Unit 201 @ L3 Understand principles of safeguarding adults Rachel Foster
Outcome 1
Explain the term Safeguarding
“The SET Safeguarding adult guidelines” confirm that Safeguarding means protecting an adult’s right to live in safety, free from abuse and neglect. Safeguarding is about people and organisations working together to prevent and stop both the risks and experience of abuse or neglect, while at the same time making sure that the adult’s wellbeing is being promoted and has regard to their views, wishes, feelings and beliefs in deciding on any action.
1.2 Explain own role and responsibility’s in safeguarding individuals
You need to beware of any bruises, marks or injuries to your service users, and making sure they are being correctly looked after. It would be your responsibility if you felt there was a safeguarding issue with a service user to raise this issue with management.
Define the following terms
1.3a Physical Abuse
Deliberately hurting someone or causing pain or injuries
1.3b Domestic Abuse
Is controlling behaviour from one person to another. This could include physical, mental and sexual abuse. This could also be lack of basic needs, food, fresh water, heating, clothing and medical attention.

1.3c Sexual Abuse
When someone forces someone else to participate in or watch any form of sexual acts against their will.

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1.3d Emotional / Psychological Abuse
When you are making some feel bad and worthless about themselves by words and actions.

1.3e Financial/Material Abuse
When someone is using ;/or stealing other people’s money or things when they have no right to do so. Also not allowing that person access to their own funds. This may also involve fraudulently using funds.

1.3f Modern Slavery
Is people trafficking, forced labour and possible prostitution
1.3g Discriminatory Abuse
When you are treating someone badly due to the colour of their skin, their religion, their disability, their shape/size or their accent
1.3h Institutional Abuse
This is the misuse of authority by care staff to vulnerable people
1.3i Self-Neglect
Is when people stop eating or drinking, washing themselves or their hair or anything that involves looking after themselves, this can also include self-harm.
1.3j Neglect by others
This is when the service users are not having their basic human needs met. For example: not being feed or having regular drinks provided. Not being toileted or having pad changes so the service users are left soiled or wet. Not being washed or provided with clean clothes, fresh water or heating. Someone being giving to much or not enough medication.
1.4 Describe Harm
Harm can come in different forms
Self-Harm
Mental &/or Psychological Harm
Physical Harm
Self-harm is when people cause harm to themselves for example, not eating or drinking enough or eating and drinking too much. Cutting themselves. Drug / Alcohol misuse. Not taking their medication properly.
Mental Harm &/or Psychological Harm is when people are made to feel worthless by words and actions rather than actual bodily harm (i.e. Physical Assault). This can cause people to be troubled by comments no matter how big or small. Psychological Harm cannot be seen but can cause just as much problems if not more so than physical harm because people may not know that psychological harm is happening so do not notice someone is struggling.

Physical Harm is when you are physically hurt by someone else, pushed, kicked, punched, bitten, hair being pulled, burnt by people or objects, objects being thrown at you. It can be something that causes you pain and possible broken bones, cuts and bruises.
1.5 Describe Restrictive Practices
This can be physical restraints, medication or being put in seclusion. To use any of these practices it must be legal and ethical. It also must be absolutely necessary to prevent harm and must be the least restrictive one.

Outcome 2
Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each of the following types of abuse.
2.1a Physical Abuse
Someone might have broken bones, bite marks, burn marks bruises & cuts their behaviour may change.
2.1b Domestic Abuse
This may be physical harm, mental harm, sexual abuse & finical abuse the victim may become within drawn and not wish to be seen by friends or family.

2.1c Sexual Abuse
You may notice that someone struggles to form relationships and has low self-esteem. They may self-harm and they may have recurring Urine Tract infections.
2.1d Emotional/Psychological Abuse
You may notice that someone has low self- esteem & low confidence they may also seem more withdrawn than usual.
2.1e Financial/Material Abuse
You may notice that someone’s possessions have disappeared. They may lack trust in people and be showing some submissive behaviour. They may be unable to make informed decisions however someone may have recently taken over their power of attorney.
2.1f Modern Slavery
They may not have control of their own passport or documents and they may have documentation in someone else’s name. They may have little or no money and may not be in control of their earnings or finances. They may allow other people to speak for them and seem like they have been told what to say. They may have been hurt and deprived of food water and other basic needs
2.1g Discriminatory Abuse
They may be withdrawn and isolated, they may be fearful and anxious they may being refused access to services they need or may be excluded from things inappropriately. They may also refuse or resist services that meet their needs
2.1h Institutional / Organisational Abuse
They may lose self-esteem and confidence and they may seem submissive and lack control
2.1i Self –Neglect
They may have lost weight, look unkempt – dirty clothes unclean unwashed appearance. They have noticeable self-harm signs for example some cuts.

12.1j Neglected by others
They may have lost weight, look unkempt – dirty clothes unclean unwashed appearance. They have noticeable self-harm signs for example cuts. They may also seem submissive and withdrawn.

2.2 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse
Someone’s age example: they could be young children or the elderly.
Someone with mental health problems including anxiety ; depression.

