WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK
Wireless ad-hoc network or MANET is a decentralized type of network or local area network (LAN), it is known as ad-hoc because it is not depend of any kind of infrastructure. In this type of network the communication is done with the help of nodes. The data can transmitted directly which are connected to this kind of network. Wireless ad-hoc is a temporary kind of connection between many communications. In ad-hoc, there is no need of any Wi-Fi connection or router. Ad-hoc is used when we need to share so many files or data directly to other computer or phone without having any Wi-Fi connection. In windows operating system ad-hoc directly allows computers to communicate with each other. Now a day’s wireless network is most demanding network in whole world, because of infrastructuraless. This technology is very popular now a days we use this for video streaming, data transfer, internet access in mobiles and laptop etc. wireless ad-hoc network is vulnerable network everyone can hack this kind of network. In wireless ad hoc network there is a limited rage approx 100mm if you want to use this kind of network in our mobiles phone or laptops we have to be in a range of 100mm.
Wireless ad-hoc network is collection independent nodes that are connected to each other help to communicate with one another. This kind of network is also known as mesh network. Ad-hoc network can easily be expanded further point at anytime, the topologies of this network can also be changed at anytime, whenever the older nodes left the network the new nodes ca automatically connected to the network. Individual’s nodes can also be move at any time. In Mesh Network where moment of nodes is possible is called as MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network).
Sharmila. S et al., (2016) conducted a survey on Wireless Ad- Hoc Network Issues and Implementation. In this paper author discuss about the roles of ad-hoc network in future wireless communications a lot of survey has been done during this research on ad hoc network like isolated ad hoc network with large and small sizes and integrated ad hoc networks for mobile access networks. He proposed various leverages and applications of wireless network. He also did survey on some demands like QoS (quality of service), controls and security. This research discuss about to implement the issues in ad hoc network and how to improve the performance, he proposed two techniques to improvement the performance by MIMO and cognitive radio techniques. This study shows the future trends and social problems of ad hoc networks from the client review. Thus the study finds that ad hoc network will provide the promising solution to complete the needs of next generation wireless communication systems.
Shah and Singh (2016) Studied on Media Access Delay and Throughput Analysis of Voice Codec with Silence Supervision on wireless Ad-hoc Network during this research they try to find the way how to improve the quality of voice “QoS” over multimedia application i.e. Audio and video calls. The main purpose of this research in to check the execution VOIP application in different codec’s like G. 711, G. 729, G. 723.1 on wireless network through silence or without silence supervision. One another problem has also been discussed in this paper that if nodes increased on voice transmission for various coders what will be the effects of that increasing nodes. During this study author tested the network architecture on variable bandwidth with number of nodes for voice application or multimedia application. Now the final result comes out for silence supervision as well as without silence supervision. Study observed that G 711 have better output with silence as well as without silence supervision as compare to G. 729, G.723.1 as per data rate and number of nodes.
Er-rouidi et al., (2016) studied on Attacks against ADOV routing protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc network. The main focus of the this paper in on the clashes of security attacks over the ADOV routing protocol and also discussed about the NS-2 simulator which is used in wired networks as well as wireless network. In this study there are some experiments done on black hole, flooding and rushing attacks and come out with the result use these attacks in NS-2.23 simulator and finally reveal that packet delivery ratio decrease when node mobility increases and also find that back hole attack is harmful and several impact the ratio of delivery data between the network nodes and rushing attack has less important effect on network performance.
Shcherba el at., (2016), conducted a study on Security A Role-Based Approach to Secure Routing in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks. The aim of his study is to use true fundamental to design the secure routing protocol, so that the flow of data remain flexible in wireless ad-hoc network. He used two algorithms in his study on role based approach to secure the data in routing protocols. The algorithms which are used in this study are: SHORTESTSECPATHFIRST” which is used to find the shortest path in the network node and the other algorithm which is used that is used to find the maximum (s-t) flow value. Hence the result proved that Role Based Protection Approach is good to secure the routing protocols and also revealed that the algorithm which is used in his study allows us to study the suitability of the approach to other routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc network in future.
