Vascular dementia is the wide term for dementia related with issues of dissemination of blood to the brain.
Multi-infarct dementia is likely the most well-known type of Vascular dementia. Multi-infarct dementia is caused by various strokes, frequently with side effects that grow continuously over some stretch of time. The strokes may harm the cortex of the brain, the zone related with learning, memory and dialect.
Multi-infarct dementia (MID) is a typical reason for memory misfortune in the elderly. MID is caused by various strokes (interruption of blood stream to the brain). Disturbance of blood stream prompts harmed cerebrum tissue. A portion of these strokes may happen without perceptible clinical manifestations. Specialists allude to these as “silent strokes.” An individual having a silent stroke may not know it is occurring, yet after some time, as more zones of the cerebrum are harmed and as more small blood vessels are hindered, the side effects of MID start to show up. MID can be diagnosed by a MRI or CT scan of the brain, alongside a neurological examination. Side effects incorporate disarray or issues with short term memory, wandering or losing all sense of direction in familiar places, strolling with fast rearranging steps, losing bladder or bowel control, giggling or crying inappropriately and experiencing difficulties in following instructions.
Behavioural symptoms associated with multi-infarct dementia on the person suffering from it and on their carers and family can include:
• Wandering or getting lost in familiar surroundings;
• Laughing or crying inappropriately;
• Moving with rapid, shuffling steps;
• Difficulty following instructions;
• Loss of bladder or bowel control;
• Problems handling money;
• Physical aggression.
Psychological symptoms associated with multi-infarct dementia on the person suffering from it and on their carers and family can include:
• Memory loss;
• Repetitive behaviour;
• Mood disturbance (e.g. depression);
• Social inappropriateness;
• Psychosis, which may include delusions (false beliefs) and hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not actually there);
• Sleep disturbance.
Strategies to resolve or manage any potential impact MID symptoms will have on the person with dementia and in particular on their family, carers and significant others.
Behavioural and psychological symptoms can often be quite difficult to cope with for carers and family members of people with dementia.
Carers and family members should discuss with the doctor of the person their caring for ways in which they can best help manage these symptoms. Some simple strategies they could use include:
• maintaining a familiar environment;
• large face clocks, calendars and signs to improve orientation;
• providing pleasant stimulating activities;
• encouraging exercise and group activities;
• following set routines for daily tasks;
• Providing a calm clear explanation about any changes to the routine and
• Making the home safe by setting up a room on one floor so that the person with dementia does not have to climb stairs, moving throw rugs and furniture that could cause falls, making sure lighting is good and putting grab bars and seats in tubs and showers.
Family members and friends can also help someone with multi-infarct dementia cope with mental and physical problems by encouraging individuals to maintain their daily routines and regular social and physical activities. By talking with them about events and daily experiences, family members can help their loved ones use their mental abilities as much as possible. Some families may find it helpful to use reminders such as lists, alarm clocks, and calendars to help their loved ones remember important times and dates.
Carers and family members of a person with multi-infarct dementia should ensure that the person with MID sees their primary care doctor regularly. Health problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and heart disease should be carefully monitored. If a person has additional medical conditions, such as depression, mental health experts may be consulted as well. If a person with dementia is found to have depression, antidepressant medicines can be effective.
Other medicines may be helpful for symptoms such as agitation and aggression or for psychotic symptoms, but these need to be used with caution because of side effects. They are therefore usually only used in severe cases, when immediate treatment is needed or when other attempts at management have failed.
Participating in activities can help to prevent frustration, boredom and challenging behaviours. Activities can help the person maintain independence in and around the home, help maintain skills, improve self-esteem, feel useful, helpful and needed, improve the quality of life for the person with dementia and their carer will also benefit, provide relaxation and comfort, often compensate for lost abilities, allow the person to express his or her feelings, through art, music, singing and dance, bring pleasure to both the person and the carer as they share these moments together, provide social contact through social activities and outings, keeping the person and their carer in touch with family and friends.
Some activities which may enhance self-esteem and pleasure in the person’s life and that may assist the family in helping their family member who has dementia may include:
• House work,
• Music and dance,
• Watching TV,
• Games such as dominos, card games and puzzles,
• Find a word books,
• Reminiscence and looking at family photo albums,
• Arts and craft,
• Restoring furniture,
• Knitting, sewing and embroidery,
• Going for walks or swimming,
• Light exercise,
• Going out for a coffee or a meal,
• Going to museums,
• Going to the theatre or cinema,
• Going for a drive,
• Visiting family and friends,
• Hand, neck or back message or a manicure or pedicure,
• Creating a memory box and regularly looking through it and discussing it,
• Creating a life story book and regularly looking through it and reminiscing about the past.