UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
EXAMINING CIVIL WAR IN SOUTH SUDAN
Name of student: S. Majeng
Student number: 2017234531
Module: POLS 1524
Lecturer: Dr A Botha
Due date: 17 September 2018
I declare that the enclosed assignment is my own work, that I have acknowledged all my sources, and that I have not lent out my work to a fellow student
_S. Majeng________________ __17 September 2018____________
TOC o “1-3” h z u INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc524791097 h 3CONCEPTUAL ORIENTATION PAGEREF _Toc524791098 h 3CURSE FROM GOD PAGEREF _Toc524791099 h 4SOUTH SUDAN’S CLEAR HISTORICAL PREFACE OF THE WARFARE PAGEREF _Toc524791100 h 5DYNAMIC GROUPS IN THE BATTLE AFTER THE SEPARATION OF THE SPLA IN AUGUST 1991 PAGEREF _Toc524791101 h 6REPRESENTATION THAT ETHNICITY OCCUPIED IN THE WAR OF SOUTH SUDAN PAGEREF _Toc524791102 h 7PART ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES PLAYED IN SOUTH SUDAN PAGEREF _Toc524791103 h 8MODEL THAT DR JOHN GARANG PRESENTED IN 1994 AND RECEIVED MOST SUPPORT AT THE END PAGEREF _Toc524791104 h 9START OF THE CRISIS IN 2013 PAGEREF _Toc524791105 h 10WHERE CIVILIANS GOT ARMS FROM AND ACT ON THE FRAGMENT OF THE UNITED STATES PAGEREF _Toc524791106 h 11CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc524791107 h 12BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGEREF _Toc524791108 h 13
The assignment is based on South Sudan. It clearly outlines the Civil War that had been happening in South Sudan and that is still happening. The assignment will firstly, cover the conceptual orientation whereby in this content the difficult words that will be encountered throughout the assignment they will be defined. Secondly, it will cover the paragraph highlighted in Hutchson’s “Curse from God”. Thirdly, it will give a historical introduction of the conflict in South Sudan. Therefore, the active groups/factions in the conflict since the spilt of the Sudan’s Liberation Army (SPLA) in august 1991 will be discussed.
Moreover, the role that ethnicity played in the conflict in South Sudan. It will also focus on the role that the access of natural resources played in the conflict in the South. The five model’s Dr John Garang presented in 1994 that received support at the end. It will also cover the paragraph highlighted in Johnson’s “The Crisis in South Sudan” in explaining the start of the crisis in 2013.Lastly, it will focus on where the civilians managed to get weapons from and actions on the part of the United States.
The sources that are used to conduct this assignment is the Academic books, Academic Journals, Academic articles, Newspaper, and the Internet.
CONCEPTUAL ORIENTATIONSouth Sudan is the non-costal country situated in the East central Africa, it attained its independence in 2011 making it the newest country with widespread recognition (Momanyi,2017:42).
According to Heywood (2011:247) civil war is a fortified war among politically planned groups within a state, usually fought either for control of the state or to establish a new state.
The Anyanya were the Southern revolt armies that pushed the initial Civil War (Arnold ; LeRiche,2012:25).
CURSE FROM GOD Western Upper Nile detected there are four important phases that the Sudan’s seventeen year long Civil War could be distinguished. The very beginning phase cover recent pre-war of the year 1981-1983, whereby in the Upper Nile the emerging group Neur secessionist revolutionists initially started to get ready. At first, they worked without any support and they came together as the Anyanya movement. The name Anyanya was taken from the Southern secessionist forces that battled the state during Sudan’s first Civil War (Hutchinson, 2001:309).
The following phase is from the period 1983-1991, this is when SPLA became known as a very strong fighting force of different races battling together with the Sudanese arm and different state-backed Northern and Southern rational guards together with anomic sections of the Anyanya II. One thing that the SPLA encountered is big military advances in contrast with the national government, in the very same period or moment (Hutchinson, 2001:309-310).
The third phase starts with Machar’s 1991 achievement and his signing of the formal peace agreement with the state in the year 1997. Military leaders and assailants started to shoot one another’s whole non-combatant society. This is when violence heightened South-on-south at this stage there was nothing that was done about the violence. The people who are in position to take advantage always did and never considered the prolonged the after effects (Hutchinson, 2001:310).
The last phase goes alongside the peace agreement of 1997 together with the contributing eruption of Inter-Nuer dispute were organized and irritated by the state of Sudan in hope to encourage taking quick advantages in anticipation of earliest oil reserves domains (Hutchinson, 2001:310).