Someone with physical disabilities example someone who may be frail, blind, deaf or in a wheel chair
Someone suffering stress due to bereavement, life issues, illness ; relationship problems
Someone with learning difficulties or a teen with a low maturity level
Sometimes Culture ; religion due to prejudice or discrimination
Outcome 3
3.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that individual is being abused
You must follow policy and procedure – Which is the SET Safeguarding Guidelines
If you suspect that someone is being abused you are to report your concerns to a line manager (unless you suspect that they may be involved in the abuse)
You must document all the information provided making sure you have the basic information including, names of alleged abuser and alleged victim, dates of alleged incident and locations. You must make sure the information is factual without using any assumptions. Avoid any leading questions. Date the paper work and if there are any witness you must include theirs and your name and signature. If there is any evidence then take photographs if this if it is possible.

Make sure you listen and support the individual at all times, with no judgement.
If you feel that the induvial is in need of urgent medical assistance then you must call for an ambulance or arrange for a doctor’s appointment to be made ASAP.

If you believe that the individual is in immediate risk of harm or that a crime has been committed than you must call the police.
You must complete a SAF 1 form ASAP but definitely no later than 2 working days after the concern was raised. The form must be sent to the relevant Social Care Team.

3.2 Explain the actions to take in an individual alleges that they are being abused
You must following the policies and procedures
Report the allegations to a line manager (unless you suspect that they may be involved in the abuse)
You must document all the information provided making sure you have the basic information including, names of alleged abuser and alleged victim, dates of alleged incident and locations. You must make sure the information is factual without using any assumptions. Avoid any leading questions. Date the paper work and if there are any witness you must include theirs and your name and signature. If there is any evidence then take photographs if this if it is possible.

Make sure you listen and support the individual at all times, with no judgement.
3.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved
Report it to a manager & call the police (if necessary) ASAP
Making accurate notes with just the facts and no judgement
If there is any evidence do not tamper with it and store it securely
Outcome 4
4.1 Identify relevant legislation, national policies and local system that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse
National Policies
Care Quality Commission (CQC)
Common Assessment Framework (CAF)
“Every Child Matters” (2003)
Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA)
Multi Agency Adult Protection Arrangements
“No Secrets” National Framework
“Safeguarding Adults National Policy Review
Safeguarding Adults Policy review (2009)
The Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS)
The National Vetting and Barring Scheme (VBS)
Local Policies
Employer/ Organisational Policies and procedures
Essex Safeguarding Boards
Local Area Agreements (LAAs)
Local Safeguarding Adults Boards (LSABs)
Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards (LSCBs)
SET Safegurding Adult Guildlines
Legislation
Care Act 2014
Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS)
Health and Social Care act 2008???
Mental Capacity Act 2004
Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006
The Data protection Act 1998
4.2 Explain the roles of different agencies in Safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse
Care Staff – They would be working with the individuals so would notice if there was any odd behaviour and may be the people that the individuals may confide in.

Management – This would be whom the care staff would speak to in the first instance if they suspected abuse or an individual alleges they are being abused.

Doctors/Nurses/Paramedics – May be called upon if an individual is in need of medical assistance. Doctors or Nurses may also be needed if the police require some medical checks to be performed following a sexual assault. They may also report a safeguarding if concerned for their patients
Police – Would investigate a possible alleged abuse
Social Workers – Would investigate any alleged abuse and attend any meeting required with the individuals
Mind/Age UK/NSPCC/ – Provides guidance, advice, support and raises awareness
Samaritans – Will listen to the individuals and provide support
4.3 Identify factors which have featured in reports into serious cases of abuse and neglect
Orchid View Southern Cross – Referencing to the Serious Crime Review June 2014 by West Sussex Adult Safeguarding Board
There was an inquests for 19 people in a 6 month period. 5 Died from natural causes attributed to by Neglect. 8 had suboptimal care but was found the death to be natural causes. Also potentially one induvial who suffered an overdose of warfarin.

The suboptimal care caused distress and poor care and discomfort to the residents and families of the people who were not part of the inquest.
The factors which featured are:
Unqualified Care Staff / Lack of Suitable Staffing
Not meeting nutrition needs
Lack of dignity and respect
Lack of safe management of medicines including – changing of medical records to cover up errors
Institutional Abuse
The Old Deanery Bocking – CQC placed in special measures due to whistleblowing. Also undercover reporting by BBC panorama programme.

