University of Johannesburg
Department of Mining Engineering
Title page
Module name Mining Technical Services 2B
Module code MTSMNB2
Report title
Student name Talitha Collen
Student number 201602217
Due date 21/09/2018
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Abstract
This should be a short paragraph summarising the main contents of the report. It should include a short statement of the main task, the methods used, conclusions reached and any recommendations to be made. The abstract or summary should be concise, informative and independent of the report.
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Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Introduction PAGEREF _Toc525100006 h 11.1. Opencast mining method PAGEREF _Toc525100007 h 12.Basic theory PAGEREF _Toc525100008 h 32.1.Open pit mining method PAGEREF _Toc525100009 h 32.2.What is prescribed by the “guru’s”. PAGEREF _Toc525100010 h 31.2. Why to monitor? PAGEREF _Toc525100011 h 31.3. What to monitor? PAGEREF _Toc525100012 h 41.4. How to monitor PAGEREF _Toc525100013 h 51.5. How is the information used that is gathered and persons that are involved in monitoring? PAGEREF _Toc525100014 h 63.Application in the real world PAGEREF _Toc525100015 h 83.1.DMR Requirements. PAGEREF _Toc525100016 h 83.2.How is my mine’s Procedure structured and documented? PAGEREF _Toc525100017 h 83.3.Documentation as a part of a mandatary code of practice. PAGEREF _Toc525100018 h 93.4.What instruments are used and why? PAGEREF _Toc525100019 h 93.5.Procedures integration into the mining process. PAGEREF _Toc525100020 h 94.Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525100021 h 105.Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc525100022 h 116.Appendix 1 Title PAGEREF _Toc525100023 h 12

List of Tables
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1 PAGEREF _Toc455478713 h 1Table 2 PAGEREF _Toc455478714 h Error! Bookmark not defined.

List of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1 Description PAGEREF _Toc525100154 h 1Figure 2. Example of an open-pit mine (Senkhane, 2015) PAGEREF _Toc525100155 h 3Figure 3 – A large-scale slope failure at a porphyry copper mine in South America (Zaré, 2013). PAGEREF _Toc525100156 h 4Figure 4 – The typical geometry of an open pit mine slope design (Zaré, 2013). PAGEREF _Toc525100157 h 5
IntroductionOpencast mining methodFor this report I am going to investigate what is prescribed by the “gurus” for a surface mining operation namely open-pit mining. The requirements set out by the DMR is to combat rockfall accidents that occur in open-pit mines and achieve overall mine stability which is to be discussed in further detail. Rock engineering inputs in the mine layout design and pit slope failure programmes reduces chances of failure in open-pit mines.

This should give the context and scope of the report and should include your terms of reference. State your objectives clearly, define the limits of the report, outline the method of enquiry, give a brief general background to the subject of the report and indicate the proposed development.

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The next section of the report can be seen as the “Body” of the report, which covers the work done and what you found. It’s divided into topics which are arranged in a logical order with headings and sub-headings.

12583021141028Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Description00Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 Description125930515006Insert figures and add captions – Figure number and description
00Insert figures and add captions – Figure number and description

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1

Basic theoryOpen pit mining methodOpen pit mining is shortly described as the removal of overburden material to be able to expose the underlying mineral deposit, that occurring at a certain depth underneath the overburden layer, when the overburden and mineral deposit have been removed a large open pit is the result of mining activities such as drilling and blasting. Overburden materials that have been removed is used as backfill material as mining progresses which is required by legislation as rehabilitation of the area CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2. Example of an open-pit mine CITATION Mpi15 l 7177 (Senkhane, 2015)In Figure 1 benches and ramps can be seen which is used for machinery to travel in and out of the mine. Benches and ramps are properly designed to ensure stability throughout the mining operation to avoid failure which can cause injury to personnel and damage to machinery.

What is prescribed by the “guru’s”.Why to monitor?Monitoring is only used when there is a purpose for the monitoring in the form of being able to answer questions. Instruments used in monitoring must serve to answer these questions CITATION Ryd02 l 7177 (Ryder ; Jager, 2002).

Monitoring serves as a warning system which informs early on where there is a potential for instability. If the area of instability is recorded by means of monitoring, then the correct support can be applied to prevent failure from occurring or alternatively devise a plan to ensure minimum damage to people and equipment. Alternative plans to follow can include the removal of the material that is at risk of failing CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001).

