UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA

A STUDY OF RF 433MHz MODULE PERFORMANCE FOR WSN APPLICATION.

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This report submitted in accordance with the requirement of the Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for the Bachelor of Electronic Engineering Technology (Telecommunications) with Honours.

By

NURUL HAZWANI BINTI MUKHTAR
B071410357
950201-02-5538

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
2017

DECLARATION

Hereby I declare, this paper is my original paper work, which is worked out by my own except as cited in references. All sources, references and literature used during elaboration of this work are properly cited and listed in complete references to the due source.

Signature: ……………………………………………………..

Name: Nurul Hazwani Binti Mukhtar

Date:

APPROVAL

This report is submitted to the Faculty of Engineering Technology of UTeM as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Electronics Engineering Technology (Telecommunication) with Honours. The member of the supervisory is as follow:

………………………………….

(Project Supervisor)

MOHD KHANAPIAH BIN MD NOR

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, wireless communication devices and systems have a huge impact on everyone. This project describes the performance of the 433MHz RF module for WSN applications. The system is built wirelessly where it can transmit and receive signals from DHT11 which is a temperature sensor and humidity. This 433MHz RF module is used to transmit and receive data from Arduino Pro, which is connected directly to the RF module and sensor modules. It also allows data packets to be moved remotely. There are other transmissions such as Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Bluetooth and others but the 433MHz RF module creates more flexibility in dealing with such problems. Therefore, the 433MHz RF module is selected to achieve the goal of the project as the RF module can handle the problem. Additionally, the transferred data will also be sent and received without any loss of data in the barrier or in line of sight. These projects should examine the distance and performance of the 433MHz RF module.

ABSTRAK

Pada masa kini, peranti dan sistem komunikasi tanpa wayar mempunyai impak yang sangat besar kepada semua orang. Projek ini menerangkan tentang prestasi modul RF 433MHz untuk aplikasi WSN. Sistem ini dibina secara wayarles dimana ianya boleh menghantar dan menerima isyarat dari DHT11 yang merupakan sensor suhu dan kelembapan. Modul RF 433MHz ini digunakan untuk menghantar dan menerima data dari Arduino Pro, yang disambungkan secara langsung dengan peranti modul RF dan sensor. Ia juga membenarkan paket data yang diperlukan untuk dipindahkan dengan jarak jauh. terdapat jugak penghantaran lain seperti Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Bluetooth dan lain-lain lagi tetapi modul 433MHz RF mencipta lebih banyak fleksibiliti dalam menangani masalah seperti ini. Oleh sebab itu, 433MHz RF modul dipilih untuk mencapai matlamat projek ini kerana modul RF dapat menangani masalah tersebut. Selain itu, data yang telah dipindahkan juga akan dihantar dan diterima tanpa ada sebarang kehilangan data di dalam halangan mahupun garis penglihatan. Projek-projek ini perlu mengkaji mengenai jarak dan prestasi modul RF 433MHz.

DEDICATION

To my beloved parents, thank you for the support, encouragement, and understanding from both of you, Mukhtar Bin Baharom and Rahmah Binti Yunus. This work is dedicated for them.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Thanks to Allah S.W.T for his blessing and mercy for giving me strength to complete my task that given in Final Year Project. However, it is impossible for me to complete this project without help and support from anybody. So, I would like to thank you for all of them.
I would like to express my deep gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Mohd Khanapiah Bin Nor for guiding me to complete this project. He was giving me necessary information regarding the project and a lot of inspiring ideas.
My appreciation also gives to my beloved parents, family members and friends who have been behind me throughout this project for the encouragement and supported from them. I really appreciate all their help and support while I’m completing this project.
Lastly, I would like to sincerely thank to Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for providing the facilities and equipment for me to complete my project.

TABLE OF CONTENT

DECLARATION
APPROVAL
ABSTRACT
ABSTRAK
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF ABBREVIATION, SYMBOLS AND NOMENCLATURES

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Project Background
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Work Scopes
1.5 Methodology
1.6 Report Structure

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Background Study
2.2 Related Research
2.3 Data Transmission using RF Module
2.4 Radio Frequency Range
2.5 Current Available Of Medium Transmission Data
2.6 Project Component Description
2.6.1 Arduino Pro
2.6.2 Working Principle of Arduino Pro
2.6.3 RFM69 (433MHz Module)
2.6.4 DHT11 Sensor
2.6.5 USB A to Micro-B
2.6.6 Beefy 3 FTDI
2.6.7 Connectors
2.6.7.1 Break Away Header Straight
2.6.7.2 Jumper Wires 6 Male to Female

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Software Design
3.2 Hardware Design
3.3 Analysis and Comparison of Data

REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Table of the frequency range and ITU band
Table 2.2: The comparison of the short range wireless communication

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Arduino Pro Board
Figure 2.2: The 433MHz RF module board
Figure 2.3: The sensor of temperature and humidity
Figure 2.4: The USB cable
Figure 2.5: The FTDI board
Figure 2.6: The header connection
Figure 2.7: The jumper wire
Figure 3.1: Flowchart of the data transmitting.
Figure 3.2: Flowchart of data receive and display the data.
Figure 3.3: The transmitter part.
Figure 3.4: The receiver part.
Figure 3.5: The connection of the 433MHz RF Modules with Arduino Pro.
Figure 3.6: The antenna placement on board.

