Where is it taking place?
The #EndItMovement, which began in Atlanta in 2013, “IS A COALITION OF THE LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN THE WORLD IN THE FIGHT FOR FREEDOM. EACH OF OUR AMAZING COALITION PARTNERS ARE DOING THE WORK, ON THE GROUND, EVERYDAY, TO BRING AWARENESS, PREVENTION, RESCUE, AND RESTORATION”
Since it is a coalition of various country-specific and international anti human- trafficking organizations – the push for change is happening worldwide.
Who does the social change impact?
51% of identified victims of trafficking are women, 28% children and 21% men
72% people exploited in the sex industry are women
63% of identified traffickers were men and 37% women
43% of victims are trafficked domestically within national borders
Many people who fall victim of trafficking want to escape poverty, improve their lives, and support their families. Often they get an offer of a well-paid job abroad or in another region. Often they borrow money from their traffickers in advance to pay for arranging the job, travel and accommodation.When they arrive they find that the work they applied for does not exist, or the conditions are completely different. But it’s too late, their documents are often taken away and they are forced to work
until their debt is paid off.
HISTORY OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING
Slavery in Thailand originated from war. It began when the war generals seized a city, forcing innocent people that lived within the outskirts of the city to become slaves, and bringing them back to the capital. When a poor family could not afford to pay their debts, they automatically became slaves of the loaners or they would sell themselves to someone who could aid in paying their debt. This is known as “bonded labour”.
The harsh reality is that many families had to sell their children to the practise of slavery, as there was a surplus of children because of the lack of contraceptives available as well as the need for extra labourers, during that time period. The masters of slaves were divided into two “good and bad”.
The “good” masters cared for the well beings of their slaves, although the same cannot be said for the “bad” masters. Being a slave meant that a person could not own the basic right to their own life, as they had to succumb to being controlled by others, even after their debts had been paid off, it was like an inescapable prison.
During the 1800s, The Malayan Malays were active participants within the slave industry as some of them were slaves whereas some of them were masters. The origins of Slavery within Malaysia trace back to the times when there was a war, known as the (a war between the Malays and the Orang Asli – 1870s).
“Sangkil” was term given by Orang Asli to people who originally came from the Indonesian Islands, the Rawa and Mandailing. It stated that it was the Sangkil attacked and enslaved the Orang Asli.
During the time of conflict, the Orang Asli had to avoid enslavement by constantly migrating from one place to another. Those who had the courage to fight back were brutally killed.
According to a book based on the Perang Sangkil events, the Orang Aslis were frequently sold as slaves to Malay Pembesars (the wealthier portion of the population at the time).
Surprisingly, the culture of the Malay enslavement of Orang Asli was observed and recorded by the British officials who were assigned here. Among them was the Perak Resident J.W.W Birch, whose famous assassination was still being taught in Malaysian education history books.
The Zanj Rebellion was the culmination of a series of small revolts. Taking place near the city of Basra, in southern Iraq over fifteen years (869?883 AD). It grew to involve over 500,000 slaves, who were imported from across the Muslim empire.
The Zanj were Bantu-speaking slaves who had been imported from Africa and who were used for agricultural labor in southern Iraq.
The demand for servile labor during this period was fueled by the social hierarchy that existed within that particular area during that time period.
Wealthier residents of the port city of Basra, had acquired extensive marshlands in the surrounding region and required labourers.
Both the working and living conditions of the Zanj were considered to be extremely miserable. The slaves appeared to have been poorly treated by their masters, as most slaves are.
Two previous attempts to rebel against these circumstances are known to have occurred in 689–90 and in 694. Both of these revolts had quickly failed and thereafter little is known about their history prior to 869.
The Jongcho law stated that the children would remain slaves even if one of the parents was a non-slave.However in the year 1397, the Jongyang law was established and it stated that if the mother was common, then the child was common as well thereby diminishing the number of slaves and increasing the number of taxes.
But like most laws, this law itself reversed in 1430 so that the landowners would have more field hands.
Thus the number of slaves rose steadily from 1430-1700s. The slave trade became systematized because there was an introduction of coin money in 1689. The global trend in the late 19th century known as the Gabo Reforms was enacted and slavery was put to an end.