According to Ryder ; Jager, (2002) there are four main reasons for conducting monitoring namely:
Before the start of a project the geological parameters are recorded. The geotechnical parameters that are recorded includes natural values and variations.

In the case of deformation, monitoring gives a warning to conditions that may cause damage to the health and safety of people or equipment during mining.

Monitoring confirms the validity of assumptions made and the confirmation of modelling that is used in design calculations.

Monitoring offers support and layout performance in a certain area of interest.

To sum up the list above monitoring is mainly used for safety, checking the response of the rock mass and to adjust designs or take remedial actions if required to do so. Monitoring allows the prediction of the behaviour of the rock mass to different mining scenarios.

What to monitor?Pit slope is monitored because it presents a hazard to the safety of personnel and damage to equipment. Pit slope can be monitored by assessing the probability of failure by the comparison of data for displacement and deformation to earlier data received to determine a pattern. For a small operation with a low possibility of pit slope failure it is suitable to use a visual monitoring record to be kept, but a larger operation with a pit slope that may be more susceptible to failure can be monitored by means of survey methods, installation of instrumentation, systems detecting seismic or micro-seismic activity or global positioning systems are used to carry out monitoring functions CITATION Sta01 l 7177 (Stacey, 2001).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 – A large-scale slope failure at a porphyry copper mine in South America CITATION Res18 l 7177 (Zaré, 2013).Figure 3 shows what a large-scale pit slope failure looks like which can occur because of geological setting, short and long-term precipitation which weakens strength between planes of weakness, factors affecting stability, geometry of the slope and damage to the pit slope caused by blasting CITATION Res18 l 7177 (Zaré, 2013).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 – The typical geometry of an open pit mine slope design CITATION Res18 l 7177 (Zaré, 2013).The pit slope geometry shown by figure 4 is the basic design that pit slopes are designed to. The angle at which the slope is designed is designed for slope stability. If the angle of a slope is increased the forces acting on the pit increases and may fail easier, thus steep slopes on an open pit mine is more susceptible to failure than flatter dipping pit slopes CITATION Res18 l 7177 (Zaré, 2013).

Stacey (2001) states that the reason why slopes in an open pit mine presents a hazard is because of large scale failure of the lope can cause injury or death to people in the pit, bench failures is a threat to all workers in the vicinity of the failure, localized failure leads to the bouncing of rock boulders into the pit and the failure of soil horizons may lead to mud flows or accumulation of mud in the bottom of the pit which can be a threat to safety of personnel.

Parameters that can be monitored can either be measured directly or derived indirectly. A Parameter that is derived directly is the movement across a fracture, slip or fault whereas an indirectly derived parameter includes seismic emissions CITATION Ryd02 l 7177 (Ryder ; Jager, 2002). The only responses measurable by current technology is displacement, deformation and pressure CITATION Ryd02 l 7177 (Ryder ; Jager, 2002). Jager ; Ryder, (2002) states that it is Prefered that the data gathered by monitoring of directly measurable parameters are used for comparisons and decision making rather than parameters that are calculated from a mathematical model.

How to monitorMonitoring of the pit slope is to be carried out on a regular basis in a routinely manner. A monthly monitoring frequency is acceptable unless the pit wall starts to show signs of instability. Sings that are looked out for are of a visual nature, like the widening or forming of tensile cracks, bulging of the slope face or toe, rock noise and ejection of rocks or bending of support elements CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001). When signs that the pit slope will fail are observed more frequent monitoring is advised and the use of instrumentation to carry out monitoring CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001).

There are different types of monitoring that can be used based on what type of monitoring suits the instability best. The types of monitoring to be discussed is visual, survey methods, installation of instrumentation, systems detecting seismic or micro-seismic activity or global positioning systems are used to carry out monitoring functions CITATION Sta01 l 7177 (Stacey, 2001).

Geodetic or prism monitoring is performed by surveyors and rock engineers. Prism Monitoring makes use of total stations and prisms. The observations obtained from prism monitoring is controlled by software. The total station is to be placed on a permanent position while prisms are placed on the points that are to be monitored as well as one or more stable points that are to be used as reference points CITATION Bro18 l 7177 (Brown, et al., n.d.). Surveyors maintain the theodolites and prisms used for monitoring while rock engineers analyse the data collected by surveyors CITATION Meg l 7177 (Little, n.d.).