SOUTH SUDAN’S CLEAR HISTORICAL PREFACE OF THE WARFAREIn July 2011, after two decades and a year, South Sudan finally obtained freedom. The year 1953 it is when Egypt and Britain opened institutions that promoted self-government in the South. Due to the disagreements that had been happening over the years and the terrifying threats of Arab taking over because of the recently made supervision established by Britain, an armed resistance sparked in a way of a low radiance Civil War. The armed resistance back then was conducted by members called the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement and its military force known as the Anyanya’s. The Civil War proceeded up to 1972 thereafter a peace agreement was effectively made (Skinner,2012:2).
The Addis Adaba agreement made sure of a high level of self-government it also made it undebatable that Islamic Law would not be effective in the South but would be used in the North as a result English would be endorsed as a language of the South. After the Addis Ababa Agreement ended the civil war among the Sudan’s government and the Sudan’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) started under the management of John Garang De Mobior (Skinner,2012:3).
DYNAMIC GROUPS IN THE BATTLE AFTER THE SEPARATION OF THE SPLA IN AUGUST 1991The SPLA grouped themselves into combatant groups, the rushing occasion was not a popular seizure made by Riek Machar, he was a Neur coming from the Upper Nile and other top status SPLA generals in contradiction of their commander in chief, Dr John Garang a Bor Dinka who has long been there. After declining, the SPLA’s declared a political plan, the rebellion leaders withdrew to start an independent unconventional program initially recognized as the ‘SPLA’ Nasir group under the banner of political liberation of the South. The Nasir group were not allowed to the high positions under the SPLA control. (Hutchinson,2001:307).
During the October and November months, the Neur armies formed an alliance with Machar and they went to Bor Dinka and killed civilians and displaced almost 70% of the Bor community and this later became known as the Bor Massacre. At the end the region was in a difficult situation of the south on south violence and surprisingly the south on south violence received so much support (Hutchinson,2001:308).
REPRESENTATION THAT ETHNICITY OCCUPIED IN THE WAR OF SOUTH SUDANThe planning of demilitarization campaign was very hard this was because of the ethnic separation in South Sudan. Soldiers were the ones who carried out the disarmament in the Lakes State in the year 2008.In proposition this can be a decent tactic because it eliminates worries over tribal acquaintances or ethnic assemblies, in preparation etymological complications and disbelief of others shown very challenging when carrying out a demilitarization development (Skinner,2012:11).
Moreover, the SPLA partaken in clashes in contradiction of military from the north, an obligation that needed harshly different aids and special treatment than civilian’s disarmament. They were supposed to partake in the Lakes State arms reduction because that’s where they were sent to participate (Skinner,2012:11)
PART ACCESS TO NATURAL RESOURCES PLAYED IN SOUTH SUDANClose upon five years, a disastrous Civil War began in the country United Nations. Security council introduced arms restriction on South Sudan, six other states did not participate in the elections of the United States. The regional tried to rejuvenate peace process of South Sudan, even though the united states prepared a verdict they managed to get the minimum nine votes that were needed (Al Jazeera,2018:1).
The year 2016 a verdict that was almost the same was delivered by the US to the UN security council but at that time the votes were not enough for it to be successful. After South Sudan gained independence in 2013 from Sudan, deputy president Riek Machar was accused by president Salva Kiir of planning to overthrow the president. As the years proceeded the fighting broaden with different groups being involved (Al Jazeera,2018:2).
A Month ago, president Kiir and deputy president Machar agreed on an everlasting peace agreement so that the country’s Civil War can end. The peace agreements were not abided to by the groups at war, the war in South Sudan made elections intolerable since the government and the antagonism strained to batter at facts of the peace deal. Thousands of individuals were murdered in Civil War and millions ran away from where they stay, triggering a philanthropic disaster (Al Jazeera,2018:2).South Sudan’s government, infuriated by Khartoum’s verdicts concerning the shipment and export of its oil through Sudan, and by border quarrels, put off oil production for over a year. The government lost profit because it depended on the crude oil production for profits, so since the country’s crude oil production has been cut the government has lost a lot because oil was the main resource that played a role in South Sudan (Al Jazeera,2018:3).
MODEL THAT DR JOHN GARANG PRESENTED IN 1994 AND RECEIVED MOST SUPPORT AT THE ENDGarang gave the vibrant statement of the SPLA/M’s plan at its initial nationwide resolution in 1994 importance of the five models for possible results of the warfare. The first model was a materialistic democratic Sudan. Secondly, a temporary coalition leading to a New Sudan. Thirdly, is the old Sudan conquered by Khartoum’s controlling regimes. Followed by, a United Black African Sudan. Lastly, Southern liberation through a referendum (Anorld & LeRiche,2012:35).
This flexibility started on working over a prolonged development made upon and held over the assurance of a concluding vote. Garang contended in the SPLM unbiased and fight for model. The Sudanese league begin either to the new Sudan model or to Separation model5 and hence adopting this strategy the SPLM/A keeps all its options open without losing anything (Anorld & LeRiche,2012:36-37).