The farming work was done mostly by the slaves during Xia dynasty. The tribe leaders realized that it would be more desirable to keep the captured people from their opposing tribes as labourers because they were required, as it was a tedious task to grow crops at that time. This meant that tribe leaders used the people they captured as additional hands on the field.
The slaves in China had no freedom and they had to use all their energy working for their masters, as most slaves do. After a master passes away, the slave is killed or buried alive, as it was a common belief that they must “serve” their masters in the underworld. The farming work was done mostly by the slaves during Xia dynasty.
School of thought
Ancient cultures made the distinction between certain minority classes/groups of people in society against the majority the minority being objects or items, and the majority being humans/owners ; binary opposites (Ex: chinese burying alive / alike to paper money)
Malay enslavement culture : the orang asli were viewed as mere machines/tools to help the Malays achieve certain purpose (differing role according to hierarchy in structure)
Technological Determinism : advancements in technology (new chinese agricultural methods -; more farmhands,
On November 2nd of 1834, three dozen Indians labourers arrived in Mauritius right after a 48 days of voyage on board in Atlas from Kolkata. They were paid Rs5 every month that bounded by contracts for five years, while food and clothing would be provided by their own employer, which were Hunter, Arbuthnot and Company.
36 million were the amongst earliest of the Girmityas as the slave like indentured Indian labourers numbering approximately over a million who were abducted to work across the colonies of the British Empire.
Names was derived from a duplicity of the word “agreement, the British turned the agreements into labour agreements after the slave trade was officially abolished in 1807.
After the British Colonization, the labourers had no mercy They were forced to seek work after famines that ravaged large parts of the subcontinent, and were made full use of and overworked, directly received little medical care and suffered from high mortality rates.
Large scale trafficking networks that sold women and children within Vietnam or to China and Hong Kong exposed by Lessard. They would ultimately be sold into prostitution, marriage or domestic servitude.
War, state monopolies on goods and opium, and social norms in which women and girls were both “prized and preyed upon, flourished a black market that traded kidnapped women and girls. Trafficking of women and children, she shows, was a byproduct of political and military activity in the area.
“Hostilities between highlanders and ethnic Vietnamese fueled the kidnappings, and victims were sold into the opium trade.”
“After the Tai Ping rebellion in China, bandit groups migrated into northern Vietnam and attacked villages for survival.”
“The Nguyen government eventually cooped some of the bandits and used them to vex the French military as it took over Tonkin. Within this context, kidnapped women and children proved to be valuable commodities that were easily traded for opium and weapons.”
85% of Afghanistan’s population follow Sunni Islam while most Hazaras are Shiite Muslims which causing them to be condemned as people who have no religion at different points throughout history.
In the late 1800s, their suffering began, by bringing the region’s many different tribes under a centralised authority, the Pashtun Amir, who is named Abdur Rashid Rahman (1880-1901), claimed the Hazaras as a threat to Pashtun dominance and encouraged a religious and ethnic hatred to brutally conquer them in a series of wars between the year 1891 and 1893.
When that happens, the Hazaras were brutally slain, raped, sold into slavery, and soldiers brutally murdered them by piling their heads into towers to warn others against dissent.
A social group apart from the Chinese population was formed by Chinese Muslims and actively pursued the preservation of their religious community organisation and ethnic origins, but they were victims of discrimination from the Han and the imperial administration.
However, the concubines were taken by force and sold into their life but this was not the only case. It was highly uncommon in some cultures for low income families to present their daughters to a ruler in order to discern if they would be chosen as a concubine. This often served the main purpose of getting rid of an extra mouth to feed as well as giving their daughter a life of comfort, privilege and protection.
School of thoughts
Existing patriarchal norms and values in society allowed for women to be subjected/ viewed as objects to achieve certain goals
Vietnam: “women were prized and preyed upon”, shows that women were not seen as equals but instead as prey (weaker and vulnerable)
Due to the reproductive abilities of women, they were often targeted and seen as tools to satisfy the needs of men and to bear children (either to serve as labourers themselves or to continue the family line)
Minority groups were enslaved/ put into exile to show dominance of majority groups over these groups.