Laser Monitoring is a method that is used when prisms have been lost due to damage or where they cannot be installed CITATION Meg l 7177 (Little, n.d.). Laser monitoring is done with laser scanners that are battery operated. The laser has a camera attached to the side of it and takes photos when scanning begins CITATION Meg l 7177 (Little, n.d.).
Visual monitoring is done through observations from experience CITATION van02 l 7177 (van der Merwe ; Madden, 2002), tension cracks can be observed and visually monitored by a person to judge the severity of the crack and whether more extensive monitoring can be applied.

Global Positioning systems (GPS) are used mostly to monitor deformation in an open pit mine. GPS monitoring requires the GPS to be placed at a stable position much like Prism monitoring. The receivers constantly measure code and phase range measurements to the satellites in view and the reference and monitoring receivers is used to calculate accurate positions CITATION Bro18 l 7177 (Brown, et al., n.d.). The GPS connects to satellites in the earth’s atmosphere and positions itself relative to a base station and this results in accurate monitoring. a base station is created relative to other survey beacons for accuracy of measurements. Survey beacons are placed strategically to monitor the stability of highwalls over a long term CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001). The data collected by the GPS is sent to the office and seen by the responsible people for analysis of the data.

Seismic monitoring systems monitor the frequency and amplitude readings in the rock mass and compares these readings to a template of previous readings to track seismic activity. Seismic activity in the rock mass exists because of changes brought on by the mining operation which imposes stress and strain on the rock mass CITATION van02 l 7177 (van der Merwe & Madden, 2002).

Photogrammetric surveys of the area of mining, backfilling and stockpiles are surveyed yearly at the end of a financial year and these surveys form part of the monitoring strategy by comparing surveys from the previous year to the current survey which allows the detection of deviations CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001)How is the information used that is gathered and persons that are involved in monitoring?The information gathered from monitoring in the form of observations and measurements are to be documented and thereafter interpreted to identify changes as compared to the previous data collected to establish trends or changes that occur over time in the rock mass CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.) and CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001).

The rock engineer or consultant also have solid input that can be used in terms of the best monitoring equipment that is to be used for the area showing signs of weakness, these persons offer good judgement, technical experience and support on how to monitor and secure the area effectively CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001). The mine geologist is the person responsible for keeping record of all observations and measurements. The mine geologist should compile findings in a month end report in which he comments on findings and suggests rectifying actions to take. The report is given to the rock engineer or consultants to analyse CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001)
The data collected by monitoring pegs that are installed for a tension crack is plotted on a displacement vs time graph to be able to determine at what rate the movement is occurring CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001). When data observed from monitoring equipment show that the rate of movement decreases then the slope has stabilized but only temporarily as movement can occur again later CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.).

Once the slope in an open pit mine starts showings signs of weakness trough data collected by monitoring systems in place and if some instabilities are not an immediate threat of failure then some remedial actions can be applied CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.). Remedial actions include:
Letting the material fail if the area where the movement has been monitored is non-critical. For the area to be allowed to fail the feasibility needs to be compared to the cost of the ore that is to be lost. Allowing a small-scale failure to occur safety measures are still to be considered for example increasing the width of catch benches or installing catch fences for containing failed material CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.).

Supporting the material that s at risk of failing in an area where the loss of ground if failure occurs is too great. Propper reinforcements are selected by a thorough study of the geological structures present. Material that can be used as support are rock bolts, wire mesh or shotcrete CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.).

When failure of the slope cannot be supported then another option is to remove the hazard. The removal of the hazard causing a risk of failure. This is done by flattening the slope through the removal of a top portion of the slope causing the slope to be at a lower angle. This method is not a successful option as failure still occurs afterward CITATION Jam l 7177 (Jami, et al., n.d.).