Finally, Garang’s idea was then apprehended, his flexible outcomes of decisions that stress on the importance of unity, proved observant the birth of South Sudan opened over the CPA. There was a period of temporary league whereby noticeable selection of a New Sudan was then obtainable to the Southern Community in the form of the CPA. Specified assemblies of supremacy, a half self-directed Southern government protected by its personal military supplies for sacred and cultural autonomies and provisions for self-governing choices and reorganizations for the whole country. The definite enactment of the CPA that is, its protest of what a New Sudan might seem like was starting to lack and southerners therefore decide to part ways (Anorld;LeRiche,2012:40).
START OF THE CRISIS IN 2013By 16 December 2013, the president of the Republic of Sudan had already announced that he completely gave up the revolution struggle I the Capital Juba. In interviews made through the telephone Riek Machar did not agree to the fact that he was part of the revolution struggle, therefore he pleaded with the army to bring down Salva Kiir and he spoke about his strategy to walk with deliberation on Juba (Johnson,2012:1).
The revolutionary struggle started with a battle between the Neur and Dinka soldiers in the presidential guard at a gathering of the SPLM’s National Liberation Council (NIC)that Riek Machar and the suspected plotters had avoided to use. Even though the government of South Sudan has conserved the series of events they did not provide tangible evident to support what they are saying (Johnson,2012:2).
WHERE CIVILIANS GOT ARMS FROM AND ACT ON THE FRAGMENT OF THE UNITED STATESPeople who supplied the Civilians was the government and military during Civil War. Another supplier of the weapons in Sudan was the sale/leakage of weapons from the army to member of the public on an hoc foundation. The amalgamation of poor exercise and poor pay back to a stable source of weapons from the planned militaries has agreed to be a problematic, subsequent demilitarization movements, as it has remained unproven that the composed arms are frequently trickled back to the residents. It is significant to highlight that both South Sudan are provided with weapons by other countries. (Skinner,2012: 5).
UN comrade statistics which must not be regarded as a full reference of weapons shows information that between 1992 and 2005 almost 34 countries transferred SAWL to Sudan and almost 96 of these provisions were from Iran and China. Weapons flowed over the boundaries as provincial managements provided provision to whichever edges of the combatant revelries. An example, weapons were given to the SPLA by Uganda which then leaded Sudan to provide weapons to the Lord’s Resistance Army. (Skinner,2012:5)
Apart from national and international government providing of SAWL. Weapons also flew without difficulty among civilians over dangerous global borders either for the global purpose of selling or trading or because armed roaming groups travel through the border regions carrying their weapons. (Skinner,2012:5).
CONCLUSIONIn conclusion the reason South Sudan never had peace it’s because the two leaders wanted to be in power. The international community welcomed a peace agreement signed by the belligerent parties, but it did not end the conflict, political tensions among key South Sudanese leaders erupted in violence. The political dispute that triggered the crisis was not based on ethnic identity, but it overlapped with former ethnic and political complaints, flickering armed clashes and targeted ethnic killings. President Salva Kiir accused his former vice president, Riek Machar, of plotting a coup, a charge Machar continues to deny. Machar, with the support of several senior Nuer military commanders, subsequently declared a rebellion.
The warring parties occasionally recommitted themselves to a January 2014 termination of warfare deal, but repeatedly violated it. They agreed to form a transitional government but failed to agree on its arrangement and responsibilities. Only if the two leaders abided to the peace agreement there would not have been conflict in South Sudan.
After missing multiple deadlines set by regional leaders to sign a deal, and under threat of international sanctions, including a proposed arms embargo, the warring parties reached an agreement in August 2015. If the two leaders worked together and agreed on one decision that would suit the both there would not have been a conflict in South Sudan and there would not had been the cut of the oil revenue.
BIBLIOGRAPHYAl Jazeera & News Agencies,2018. UN Security Council Imposes arms Embargo on South Sudan. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/07/security-council-imposes-arms-embargo-south-sudan-180713160138771.html accessed 2018.07.13.
Heywood, A.2014.Global Politics.2nd ed. New York: Fifth Avenue.
Hutchinson, S.E.2001.A Curse from God? Religious and political dimension of the post 1991 Rise of ethnic violence in Sudan. The journal of Modern African Studies.39(2) pp.309-310.
Johnson, H.D. 2012. Briefing: The Crisis in South Sudan. African Affairs 117(468): pp. 1-2.
LeRiche, M. & Arnold, L.2012. South Sudan: From Revolution to Independence. 1st ed. New York: Madison.
Momayi, O.2017.With God in South Sudan.1st ed. California: Barkely.
Skinner, S.2012. Civil Disarmament in South Sudan: A Legacy of Struggle. Safeworld: pp.1-2.