LIST OF ABBREVIATION, SYMBOLS AND NOMENCLATURES

RF – Radio Frequency
Rx – Receive Signal
Tx – Transmitter Signal
V – Voltage

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
In the previous era, the technology application mostly using wire but now a wireless device has become common place. The wireless sensor network can be defined as an application that having no wires connection on that devices. In addition, to make the system easy to monitor from a distant location, the RF 433MHz module was used. So, this project give the idea for studying details about the RF 433MHz module performance for WSN application.
1.1 Project Background
Nowadays, using the wireless sensor network (WSN) technology to monitor the environment helps someone to solve the problems of deployment difficulty, high cost, and realized unmanned monitoring which is mostly used in factory, buildings, laboratory and house. This project is to study the range and performance of the RF 433MHz module for WSN application. RF 433MHz module are popular used in remote control system. This range also available to use in this area. There are two types of the RF module which is transmitter and receiver. From research, using RF 433MHz module, the data can get more accurately without any data losses with the range that given than compared to other transmission for wireless sensor network.
The range that can reach by this RF module are different between outside and inside area. For inside area, it can work for 50 meters through multiple walls with an antenna, while for the outside area, it will be able for hundreds of meters. Besides that, a microcontroller such as Arduino also used in this project. Arduino that available for this project is Arduino PRO which is it have 3.3V port that will be easier to connect directly to the types of RF 433MHz module that used in this project.
This project also will be studied the analysis of the data transmission by giving a few of distance between the transmitter and receiver of the RF 433MHz modules when located in the obstacles or line of sight area. Then, the data that are received will be displayed on the computer whether there are data losses or not.
1.2 Problem Statement
The problem that becoming as issues right now is there is a lot of ways to send data but the problem is about the range, cost, and data losses. So, for this situation, study the performance of RF 433MHz can overcome the problem for the WSN application.
1.3 Objectives
The objectives of this project is to understand the range and performance of RF 433MHz module. Moreover, exploration about the transmitting and receiving the data by using the RF 433MHz module.

1.4 Work Scope
The main work scope of this project is to make sure this project will achieve the objectives.
The main focus for this project:-
i. To study and understanding the range of RF 433MHz module.
ii. To transfer data by using RF 433MHz module.
1.5 Methodology
In this project, there are three part that need to follow. For the first part, it will be focused on the conducting the literature review and do some research more detail about the RF 433MHz module. Meanwhile, for the second part, after the software development process, the hardware development process will take over and including with the testing of the project. Last part, when the hardware and software complete their part, it will be followed by testing the performance and the operation of the project to make an analysis.
1.6 Report Structure
This part will be explain all the flow for completing this report and project. There are five chapters in this report.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This chapter will introduce the project background for this project, state the problems, clear about the objectives, scope of work, planned the methodology and structure of report to make it organized.

Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter will be explained more details about all the research that have been done. Then, summarization about the project also will be attached in this chapter to make it clearly.
Chapter 3: Methodology
The methodology is the explanation of the procedures or steps when doing this project. The simulation, analysis and evaluation for the project will be discussed in this chapter. The methodology is the most important part because the flow for the process will be discuss here.
Chapter 4: Expected Results
The expected results in the software or hardware will be stated in this chapter. The comparisons and improvements of this project will be describe here. Analysis of the project also will attached in this part.
Chapter 5: Conclusion
In this chapter, to make a conclusion for all the summary about this project was collected in each parts can be discussed in the conclusion.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction
Literature review is an important step before proceed to the project. Collecting all the required information about the 433MHz RF module from the books, journals and website. The literature review also can provide a useful information to complete the project. The idea for this project comes from the problem faced when the data that have been transmitted becomes losses with the range that provided. In this chapter it will be explained more details about the project and also the components that will be used in this project.
2.1 Background Study
The frequency of 433MHz that used in the wireless sensor network can test the sending and receiving the data for this range without any data losses. 433MHz RF modules required the 17cm of the antenna to support the range to send the data. Range is the one of the most important parameter of any wireless system which is it defined how the transmitter and receiver can be apart from each other to send the data. Range for the outside with few obstacles the data can go through hundreds meters. While for the indoor, the data can go over 50 meters through multiple walls. The external antenna will be soldering to the “ANT” on the transmitter to get more range which is 17cm of the length for the antenna that was used.