Application in the real worldDMR Requirements.According to the codebook of mines created by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) states in section 11 of the mine health and safety act (MHSA) that an employer must assess and respond to risk. The employer must assess risk to the health and safety of employees that they may be exposed to in the workplace where a risk is defined by section 102 of the MHSA as the likelihood that occupational injury or harm to employees or people can occur CITATION Dep17 l 7177 (Department of Mineral Resources, 2007). An employer must identify hazards to the health and safety of employees that they may be exposed to while they are working or at work where a hazard is defined by section 102 of the MHSA as the source of or exposure to danger CITATION Dep17 l 7177 (Department of Mineral Resources, 2007). After risks and hazards have been identified and assessed by the employer then they are recorded and should be made available to employees for inspection CITATION Dep17 l 7177 (Department of Mineral Resources, 2007).

The DMR aims to combat rockfall accidents in open-pit mines by setting requirements and rules to be followed. In an open-pit mine rolling rocks or pit slope failure takes place and is regarded as hazardous. Overall mine stability ensures safety of personnel and equipment against rockfalls that may cause damage or loss of life. To achieve overall mine stability the geotechnical environment and rock related hazards should be considered. Geotechnical environment deals with rock mass characterisation that is a requirement in the codebook of the DMR. Rock mass characterisation includes evaluation of rock mass strength to be able to identify rock mass stability and deformation monitoring which predicts beforehand where failure of the rock mass can occur and to know which support is required to support the rock mass before failure occurs CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001).

Rock mass characterisation serves the purpose of classifying a rock mass according to the mining rock mass rating system by the collection of geotechnical data through site investigations, geotechnical logging of borehole core, mapping of exposed rock surfaces and laboratory rock testing. The need for geotechnical data collected is shortly explained CITATION 1804 l 7177 (Chief inspector of mines, 2001):
Site investigations serves the purpose of supplying data for planning safe excavations.

Geotechnical logging gives valuable information of major structural features such as joints and faults. Geotechnical logging crates awareness of geological features to be able to plan accordingly as well as features of the rock mass.

Mapping of exposed rock surfaces exposes joints and if it is found that the joint characteristics will influence the excavation then further mapping is to be done. Joint mapping will give a certainty of the effect that joints will have on the excavation by assessing the data of the joint like the dip, orientation and distance between sets.

Laboratory rock testing gives a representative value of the rock mass strength which is used when designing a layout for a mine.

How is my mine’s Procedure structured and documented?Documentation as a part of a mandatary code of practice.What instruments are used and why?The system used for monitoring can have a sensor, transmitting system or read out or recording – unit. The instruments used for monitoring should be selected with critical requirements like reliability, simplicity and robustness in mind CITATION Ryd02 l 7177 (Ryder ; Jager, 2002). Requirements that need to be considered when deciding on which instrumentation to use is whether the instruments have adequate sensitivity, accuracy, minimal interference with mining operations and if data can be made available to the engineer immediately CITATION Ryd02 l 7177 (Ryder ; Jager, 2002).
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 – Example of a monitoring overview offered by monitoring equipment CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Figure 5 above indicates the use of the wide range of monitoring equipment that is available, and the steps followed to make up an effective monitoring system known as a workflow. The workflow includes collecting data, controlling data, the process followed for the collection and controlling of data to combine data into a visual report which is then sent to alert relevant persons.