Pathak; Shrivastava; and Jain (2016) examined about Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector routing protocol using Dijkastra’s algorithm (AODV-D) for high throughput in VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) In pas few year it has been proved that there are number of vehicles are increasing day by day on road so we need extra security for safety of our traffic. There is a need of proper communication in between the different vehicles for that new technology has been proposed called Vehicular Ad-hoc network (VANET) it is new class of wireless network. Due to random changes in the traffic we face communication breakage problem. So study reveals that if we want good and stable routes we need a convenient routing. This study find the way for a stable route selection and route maintain to get a good stability of route. The protocol used in this paper gets increased from previously proposed protocol AODV in terms of communication and broken links. In this study there are to mobility parameter are used speed and direction in route selection and link expiry time so that it improve the stability of selected route and reduce problems.
Quang et al., (2016) conducted a study on Video Streaming over Ad Hoc Networks: a QoE-based Optimal Routing Solution. Video streaming over multihop ad-hoc networks is one the fast growing applications. A novel routing algorithm is necessary for video streaming. As per this study they find a solution for video routing which can be focus on technical parameters like bandwidth, jitter, delay, etc. but these parameters are not perfectly correlated to QoE identify by user. The main focus of this study on QoE-based routing problem in multi-hop wireless ad-hoc networks, they used PSQA ( pseudo-subjective quality assessment) tool to handle MOS ( mean opinion Scores). For solving a problem in QoE-based routing they use linearization method to handle its mathematical form. After choosing linearization method then they used a mixed integer linear problem to solve the video streaming problem. The result of this study shows that the algorithm they used in their study i.e. heuristic algorithm can increase the resource utilization as well as user’s experience in wireless networks and the model which is used in this study is multicommodity network flow model for better flows in wireless ad-hoc networks.
Abdelaziz et al., (2016) Studied on An efficient intrusion detection and prevention framework for ad hoc networks. They proposed an intrusion detection and prevention framework called EIDPF, based on AODV, it defend us from the routing attacks in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). During this research there are three EIDPF architectures are used (i) a specification based IDS to detect attacks violating the protocol specification, ii) a load balancer to prevent from fast forwarding attacks and iii) adaptive response mechanism isolate malicious node form the network. Now result showed that their proposed work shows high detection rate and low false positives ratios beneath particular mobility rates and across multiple attackers (DDOS) and also proved that EIDPF not effect new communication above as compare to other protection mechanism.
Ponniah and Kumar (2016) conducted a study on A Clean State Approach to Secure Ad Hoc wireless Networking- Open Un-synchronized Networks. In this study they proposed a system-theoretic framework to design the secure open wireless ad-hoc networks. As per their study the nodes at beginning are unsynchronized connect the network at any stage. In this study they designed a framework which contains zero-sum game in between every protocols opposed strategies. They also proposed an “edge-tally” merge protocol which is apparently important in three ways. First the protocol achieve max-min payoff: second the protocol actually does the better and achieves the min-max payoff; Third adversarial nodes are effectively limited to either jamming or conforming to the protocol. The main aim of this study is to secure the complex open wireless network from the malicious attack. Hence they proved that the agent can join at anytime in system, the agent can forcefully adapt the communication protocol. They provide a positive proof that is possible to communicate they can give us a guarantee but also to acquire highest payoff.
Rachana and Prasad (2016) assessed a Comprehensive survey on effect of mobility over routing issues in wireless multimedia sensor networks. The aim of this paper is to study different routing problems and impact of mobility on existing solutions for the applications in future internet. Study revealed that the routing protocols should be adaptive for future work in sensor network. In previous study many author proposed the mobility of sink to improve lifetime of the network. During this research it has been discussed that some effective approach for the network where not only no sink node is mobile but all other nodes are also mobile. During survey the performance and lifetime for network as been discussed also other parameters like delay, packet loss, energy consumption. And this study come up with a framework which can helpful for us to design adaptive and dynamic routing techniques for WMSN (Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network).
Tashtoush: Alsmirat: and Alghadi (2016) studied on Geometric Sequence Based Multipath Routing Protocol for Multi-hop Ad hoc Networks. This study gives a new entrance for delivering packets over the possible paths; called Geometric Multipath Load Balancing routing protocol (GMRP) has been proposed. GMRP is asses using GloMoSim simulator. In this study author use packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay as the comparison result metrics. The finding of this study shows that GMRP decrease the average end-to-end delay by up to 49% and boost the delivery ratio up to 8%. The results shows that GMRP defeat both FMRP as well as AODV protocols under all studies because the delivery process of the data packet over multiple paths, the given algorithm send more packets on the shorter path.