Majority vs Minority; Chinese Muslims, Hazaras.
Dominance of religion : to make others conform to the religion which allow for the influencing of the people and ultimately gives power / make an example of the others.
Hostilities between highlanders and ethnic Vietnamese, highlanders show of power to show that the ethnic Vietnamese are below them in terms of social status .
The dysfunction in the political scene (WWII, civil wars affected the economy (lesser manpower) so caused a shift in labour towards increase in slaves
Prisoners of war were taken as slaves (inadvertently causes submission towards power in charge) increase in production of supplies to support the war efforts -; leads to solidarity (imbalance in labour is stabilized , solidarity in the majority party)
Changes in political state of a country : during WWII Japanese military comfort stations; to satisfy soldiers/military officials and to boost their morale
Changes in infrastructure (man-made machines/ methods of production causes increases in demand for necessities) causes changes in structure (increased slavery/ forced labour) and superstructure ( laws or beliefs that slavery is fine and is a tool to help productivity).
The drastic increase of technological advancements during the Industrial Revolution created room for rapid economic growth thus incentivising colonial powers to exploit the colonized and enslave them.
1954 – China passes the State Regulation on Reform through Labor, allowing prisoners to be used for labor in the laogai prison camps.
1980 – Slavery is abolished for the fourth time in the Islamic republic of Mauritania, but the situation is not fundamentally changed. Although the law decrees that “slavery” no longer exists, the ban does not address how masters are to be compensated or how slaves are to gain property.
1989 – The National Islamic Front takes over the government of Sudan and begins to arm Baggara tribesmen to fight the Dinka and Nuer tribes in the south. These new militias raid villages, capturing and enslaving inhabitants.
1989 – The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child promotes basic health care, education, and protection for the young from abuse, exploitation, or neglect at home, at work, and in armed conflicts. All countries ratify it except Somalia and the United States.
1950-1989 – International anti-slavery work slows during the Cold War, as the Soviet Block argues that slavery can only exist in capitalist societies, and the Western Block argues that all people living under communism are slaves. Both new and traditional forms of slavery in the developing world receive little attention.
School of thought
Increasingly inhumane working conditions and treatments of these labourers, growing lower class in suffering
Response: Implementation of laws to restrict and ban slavery
Response failed to change situation: poor enforcement of laws and regulation causes slavery to prevail (although signified the beginning of government involvement in the issue)
Free the Slaves is formed, originally as the sister organization of Anti-Slavery International in the U.K. Today Free the Slaves is an independent organization.
The government of Nepal bans all forms of debt bondage after a lengthy campaign by human rights organizations and freed laborers.
The U.S. Congress passes the Trafficking Victims Protection Act to combat the trafficking of persons as a form of modern slavery. The legislation increases penalties for traffickers, provides social services for trafficking victims, and helps victims remain in the country.
The U.N. passes the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons as part of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. The trafficking protocol is the first global legally binding instrument with an internationally agreed-upon definition on trafficking in persons.
The Special Court for Sierra Leone judges forced marriage “a crime against humanity” and convicts three officers in the Revolutionary United Front of forced marriage—the first convictions of their kind within an international criminal tribunal.
The U.N. International Labor Organization’s first Global Report on Forced Labor puts the number of slaves worldwide at 12.3 million. The organization’s 2012 update increases the number to 20.9 million people.
Ending Slavery: How We Free Today’s Slaves is published. Written by Free the Slaves co-founder Kevin Bales, it is the first plan for the global eradication of modern slavery, estimating the total cost of worldwide abolition at $10.8 billion over 25 years. President Bill Clinton highlights the plan at the Clinton Global Initiative. The book receives the 2011 University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order.
Free the Slaves publishes Slavery, featuring images of slaves and survivors taken by humanitarian photographer Lisa Kristine and a foreword by South African Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu.
Kristine receives a 2013 Humanitarian Photographer of the Year Award from the Lucie foundation based in large part on her work with Free the Slaves.
