and policy for work life balance.

XV.42.86% of the respondents strongly disagreed that they are flexibility with the working hours.

XVI. 91.83% of the surveyed respondents strongly agreed that the organization arranges for a free health programs for the sake of workers.

XVII. The organizations also provide counseling to their workers. 97.96%workers strongly agreed.

XVIII. The workers have opportunity to return work after maternity leave.

XIX. Most of the employees believe in provisions, counseling facility, provided by the company.

XX.Workers are unable to maintain work and family smoothly because of lack of time management.

XXI. Young female are more interested in this profession who are not much educated.

XXII. They feel inferior complexity because of social stigma.

5.2 Recommendations
5.2.1. To the Human Resource Management Department
Human Resource department of any organization is responsible for making sure that the organization has worker friendly environment. We have made some recommendation in the light of our research data. They are-Specific Work-life balance policy should be developed to ensure maximum level of job satisfaction. Work life balance policy should be customizable to individual needs of the employees. Recreation facilities like sports, excursion, cultural, etc. should be provided to the workers by the company to overcome stress. Weekly holiday should be revised so that they can give to their family members. Better working environment like cleanliness, canteen facilities should be provided. The organization should increase work life balance programs to reduce family work conflict. Work environment should be female friendly to women Make sure some facility for the family member of the organization.

5.2.2. To the Workers
Employees are most valuable asset for the organization who create value for the organization and also very much responsible for balancing their work and family life properly. They can take some means to achieve work-life balance like Employees should find time to invest in their personal development .Try to spend quality time with their children and family member when they are at home. Try to gather preliminary knowledge about family responsibility and work related knowledge. Try to explain about their work to the family, so that they can understand about their work and be more supportive.

More Health support and healthy meal plan should be included in the organization.

5.2.3. To the Government
The government has the ultimate power to bring about the necessary. I have made some recommendation to the government as well. They are work Life Balance should be included in the legal compliance requirement for every organization .The govt. should make awareness among the people about the garment works. Social misconception should be eradicated from the mind of village people about garment work. Salary structure should be revised over the time as inflation occurs.

5.2.4. To BGMEA
Monitor the overall facility given by the organization to workers. Ensure congenial working environment prevailing in the organization. Make sure compensation given to the workers on time. Ensure practice of work life balance policy.

6.1 Introduction
This study is founded in my personal interest in the lives of garments women who live under poverty line but their contributions to the country are huge. This chapter demonstrates the conclusion of the thesis. It firstly presents general discussion of the study and secondly the implication of this study. After the limitations of the study, some suggestions are also made for future study.

6.2 General Conclusions
Work-life balance is about generating and maintaining helpful and healthy work environments, which will qualify employees to have balance between work and personal life and thus support workers constancy and productivity. Today’s labors have many challenging responsibilities such as housework, work, children, , spouse, volunteering and elderly parent care and this places stress on individuals, families and the communities in which they reside.

6.3 Implications for Study and Practice
This thesis has important implications from culture and gender perspectives for both industry and family systems and the society as a whole within the context of Bangladesh. The causes, consequences and coping strategies of WFB for women working in garment industry are now better understood. The study shows that women in general, and wives and mothers in particular, could benefit from work, flexible scheduling and marriage leave. Employers should focus on reducing women’s work-family tensions and revise the existing policies. Organizations should monitor the implementation of family-friendly policies to ensure their fair utilization.

6.4 Research Limitations
This study is conducted based on small area compare to vast industry. Respondents are not much educated. That’s why; they are less conscious about the facility and policy of the organization.

6.5 Future Research
This thesis argues that women working in garment in Bangladesh have complex experiences of work-life balance as they struggle to live up to the image of ideal worker’s and good women. For this study, interviews were conducted within the garment premises, Pratik gate in Stamford campus and at their home. Future research could also focus on the experiences of women who have exited the labor force. Another valuable area for future research would be to conduct a longitudinal study of work-life balance across the life-stage, particularly with respect to before and after marriage and before and after children. From the family side, examining the experiences of women with responsibilities to care for a less able person in the family can provide additional insight into the structures and processes that lower working women’s position in the society.

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WEBSITES
http://www.bgmea.comhttp://bgmea.com.bd/home/pages/TradeInformationApparel Export Statistics of Bangladesh, Fiscal year 2015-16.

CHAPTER SIX:
APPENDIX
APPENDIX
Questionnaire on Work Life Balance
1) What is your age?
a). Under 19 years b). 20-30 years c). 31-40 years d). 41-50 years e). 50 years or more
2) How many days in a week do you normally work?
a) Less than 5 days
b) 5 days
c) 6 days
d) 7 days
3) How many hours in a day do you normally work?
a) 7-8 hours
b) 8-9 hours
c) 9-10 hours
d)10-12 hours
e) More than 12 hours
4) How many hours a day do you spend traveling to work?
a) Less than half an hour
b) Nearly one hour
c) Nearly two hours
d) More than two hours
5) Your marital status
a) Single
b) Married
c) Divorced
6) I) Do you have children?
272034025590500a) Yes, no. of children
b) No
II) Being an employed man/woman who is helping you to take care of your children?
a) Spouse
b) In-laws
c) Parents
d) Servants
e) Day care centers
III) How many hours in a day do you spend with your child/children?
a) Less than 2 hours
b) 2-3 hours
c) 3-4 hours
d) 4-5 hours
e) More than 5 hour
7) I) Do you take care of?
a) Older people
b) Dependent adults
c) Adults with disabilities
d) Children with disabilities
e) None
II) If yes, how many hours do you spend with them?
a) Less than 2 hours
b) 2-3 hours
c) 3-4 hours
d) 4-5 hours
e) More than 5 hours
Work Role and Work Life
Balance Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never
8) How often do you think or worry about work (when you are not actually at work)? 9). Do you work in shifts? 10). Do you find yourself unable
to spend enough time with your family? 11). Do you ever feel tired or
Depressed because of work? 12). Does your company have a separate policy for work-life balance?
Yes No Not Aware
If organization frames a policy for employees, what points you think are important and should be included in the policy yes what the provisions under the policy are?52419251682115e00e Indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements by using a scale of 1 to 5 where 1= strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. Circle (O) which best describes
Work Role and Work Life Balance Strongly
Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly
Agree
13. Flexible working hours 1 2 3 4 5
14. Counseling services 1 2 3 4 5
15. Health programs 1 2 3 4 5
16. Family support programs 1 2 3 4 5
17. Opportunity to return to the same job after maternity or paternity leave 1 2 3 4 5
Thank You for your time.

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