Sharma (2017) conducted a study on Secure Reputation based Architecture for MANET Routing. This study assumes that the nodes which are in MANET are trustworthy and cooperative in routing protocols like AODV, DSR etc. This expectation makes wireless ad hoc network create problem for interference and manipulation which have the possibilities for Dos (Denial of Service) attacks. During this study they proposed a protocol which can reduce this kind of attacks on MANET. This scheme which is used in this study is to divide the network in 25 nodes which are arranged in 5×5 grid structure. Every normal node has a unique prime number i.e. that identity of the node. And the variable which is taken this study id Back Bone Network (BBN) which also arrange in 5×5 grid structure. These two tables are the best way to stop the malicious nodes in this network during path discovery. Main focus of this study in on the maintain the security mechanism to avoid the malicious node attack in ad hoc network. The result shows that the Architecture which they are using in their study i.e. grouping of node which is based on the set of quality metrics which helps us to detect the cooperating malicious node in the network easily.
Bossche; Fourty; and Jamont (2017) conducted a study on Trusted Lightweight Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. The purpose of their study is define the lightweight synchronization protocol for wireless ad hoc network, as we know sensor network and wireless ad hoc network are the large field of research because the up gradation in the technologies are increased day by day so we need to protect our wireless network from malicious attacks and the wireless network does not have centralized infrastructure their nodes acts as sender , receiver as well as router at the same time their dynamic topologies make them problematic to synchronize. In this study authors proposed a simple synchronization protocol (SiSP) with some trusted method to defend such kind of attacks. The aim of this study is to check the abnormal behavior and give a confidence level to every node. During this study they used a tool called MASH (Multi agent software/Hardware) tool, this tool is used to detect the malicious node in network. Result shows that their first experiment on FC attacks is very effective on the SiSP protocol till a malicious node desynchronize the whole system. SiSP algorithm is used to detect the detect several kind of attacks like Fixed Clock, Random Clock, Misused Identity in wireless ad hoc network.
Parsinia et al (2018) conducted a study on Bidirectional AOMDV Routing Protocol for Full-duplex Ad-Hoc Networks. As we know wireless ad-hoc network access full-duplex means that we can communicate from both side but still facing some problems while delivering packets by reverse and forward direction, it overlap. In order to use full-duplex nodes in efficient manner this paper they proposed a noval routing protocol know as bidirectional AOMDV (BAOMDV), that find multiple, link disjoint, bidirectional ways in network. The routing protocol which is proposed in this study prevailed over the limitations of the existing AOMDV based protocols in searching the bidirectional routes. The result shows that the proposed routing protocol for better communication in between the nodes is help full in terms of packet deliver ratio and end-to-end delay. But the missing part of this study is multi-beam full-duplex nodes.
Cheong; Whar Si and Hou-U (2018) assessed a design and implementation of lifeline emergency ad-hoc network. In this study they proposed a system for automatically forming ad-hoc networks using mobile phones and wireless routers which is working on battery for emergency situations. There is also a function which is used to send emergency messages and recognized the location of the users which is sitting on NTP (Network Topology Information). The proposed system also used to recover from partial crush or node loss. Now they find out the way to send a emergency message by using this system called lifeline and it is also useful for recovery from minor crush. In this study they also find that how to improve the battery life longer ,more the battery life more chance to rescue the person/victim.
Xingwu et al (2018) Observed fault Tolerant and connectivity Restoration Algorithm in Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Network. Due to dynamic nature in the network there may be node join or leave/fail some time or link may be not available, so this will effect of the performance of the network to overcome from this situation, in this study they propose three Hybrid recovering algorithms which are: Cascade movement based on nearest nodes, cascade movement based on connecting dominating set and the last cascade movement based on critical nodes. These three algorithms are used to recover the nodes when it is lost or failed to join also recover the connectivity. The result shows that out of three algorithms the cascade movement based on critical nodes has a best result which has an ability to recover the connection at original position.