California enacts the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act, requiring major manufacturing and retail firms to publicly disclose what efforts, if any, they are taking to eliminate forced labor and human trafficking from their product supply chains.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission passes the Conflict Minerals Rule, requiring major publicly-held corporations to disclose if their products contain certain metals mined in the eastern Congo or an adjoining country and if payment for these minerals supports armed conflict in the region. The rule was required as part of the 2010 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. Free the Slaves has documented that slavery is widespread at mining sites covered by this corporate disclosure
A research consortium including the U.N. International Labor Organization, the group Walk Free, and the U.N. International Organization for Migration release a combined global study indicating that 40 million people are trapped in modern forms of slavery worldwide: 50 percent in forced labor in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, mining, fishing and other physical-labor industries; 12.5 percent in sex slavery, and 37.5 percent in forced marriage slavery.
Many historical timeline entries are adapted from New Slavery: A Reference Handbook by Kevin Bales, Second Edition, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004, pp. 55-68.
School of thought
Changes to the institution of a country’s economy, specifically labour, leads to changes in its laws and policies. This is to regulate and prevent the potential infringement of human rights that the production process of a certain good in all markets.
For example, in 2011, the California Transparency in Supply Chains Act required major manufacturing and retail firms to publicly disclose their step to prevent and stop forced labour and human trafficking in their production process. The following year, the Conflict Minerals Rule required major publicly-held corporations to disclose if their products contained metals from regions with mining sites that utilized bonded or forced labour.
Human Trafficking Today:
Around 161 countries across the world have made slavery and human trafficking illegal, however slavery is still prevalent in those countries. Some forms of this modern-day slavery include bonded labour which is one of the main forms across South Asia, , whereby generations of families in manual labour are bonded in extremely mismanaged and risky circumstances without any means of escape from this life. Typically this vicious cycle begins with a loan from a landlord or business owner for a sum of
money for marriage dowry or other expenses. Another form is domestic servitude, where young women and teenage girls work as maids – this can quickly escalate to include physical and sexual abuse. Lastly, sex trafficking claims many victims as traffickers ensnare individuals by bonding them to work in the sex industry to pay for their expenses
In 2013, the humble state of Atlanta bore witness to the birth of a movement that fights for the freedom of 40+million men, women, and children who are victims of modern-day slavery and human trafficking all across the world. The #EndItMovement is a coalition of like-minded organisations that work at the grass-roots level to tackle this issue and connects people and brings awareness and attention to each member organization that battles slavery ; whether it be through much-needed donations and funding
to help efforts at the grass-roots level or joining these organizations as an activist.
Forces for change
Proximity (trade between cultures/diffusion of ideals/practices)
The diffusion of various practices and values from various cultures occurred alongside the spice trade as colonizers brought Western ideals in terms of economic growth shifting traditional self-sustaining economies to focus on single-crop plantations that required more labour to work the land – resulting in indentured labourers and bonded labour.
The Japanese comfort stations were a result of the diffusion of the practice of military brothels set up by Nazi Germany during the WWII era.
This practice diffused across cultures since it was believed to help the soldiers with their sexual needs and “boost their morale” so as to increase the chances of victory. These comfort women were typically Chinese and Korean women who were deceived into entering this industry.
Forces for change
Technology (Innovation calls for more labour)
Ancient Chinese innovations in agriculture such as ploughs and irrigation systems allowed for increased economic productivity however this increase could only be fully exploited with an increase in labour – however it occured on a small scale since most farm owners owned a few plots of land which in turn only required less manpower to work the land, but this manpower consisted of slaves, nonetheless.
The Industrial Revolution became a pivoting factor in perpetuating the slave trade to a much larger scale. The upsurge of innovation lead to a drastic increase for many raw materials such as tin ore and rubber. This became the motive for many colonizers to employ the use of slaves to extract these raw materials, reducing production costs since their wages were little to nothing while reinforcing their dominance over the colonized. The race of Western powers to conquer most of Asia to acquire these
raw materials (and dominate the global economy) also allowed for slaves to be transported to various countries.
Forces for change
Populace is Ready for Change (Laws/Bans being passed)
We can see that the populace in Iraq were ready for change during the Zanj Rebellion. 500,00 slaves from all over the Muslim empire, rose up against the ill-treatment and mental torture they underwent whilst labouring in the agriculture as part of the plantation economy in Basra. These slaves banded together to fight for their rights as humans and to put an end to their mistreatment – however, their efforts fell on deaf ears as the government at the time quickly put a stop to their rebellion.