2.2 Related Research
Regarding to the several research that I have done from a few of journals that can related to my project. Wireless sensor networks are currently widely used in several of monitoring and control applications. Guohua Yang and Kui Zhang (2015) have conduct a project regarding to the 433MHz radio for long range communication. They present about the connectivity, range of the communication and packet loss ratio that have been performed in indoor and outdoor environment.
The Maarten Weyn and Glenn Ergeerts (2013) conducted the survey of the DASH7 Alliance Protocol for wireless sensor network (WSN). In this research, it stated that 433MHz is an unlicensed band. They said that, due to the frequency, it has a better propagation characteristic opposed to the higher frequency. The wavelength at the center of frequency is 69.14cm which is the bandwidth for the frequency is 1.84MHz. This limits the data rate of the communication at this frequency 433MHz is an ideal for low power of low data rate communication.
Budi Setiyono, Sumardi,and Rafdito Harisuryo (2015) have conducted a project on measurement system of temperature, humidity and air pressure over 433MHz radio frequency for an application on quadrotor. They using the telemetry system which is the measurement process of data at certain distance. Then, they stated that data will be process or analysed by the receiving station. They stated on their result which is for successful transmission, the amount of data that received will be same with the amount of data that have been sent.

2.3 Data transmission using RF modules
This project is to improve the data transmission with 433MHz RF modules either in obstacles or line of sight condition. The 433MHz RF modules is categorized as the lower cost, lower power consumption and the most important is when the longer the distance for data that transmit remains accurate when it received by the receiver. In theoretical, the successful of data transmission is the amount of data received will be same with the data that have been sent. That’s means there is no data losses when the transmission occurred.
2.4 Radio Frequency Range
Radio Frequency (RF) is a rate in range of around at 3 kHz to 300GHz which is corresponding to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating current that can carry the radio signals. ITU band stand for International Telecommunication Union that defined for the electromagnetic frequencies that used for radar and radio. The best set of terms for frequencies used in communication. While, the very lowest bands have no radar applications. The table below show the frequency range and ITU band.

Frequency range ITU band
3Hz-30 Hz ELF (Extremely Low Frequency)
30Hz to 300Hz SLF (Super Low Frequency)
300Hz to 3000Hz ULF (Ultra Low Frequency)
3kHz to 30kHz VLF (Very Low Frequency)
30kHz to 300kHz LF (Low Frequency; “long wave”)

300kHz to 3MHz MF (Medium Frequency; “medium wave”)

3MHz to 30MHz HF (High Frequency; “shortwave”)

30MHz to 300MHz VHF (Very High Frequency)
300MHz to 3GHz UHF (Ultra High Frequency)
3GHz to 30GHz SHF (Super High Frequency)
30GHz to 300 GHz EHF (Extremely High Frequency)

Table 2.1: Table of the frequency range and ITU band.
en.citizendium.org/wiki/ITU_frequency_bands

2.5 Current Available of Medium Transmission Data
In this part, there are several types of medium transmission data that available in wireless sensor network (WSN) which is WIFI, Zigbee, Bluetooth and others transmission. Here in table 2.2, the comparison of the short range wireless communication.
Wireless technology Frequency channel Range Power consumption Cost Speed
GPRS GSM General High High
Bluetooth 2.4GHz ?10m Low High 1Mbps
Wi-Fi 2.4GHz ?100m High High 11Mbps
Zigbee 2.4GHz
868MHz
915MHz ?100m Low Medium 250kbps
WiMedia 1?10.6GHz 3?10m High High 480Mbps
433MHz 433MHz ?500m Low Low 115kbps

Table 2.2: The comparison of the short range wireless communication.

The above of the table, it can conclude that wireless communication have the characteristics with their own based on the requirement for transmission speed, distance and the range.
2.6 Project Component Description
2.6.1 Arduino Pro
The Arduino Pro is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. This microcontroller is an open-source hardware and software. The version that used in this project is 3.3V/8MHz. This version can be powered with a battery or external power supply. It has 14 digital inputs and output pins which is 6 of it can be used as PWM output, another 6 pins for the analog input, battery power jack, an ICSP header and reset button. Arduino Pro needs to connect with FTDI cable through six pins header to provide the USB power and have a communication with the board. Arduino Pro has the port for 3.3V that can supply the voltage for the transceiver.
Each of the 14 digital pins on the Arduino Pro can be used as an input and output which is operate at 3.3V. Each of the pin can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA, and has internal pull-up resistor (disconnect by default) of 20 until 50 kohm. The ATmega328 has 32KB and running 8MHz of the external resonator. It also has 2KB of SRAM and 1KB of EEPROM that can read and written with the EEPROM library. That’s figure 2.1 is the Arduino Pro board.