Beghriche and Bilami (2018) conducted a study on Fuzzy Trust-based routing model for mitigating the misbehaving nodes in mobile ad-hoc networks. As we know security is one the main part of any design and implementation of protocols. The aim of this paper is to improve the security challenges in mobile ad-hoc network because in ad-hoc network there is no any infrastructure nodes are dynamically changed at any time. This study proposed a trusted model to defend the painful attacks in mobile ad-hoc network. The grey relational analysis theory is used which is combined with fuzzy sets to calculate the trust level on any node which have a relation with the neighbor node and in routing decision making process these trust level are used. They conducted some experiments on this model so that they come up with good solutions like improve the signal quality, painful attacks, malicious nodes behavior, security and improve the trust level between nodes. At last the validation has been done to check the success of the protocols by comparing with some other protocols like: S-AODV, T-AODV and AODV via the NS-2 simulator. The result shows that the proposed model is helpful to reduce the effects of misbehaving nodes and also helpful for the system security.
Wei et at. (2018) conducted a study on the Construction of Neural Networks via Wireless Ad-hoc Networks. The aim of this paper is to construct the neural network with wireless ad-hoc network which disclose the merge of communication and computation. In the type of network they set the neuron as wireless nodes which are arranged by wireless communication and interactions to perform complex computations. The neural networks which are constructed are applied in target positioning and its accuracy is verified. The main purpose of this paper is to give us a guide line to construct a large and complex neural network.
Rao A; Reddy and Kymari V (2018) conducted a study on Multi-path selection based on transitional cuckoo search algorithm for QoS aware routing in MANET. The aim of this study is to show the multipath selection scheme for QoS aware routing in mobile ad-hoc network (MANET). The need of QoS is on multimedia application like Audio, video etc is high. To improve the QoS in multimedia application some complex routing protocols with multiple QoS are needed. In this study the author proposed a multi-path selection scheme for QoS aware routing in MANET which is based on cuckoo search algorithm. They conducted an experiment on the exiting QoS routing protocols ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV), multi-constrained and multipath QoS aware routing protocol (MMQARP), cuckoo search-based multipath QoS aware routing protocol (CS-MQARP) using measures like normalized delay, energy and throughput. For result they used fractional calculus in cuckoo search algorithm to come out with a better result and this scheme increase the possibility of the optimal path selection. The result show that the proposed QoS aware routing protocol performs better as compare to those which are already exists in the MANET with maximal energy of 99.1501 and minimal delay of 0.0554.
Elmahdi; Yoo and Sharshembiev (2018) studied on Securing Data Forwarding against Black hole Attacks in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks during this study they proposed a new model to provide authentic and secure data transmission in mobile ad-hoc network to defend the possible back hole attacks which is based on ad-hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol and homomorphism encryption scheme for security. The proposed scheme is used to improve the performance of malicious nodes in the network. In this paper it is assumed that routes are already created from a sender to receiver. This proposed scheme is based on ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol to trace the active paths. The messages which they want to send between different node means from start to destination node was secured by a encryption method called homomorphic encrypted method, this method is implemented before sending the message from source to destination. The result shows that the proposed methods has good feature for the emergency in MANNET and also provide a higher packet delivery ratio and throughput. The success rate of this proposed model give the guarantee of the delivery of packets to destination is high with many active paths in different networks.
Szott and Konorski (2018) studied on Traffic Remapping Attacks in ad- hoc Networks in this study they give us a clear definition about traffic remapping attacks and show us a best way for execution and how we implements those on multi-hp networks and also discussed how we defend our networks from these attacks. Traffic remapping attacks is just like MAC parameter manipulation (backoff) attacks, it is very easy t perform on any multihop networks. The result of this study comes up with three main points. First, not only a single hop WLANs are harmful but sometimes MAC-layer attacks in multi-hop are also harmful if we implement such kind of harms and detection of these attacks are very complex. Second, TRA have multi-hop crash, usually on short paths, so manipulation attacks are local scope and less chance for attackers. Third, TRA create the serious threat for multi-hop networks as it merge sizable gain with low risk of detection. At last if attacker detection is possible, penalty via TCP traffic shaping is best to MAC ACK dropping otherwise traffic remapping attacks is an option.