This sentiment resurfaced in the year 1949 when The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was passed. This law started a wave of bans on human trafficking and slavery on a global scale such as The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child and many other legislations. This is proof that the populace at the time and even today, are willing and ready to combat slavery and ban it in all its forms.
Forces against change
Expense of Change (Loss of Manpower)
The loss of manpower and potential loss in economic growth during the Industrial Revolution was an expense of change that many colonial powers were not willing to take. For example, Britain’s passing of the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 included a clause that allowed Indian workers under the East India Company to be used for colonial markets. This clearly shows the attitude of British government at the time, that was willing to abolish slavery in their own country but allows for it to continue in order
to generate revenue.
Forces against change
Traditional Values and Status Quo (Patriarchal values, Castes/social hierarchies, Ethnic cleansing)
Traditional patriarchal values were very much a part of the culture in many Asian countries, such as Vietnam, where women were prized and preyed upon; subjecting them to mere tools for sexual pleasure and child-bearing. This degradation of women that is interwoven into the traditional beliefs of the society then allowed for sex slaves to be sold in the black market just like any other commodity.
Caste systems were also a strong basis for a society to accept the practice of slavery, since they believed that people of a lower caste were unclean or deserving of the misery and torture they received and thus were subjected to enter slavery. In other countries such as Afghanistan and China, the common-held belief in ethnic cleansing became the foundation for the enslavement of other minority groups amongst their midst such as the Hazaras and Chinese Muslims who tainted the cultural fabric of their
nation and as punishment, became slaves.
Forces against change
Alienation (Difference of race/caste – Conformity)
Through the alienation of different groups of people (prisoners of wars, ethnic minorities, people of lower castes) the slave-masters/owners are able to make their victims conform to the discrimination they receive because this alienation makes them view themselves as the “other”; insinuating that there is something abnormal and unnatural with them and because of that they deserve the ill-treatment they receive. This keeps the slaves and victims of this practice compliant and docile since they are
helpless; their self-esteem and rational torn to shreds at this point.
Collective Behaviour – Value Added Theory:
Society is structurally conducive to the occurrence of collective behavior
Economic progress: Slaves were hired in droves to provide manpower to increase productivity on farms, in factories, mines and other places of work. This increase in labour allowed for workers to communicate amongst each other and share their troubles or experiences and even band together to rebel against their slave-masters.
War: War created large numbers of prisoners from other countries allowing for these people to join forces and interact with one another, seeing as they were from the same cultural background and often spoke the same language. This created cliques in labour or concentration camps where slaves would look out for each other with the small liberties they had.
Social media: Social media proves to be a platform for people to interact and lend their support towards a particular movement. The #enditmovement gained traction on Twitter, creating awareness among many Netizens thus sparking dialogue.
Structural strain – problem in society that is the cause of frustration and anger
Human trafficking and modern-day slavery: Although many laws have been put into place to prevent this issue, the authorities fail to prevent and curb this problem, leaving many to question why this issue has been a part of our society since the dawn of civilization. The challenge of human trafficking in India is immense, with all forms of modern slavery present, especially inter-generational bonded labour, trafficking for sexual exploitation, and forced marriage.
Failure to enforce the law: The staggering fact is that only 40% of countries reported having 10 or more annual convictions of slavery and human trafficking, the UN reports, which isn’t in line with the evident rising number of victims of these trades. Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia and Singapore have failed to be pragmatic in their approach to tackle this issue, which has been highlighted in the 2014 Global Slavery Index. Thailand and Indonesia are no exception in the sense that their efforts are only
bound to pen and paper with little to no enforcement of the law causing human trafficking and slavery to persist in these countries.
Generalized belief of what is wrong and what could be done
The treatment of slaves as tools the slave-owner can utilize to meet their desired end result is wrong as it degrades them to being mere objects instead of viewing them as humans. Force and threat are often employed to coerce these victims into obeying orders and instructions. Often times this is all fuelled by one’s prejudice towards a certain ethnic minority and misogyny. Children are not exempted from this torture as child abuse is often a feature of this form labour.