Figure 2.1: Arduino Pro Board
2.6.2 Working Principle of Arduino Pro
The operation of the arduino microcontroller is based on the connection made on the pims. The application can be done by using the Arduino software where Arduino function can be edited according to the applications in this software. This software can work on by using the C or C++ language.
The program that have been create need to upload to the microcontroller by using the USB cable. If there are error detected on the program, it will be adjust by editing to make a correction on the process and then the program need to reload again. Other than that, there is another option which is using the reset button to delete all the previous program that have been upload before this to make it clear then built again.

In this board, there are pins with their functions such as:-
• Serial: 0 (RX) and 1(TX). They are used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. These pins are connected to the TX-0 and RX-1 pins on the six pins header.
• External interrupts: 2 and 3 which is these pins can trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge or a change in value.
• PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11 that provide 8-bit PWM output.
• SPI: 10(SS), 11(MOSI), 12(MISO), 13(SCK). These pins support the SPI communication.
• LED: There is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is ON, while when the pin is LOW, it is OFF.
• Reset: This line LOW to reset the microcontroller.
2.6.3 RFM69 (433MHz Modules)
In this project, the RFM69HCW which is 433MHz RF Module version that has been used. It is because can operates in the unlicensed ISM (Industry Science and Medicine) radio band. It’s available for using in the inexpensive area for a short range wireless networks of sensors. This types can operates on the 433MHz frequency and can capable of transmitting at up to 100mW and up to 300kbps. When increasing the transmit power and reducing the data rate it can maximize the range of the 433MHz.

Figure 2.2 the 433MHz RF module board
2.6.4 DHT11 Sensor
DHT11 is a digital temperature and humidity sensor. Its suitable with my project that only need to read the data about the temperature and humidity only.

Figure 2.3: The sensor of temperature and humidity
2.6.5 USB A to Micro-B
Micro-B is the smallest USB connector type. This type also used for the android as a cable for charging while USB port A is that can connecting with PC or laptop. This USB cable need to connect the RF transceiver module with the Arduino Pro at the transmitter and receiver.

Figure 2.4: The USB cable

2.6.6 “Beefy 3″ FTDI
Using this board because the standard FTDI board cannot supply the enough current to run the RFM69 433MHz RF Modules. The difference between standard FTDI and Beefy 3 FTDI are the current that can provide which is standard FTDI provide 50mA while Beefy 3 FTDI provides up to 500mA.

Figure 2.5: The FTDI board
https://cdn.sparkfun.com//assets/parts/1/1/2/7/6/13746-01.jpg
2.6.7 Connectors
Here the connectors that are using in this projects:

2.6.7.1 Break Away Headers-Straight

Figure 2.6: The header connection
2.6.7.2 Jumper Wires 6” M/F

Figure 2.7: The jumper wire

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This chapter will be discussed about the procedures and steps that used in this project. Each of the methods that were used to achieve this project will be stated and explain briefly. The purpose of the methodology is used to achieve the objective that have been stated.
3.1 Software Design
In this part, the software design is part to do the programming by using the Arduino software. The flow of the data transmission starting from the reading of the temperature and humidity by using the DHT11 sensor. Then, the data will be processed by a microcontroller. It will be sent through the transmission of data by using the 433MHz RF transmitter module. When, the power supply is turned on, the 433MHz RF receiver module and the microcontroller ready to accept the data that have been transmitted. After that, the data is sent by the Arduino microcontroller via a serial port to the computer for displayed the data. Based on the Figure 1 and Figure 2 it shown the flow how it works.

Figure 3.1: Flowchart of the data transmitting.

Figure 3.2: Flowchart of data receive and display the data.
3.2 Hardware Design
Hardware design consists of two parts which is from here it will be explained how the flow of the project will be complete. For the first part as shown in Figure 3.3 is the data obtain from the DHT11 sensor reading, then the data will be transmitted by the 433MHz RF transmitter modules. While, for the second part as shown in Figure 3.4 is the data received via 433MHz RF receiver modules then sent by the Arduino PRO that connected to a computer for displayed.

Figure 3.3: The transmitter part.

Figure 3.4: The receiver part.
According to the flow that has been shown above, here will be attached the connection for the clearer view about this project.

Figure 3.5: The connection of the 433MHz RF Modules with Arduino Pro.

Figure 3.6: The antenna placement on board.

3.3 Analysis and Comparison of Data
The generated data for this project should be the same with the theoretical results. Besides that, the results of this project will be compared with the theoretical results, the journals or book that have been found.

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