What can you tell about the past/origin of a concept of sustainability?
Sustainability and sustainable development are two words that coincide with each other or have the same meaning. It stands for meeting the needs of present generation without harming the abilities of future generations to meet their needs. In simple words it means that having a better quality of life for present and future generations. Sustainability seems to preserve and protect the natural environment, human and ecological health, without compromising the way of life and making it innovative.
History has countless examples of where the civilization has damaged its own chances of survival and environment. Sustainability helps us to know how to live in consonance with the natural environment and protecting it from any damages. Sustainability is not just about the environment it is also about the health of civilization and longer-term effects of it on the actions of humanity and how to improve environmental legislation.
Now we are living age of urban development where we use natural resources on the daily basis. We consume more than average powers, than the rural areas for keeping streets and building lit, to power the appliances, heating and other public and household power requirements. It is estimated that we use 40% of the daily resources every year and it would be wrong to say that urban civilization uses the most of these resources, but it could be made better. The need of time is sustainability and sustainable development to focus on balance that creates a fine line between competing needs. The competing needs could be the need to move forward technologically and economically, and the need to protect the environment from any damage in which we live.
Since 1987, Finland is making efforts to make more sustainable development. Government, private sector, interest group and NGO’s, scientific groups, education system and media has promoted and adopted sustainable development as a goal of cooperation between government and these organizations.
After one year of the 1992 UN conference on the Environment and Development held in Rio De Janeiro, Finland was among the first countries to develop National Commission on Sustainable Development. FNCSD is totally based on the institutional learning where several societal actors take part in the implementation of sustainable development. One of the main concerns of Finland after 1992 Rio conference is to integrate three dimensions of sustainable development which are:
• Aim to link economic prosperity
• Social justice
• To mutually reinforce a good state of environment
Various programs have been implemented by Finland on the Sustainable Development since the mid of 1990s. These programs have led to the adoption of National Strategy of Sustainable Development 2006. This strategy is to be evaluated after every two years. Also, it is linked to European’s assessment process. In this way the Finnish National Commission will report to the government on the results of evaluation made.
What are the principles of sustainability and sustainable development? Main ideas, aspects?
There are 3 aspects of sustainable development which are stated below:
• Social – This has many sides. This aspect most importantly deals with the awareness and laws regarding protection of health of people mainly from pollution, harmful activities of businesses and other organizations. It leads to the strong checks on the laws for protecting the health and wellness of people in countries. The last and final element of social development is education. It means that giving proper education and awareness to people to participate in environment stability and educating them about the effects of environmental protection.
• Economic Development – It deals with creating an economic value of the project and decisions you are making. According to economic stability decisions should be made based on equitable and sound way considering all the other aspects of sustainability. It also provides incentives for business and organizations to stick to the sustainable development guidelines more than the basic law requirements. Without comprising the quality of life economic development is giving people all their needs. In this way the financial burden will be reduced in this developing world.
• Environmental Development – In an environment which is totally sustainable, there is an ecosystem which totally maintains population and biodiversity and promote equilibrium over an extended time. Some ways by which environment could be protected are recycling, reducing the power consumption, walk by the short journeys instead of moving in vehicles. Factories businesses can keep the environment clean by keeping their carbon emission low. The environmental development focuses on the study and protection of ecosystems mainly.
What is sustainability and sustainable development in tourism context? Give examples in tourism context?
In simple words sustainable tourism is the one that creates a balance between all the above-mentioned aspects of sustainability i.e. social, economic and environmental development. It helps to conserve biodiversity at maximum. It contributes to generating income, employment and conservation of local ecosystems and minimizing the impact on the environment and local culture such that it is preserved for future generations.
Sustainable tourism increases the positivity of tourism to the conservation of biodiversity. Thus, it reduces poverty and leads to the achievement of goals of sustainable development. For habitat protection, crucial economics incentives are provided by sustainable tourism. In this way the revenues generated from the sustainable tourism could be used for the nature conservation or capacity building programs. For example, Werfenweng is a gentle mobility community in Austria. It preserves its environment by generating an idea of gentle mobility which means having a car free vacation and still being mobile. It offers sustainable mobility at all the levels of vacation; ELOIS and ecofriendly cars, train connections to local mobility by means of electric vehicles and horse drawn carriages. From 1995 to 2013 this type of sustainable mobility is increased from 6% to 25% in Austria. It preserves the nature which is a priceless commodity.
According to UN world tourism organization sustainable tourism is defined as the tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and hosts a gateway for the protecting and enhancing opportunities for future. It can be considered as an ethic which considers all the activities of tourism. It is an important aspect of all the tourism development. The main objective of sustainable tourism is to create economic and social advantages in the tourism development and reducing the unnecessary damages or impacts on the natural, cultural and historic environment. If sustainable tourism impacts like sociocultural or environmental are neither permanent nor irreversible.