People need to be aware of these practices since most of them operate underground. This awareness can allow for resources and funds to be allocated to the organizations that work at the grass-roots level to help victims escape the trade.
Precipitating factor – sparks collective behavior
The slave trade was a commonly accepted practice until the 18th century, when the age of Enlightenment caused rationalist thinkers to question and ponder the rights of an individual. It was at this time that ideas centering around God, morals, humanity and reason came to the forefront of development in the arts, humanities and politics. By the late 18th century, people agreed on the brute nature of the slave industry due to its lack of respect for the rights of a person and un-Christian qualities.
This eventually lead to abolitionist movements that gained favour with the peoples.
Mobilization of action- the spread of, and direction the movement takes
Social media : #ENDITMOVEMENT dominated social media on all major platforms, namely Twitter, Instagram and Facebook, when it gained an astonishing 324 million social media impressions after a hugely-successful one day campaign, named ‘Shine a Light on Slavery’ Day. The viral campaign was led by celebrities and influencers drawing red X’s on the back of their hands, prompting many to follow suit.
Change of policies and sparking dialogue in the judiciary level :
The 5th ‘Shine a Light on Slavery’ day, organized by END IT Movement spurred U.S Senator Bob Corker to convene a hearing to examine the nation’s advancement in regards to ending modern slavery and human trafficking on an international level. Actor Ashton Kutcher’s (co -founder of Thorn) testimony was highlighted in this hearing, in the hopes of bringing much needed attention to this pressing matter.
Lack of social control – behaviour is likely if people taking part do not expect to be arrested, hurt, or punished
It is illegal by the law, therefore supporters of this movement are in no way going against the law, but instead are helping to enforce i :
1949 — The Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others was passed and still stands today as the foundation for many international laws against human trafficking.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons was passed as part of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, by the U.N. This is the first legally binding agreement with an agreed-upon guideline on what constitutes as trafficking in persons – on an international level.
Prediction of the future and recommendations for the movement: include change theories and factors for and against that you think will have an impact on its future success or failure (be creative)
Change Theory – Impacts on its future success
Challenge and Response
The dysfunction in the legal system (being unable to effectively enforce human-trafficking laws) has caused solidarity amongst the people.
This solidarity takes the form of movements and organizations who fight for anti-slavery; establishing protection programmes and empowering victims.
This also creates a sense of stability as this mass of people who fight for this cause put pressure on governments and international regulatory bodies to take action and push for more measures to prevent human-trafficking on a national and global scale.
The challenge of modern-day slavery and human trafficking has incited responses from both governments and NGOs.
Governments all over the world have responded to this challenge by passing laws that make slavery and human trafficking illegal in every country in the world – however, this legislation only makes its mark on paper and has no real-world effects due to poor enforcement and attention given by governments.
This lack of attention poses a different yet critical challenge – one that the #EndIt movement has chosen to address by creating awareness and therefore putting pressure on these governments while placing resources and funding to the NGOs that help fight this practice right in the heart of the problem.
This response from NGOs has a positive impact and will potentially serve to be the driving factor in the fight to end modern-day slavery.
Factors that promote this movement
Anti-slavery efforts that are based in Sri Lanka, will spread to India through diffusion of information thus influencing their policies and will serve as inspiration for other organizations in India to continue their efforts. This will create a domino effect wherein there is a spread of ideas within different cultures.
Social Media and Telecommunication
Hotlines are available to allow victims of slavery and human trafficking to reach out and seek help. Due to movements’ outreach on social media, many people around the world are aware of this problem and become active participants in the fight to prevent human trafficking.
Factors that hinder this movement
Expense of Change
Governments would need to allocate a large amount of resources to thoroughly since they may assume that more pressing matters need to be addressed in the nation (healthcare, education, economy).
The expense to shift all those resources into battling this deep web of crime and torture is quite significant and might pose to be a burden some governments are not willing to take.
The alienation of human-trafficking victims by their captors/owners forces them to live a life apart from society – leaving them to feel helpless and unable to reach out for help since they often do not have the opportunity to interact with the outside world.
This alienation serves to further entrap these victims in their bonded labour, rendering them unable to get out of their bond/contract.