Visual Monitoring can be carried out with Imaging. Imaging equipment advertised by Leica as a monitoring solution is the Leica GEOMos. This machine measures sensors on a schedule and has an imagery function that provides image-based information that can be used for documentation, Inspection and detection from a remote position CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). The function of imagery gives all necessary information to make fast and easy decisions based on data received CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).
Survey Monitoring Uses Geodetic or prism monitoring where robotic total stations and prisms are used. The Leica Nova TM50 shown in figure 6 is promoted by Leica Geosystems as the robotic total station best used for effective monitoring of structures. This Instrument forms part of a monitoring solution because it can be integrated with Total stations, GNSS receivers and antennas, geotechnical sensors, software and IT communication infrastructuresCITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). This total station has a continuous operation and withstands rough use in harsh environments CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018) thus having a low interference on the mining operation. According to Leica Geosystems the Leica Nova TM50 can produce measurements up to an accuracy of half a second CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6 – Leica Nova TM50 used for prism monitoring CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Laser monitoring uses sensor monitoring equipment like the robotic total station as discussed above (Leica Nova TM50) and multi-stations. The Leica Nova MS60 is an example of a multi-station created by Leica. This instrument combines multiple measurement technologies in one instrument CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). This instrument is designed by Leica with the ability to adapt to any environment making it easy to use in mining operations. This Instrument scans points instantly and creates point clouds from measurements, which leads to a clear visualization of data measured CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). The data gathered from laser scanning can be viewed in all dimensions which assists in creating 3D models that are realistic and workable CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses a GNSS monitoring system uses specially designed software to connect measurement sensors effortlessly like the Leica M-Com series, smart antennas which is used for accurate positioning work shown in figure 7, receivers which allow connectivity of devices shown in figure 8. The GMX910 smart antenna from Leica streams data constantly to the responsible persons and can be integrated with many monitoring sensors and software. This device is updatable and upgradable CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018) thus having a low interference to mining operations. The Leica GM30 is used as a monitoring receiver. This receiver is made to withstand challenging environments and provides on displacements fast at an accuracy of 20Hz delivered in real time CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 – The Leica GNSS monitoring system smart antenna CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8 – Leica receiver used in the GNSS monitoring system CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Seismic activity can be monitored by a range of equipment like the multi-station used for laser monitoring (Leica Nova MS60), Robotic total station used for prism Monitoring (Leica Nova TM50) and GNSS Monitoring equipment discussed above (GMX910 smart antenna and Leica GM30 receiver) CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). The monitoring of seismic activity by these instruments are done by high accuracy scanning, imaging and angle and distance measurements CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018). Doing these measurements allows an accurate and detailed capturing of the natural surfaces, features and attributes CITATION Hex18 l 7177 (Leica Geosystems, 2018).

Rock mass displacements are measured by extensometers. There are multiple extensometers available. The different extensometers with their specs are found below in table
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 Extensometers and their specifications CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018).

Name Type Standard Range Least Reading Borehole Diameter Maximum Length
Single Point Rod Mechanical Up to 100 m 0.025 mm 35, 44, 51 and 64 mm 3 m
Multiple Point Rod Grouted Up to 300 mm nominal 0.025 mm ;76 mm 100 m
Snap Ring Up to 300 mm nominal 0.025 mm 38 mm to 76 mm 50 m
Hydraulic Up to 300 mm nominal 0.025 mm 38 mm to 102 100 m
Flexible Up to 300 mm nominal 0.025 mm Minimum of 50 mm 100 m
Retrievable 12.5 mm and 25 mm 0.1% F.S. 45 mm
(Anchor) or 25 mm (Transducer) 495 m
Crackmeters are used to measure changes in crack width like movement across surface cracks and joints. Figure 6 shows how an installed crackmeter looks. Crackmeters are installed by grouting, bolting or bonding two threaded anchors based on opposite sides of the crack and then attaching ends of the gage to the anchors CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9 – Example of a crackmeter installation CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018)The specifications for the model 4420 Crackmeter include the following CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018):
Standard ranges(mm)12.5, 25, 50, 100 and 150
Resolution (F.S.)0.025 %
Accuracy (F.S.)more or less 0.1 %
Nonlinearly (F.S.); 0.5 %
Temperature range (°C)-20 to +80
Lengths (mm)318, 343,397, 555 and 645 (transducer)
Diameter (mm)8 and 25 for shaft and coil respectively
Inclinometers are used to locate and monitor acceleration or deceleration of shear zones CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018). The control cable of an Inclinometer transmits a digital signal to the cable reel allowing communication in the interface CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018).

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10 – The digital inclinometer system CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018)Table 3 Gives necessary specifications of the different inclinometers available at Geokon, which is used to decide on which instruments suit the type of monitoring to occur.

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 – Inclinometers specifications CITATION GEO18 l 7177 (Geokon, 2018).

Name Model Standard Range
(°) Resolution
System
(mm) Total System Accuracy Temperature Range
(°C) Length x Diameter
(mm) Casing Size I.D.

(mm)
Digital inclinometer system (MEMS) GK-604D +/- 30 0.025 / 500 3 mm / 30 m 0 to +50 700 x 25
1200 x 25 48 to 89
Spiral Indicator 6005 360 0.1 – -20 to +65 686 x 51 59 to 89
Horizontal Inclinometer probe 6000 +/- 53 0.025 or 500 6 / 30 0 to +50 761 x 45 59 to 79
Addressable In-Place Inclinometer system 6150E +/- 15 0.001 0.41 -20 to +80 235 x 32 –
Procedures integration into the mining process.

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