The summary of these twenty papers show that how to protect our wireless ad-hoc network from the malicious attacks, there are many attacks which are possible on ad-hoc networks and some studies come up with a few solution to detect or defend our ad-hoc networks. Sharmila. S et al., (2016) the study finds that the ad hoc networks will provide the promising solution to complete the needs of next generation wireless communication systems. Shah and Singh (2016) studied observed that G 711 have better output with silence as well as without silence supervision as compare to G 729, and G 723.1 as per data rate and number of nodes. Er-rouidi et al., (2016) the study shows that the black hole attacks is very harmful and rushing attacks has less importance on network performance. Shcherba el at., (2016) this study proved that Role Based Protection Approach is the best way to secure the routing protocols and also revealed that the algorithm which is used in this study if also helpful in future. Pathak; Shrivastava; and Jain (2016), the study finds the way for a stable route selection and route maintain to get a good stability of route. The parameter which is used in this study gets increased from previously proposed protocols AODV in terms of communication and broken links. Quang et al., (2016) the result of this study shows that the heuristics algorithm can increase the resource utilization as well as user’s experience in wireless networks. Abdelaziz et al., (2016) The proposed works which is used in this study shows high detection rate and low false positives ratios and also proved that EIDPF not effect new communication above as compare to other protection mechanism. Ponniah and Kumar (2016) the aim of this study is to protect the complex open wireless network from the malicious attacks. Hence they proved that the agent can join at anytime in system and the agent can forcefully adapt the communication protocol. Rachana and Prasad (2016) in this study they give us a framework which can helpful for us to design adaptive and dynamic routing techniques for WMSN. Tashtoush: Alsmirat: and Alghadi (2016) this study shows that GMRP defeat both FMRP as well as AODV protocols under all studies because the delivery process of the packet over multiple paths and the given algorithm send more packets on the shorter path. Sharma (2017) the aim of this study to show that the Architecture which they are using in their study i.e. grouping of node which is based on the set of quality metrics which helps us to detect the cooperating malicious node in the network easily. Bossche; Fourty; and Jamont (2017) in the study they use a MASh tool which helpful to detect the malicious nodes in network and their experiment on FC attacks is very effective on SiSP protocol till malicious node desynchronize the whole system. Parsinia et al (2018) the routing protocol which has been proposed in this study is the best way to communicate between the nodes in helpful in terms of packet delivery ratio an end-to end delay. Cheong; Whar Si and Hou-U (2018) this study is used to recover the partial crush or node loss and also we can send emergency message by using their system and also found that how to improve the battery life longer, more the battery life more chance to rescue the person/victim. Xingwu et al (2018) in this study the three algorithms are used to recover the loss or failed to join and also used to recover the connectivity. And out of three algorithms the cascade movement based on critical nodes has best result which has an ability to recover the connection at original position. Beghriche and Bilami (2018) the model which has been proposed in this study is helpful to reduce the effects of misbehaving nodes and also help for system security. Wei et at. (2018) during this study the author only discussed about how to construct the neural network with wireless network. This is the only guideline for us to construct a large and complex neural network. Rao A; Reddy and Kymari V (2018) the author of this study proposed a multipath selction scheme for QoS aware routing in MANET which is based on cuckoo search algorithm. They used fractional calculus in cuckoo search algorithm to come up with a better result and this scheme increase the possibility of the optimal path selection. the final result shows that the proposed QoS aware routing protocol perform better as compare to those which are already exists in MANET. Elmahdi; Yoo and Sharshembiev (2018) the proposed methods have good feature for the emergency in MANNET and also provide a higher packet delivery ratio and throughput. The success rate of this proposed model give the guarantee of the delivery of packets to destination is high with many active paths in different networks. Szott and Konorski (2018) this study come up with three result and result have its own work but all of them TRA has less chance of attackers this work on short paths. And the third point that TRA can create a serious threat for multi-hop networks. If the attacker detection is possible, penalty via TCP traffic shaping is best to MAC ACK dropping otherwise TRA is an option.
After studying all these papers I come out with new protocol called alert message routing protocol, in this research I want to write some new algorithms and secure design on MANET to a get a alert message when someone trying to attack on mobile ad-hoc network, there are so many possible attacks on MANET, but there are few solution to defend our network from these attacks. So the purpose of my research is to track the attacker and also get a flash message on victim mobile. Till now only some of researchers discussed about this but no one come up with a better result , because this kind of network is decentralized means no infrastructure , so defend from attacks is very difficult. The aim this study is to write an algorithm which can help us to get a alert message on victim mobile before losing their data.
To defend our network from external attacks like DoS, Flooding attack etc.
To get an alert message on victim Mobile when some trying to attack on their network.
Track the location by designing a secure algorithm.
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