The factors which featured in the report ;/or on the programme are:
Inadequate staffing levels
Lack of dignity and respect
Actual physical abuse
Individuals being Ignored
Individuals being Taunted
Cont. 4.3
Winterbourne View Hospital – Castlebeck Care – Referencing to South Gloucestershire Safeguarding Adult Board
The factors which feature:
Using restraints without the consideration of an alternative or untrained staff using restraints
Mistreatment of individuals
Assault to individuals from staff and Ignoring assault from Individual to Individual
Poor recruitment of staff
Unprofessional Practices and behaviour
Lack of compassion
Institutional Abuse
Verbal Abuse
Physical Abuse
Financial Abuse by family members
Management of Medication
Neglect
4.4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse, including whistleblowing
Policy/Procedure/Legislation
Management
NVQ Tutor
CQC website
The Care Act website
Essex Safeguarding Board website
Posters and leaflets

4.5 Identify when to seek support in a situation beyond your experience and expertise
I would always seek support if unsure about any situation I would speak to management or a senior member of staff.
You can also refer to the policy and procedures in the office.
Outcome 5
5.1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by:
5.1a Working with person centred values – Key person centred values include privacy, dignity, respect, independence, choice, Individuality. If you use these values and people make their own choices you will then be sure of what the individual likes and then this will assist you in recognising any abnormal physical or behaviour changes that could indicate some sort of harm ;/or abuse.

5.1b Encouraging active participation: – You can reduce vulnerability of the individual, by increasing self-esteem and self-confidence and encourage involvement of self-awareness. By assisting with these skills it also help them to avoid social isolation.

5.1c Promoting choice and rights – You can decrease the risk of abuse by assisting the individual to make their own choices and decisions. Helping to reduce vulnerability and social isolation by promoting independence and empowerment.

5.1d Supporting Individual with awareness of personal safety – By promoting awareness of personal safety to an individual they will be aware of what is and isn’t acceptable. For example teaching them it is ok to say “No” to someone when they are doing something that they don’t like. Also let them know its ok to tell people they trust something. For example if someone has said to them about keeping something a secret and they are not comfortable with it.
5.2 Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likely hood of abuse – By making sure the complaints procedure is easily accessible, transparent and understandable an individual may be more likely to challenge any unacceptable behaviour from a possible abuser. This may result in a possible abuser being less likely to abuse.
5.3 Outline how the likelihood of abuse can be reduced by managing risk and focusing on prevention- By encouraging self-directed care you will help the individual to be independent. Also by promoting empowerment and decreasing vulnerability this will also hopefully help reduce the likelihood of abuse.

Outcome 6
6.1 Describe unsafe practises that may affect the well-being of individuals
Neglect – Leaving someone soiled by not toileting them regularly.
Not providing adequate personal care
Lack of food ;/or Fluids
No providing the correct assistance if required with food ;/or fluids
Unsafe Recruitment Practices – Not getting a DBS for a new member of staff
Allowing a member of staff without a current DBS to work alone
Lack of appropriate training
Unsafe administration of Medication – Providing the incorrect dose to an individual
Providing the wrong medication to the wrong person
Allowing staff without training to administer medication
Inappropriate sharing of Information – Breaching Confidentiality
Inappropriate relationships – Being friends with service users or their families on social media

Moving ; Handling – By not using the correct hoists etc and going against the care plans. Not having
the correct amount of staff per individual.

6.2 Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified –
Refer the incident or person to management in person and in writing
Make yourself aware of your works whistle blowing policy
6.3 Describe the actions to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response

If you feel that your concerns have not been dealt with correctly, you can contact the police, social services or CQC
Outcome 7
Describe the potential risk presented by:
7.1a The use of electronic communication devices – These could be used for grooming and bullying. If you have peoples information on your device and you lose it or it gets stolen this could breach confidentiality and data protection.

7.1b The use if the internet – This can also be a place where individuals can be groomed or bullied. You don’t know if the people you think you are talking too are who they say they are. You may down load something that has a virus that will harm your computer.
7.1c The use of social networking sites – Over sharing information can cause a problem if an individual gives someone their full name and address. This could also cause a problem with bullying or grooming. The fact that whatever you put on the internet will always stay there is also a bad thing. People could share photo’s videos that could get into the wrong hands for example paedophiles.

7.1d Carrying out financial transactions online – if the website you are using to make a financial transaction is unsecure you may get your card details cloned and fraudsters may use your card for unauthorised transactions. You may also buy something online that isn’t real and so you pay for the item but do not receive the goods.

7.2 Explain ways of reducing the risk presented by each of these types of activity:
A – Not giving people who you do not know your mobile number, not leaving your devices where they can be stolen or hacked into.
B – Do not talk to people online who you do not know and do not open a website or email when you don’t know who it is form.
C – Do not be friends on social media with anyone you don’t physically know and do not give anyone any information about you that they don’t need.

D – Make sure any website you are using is secure and has the sign of the lock to show it is safe. Also it is better to pay with things by credit card as it would be easier for you to get your money back if there was a problem.
7.3 Explain the importance of balancing measure for online safety against the benefits to individuals of using electronic systems and devices.
If you had care plans on a computerised system it would be easier to get the information you needed quickly. Also you may need to get information over to another agency’s for example social workers, doctors, Speech and Language etc. However if you had this information on a laptop and left it in your car and your car was stolen or broken into. You could breach confidentiality and data protection. You would also have to make sure you had the correct security on your systems and devices so they were not hackable and you would need to be careful what you downloaded or what emails you opened to stop your systems/devices/computer getting a virus.

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