“Training” refers to a systematic approach to learning and development to improveindividual, team, and organizational effectiveness (Goldstein & Ford 2002). Alternatively, development refers to activities leading to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills for purposes of personal growth. Benefits Related to Job Performance Training-related changes should result in improved job performance and other positive changes (e.g.
, acquisition of new skills; Hill & Lent 2006, Satterfield & Hughes 2007) that serve as antecedents of job performance (Kraiger 2002). Reassuringly, Arthur et al. (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 1152 effect sizes from 165 sources and ascertained that in comparison with no-training or pretraining states, training had an overall positive effect on job-related behaviors or performance (mean effect size or d = 0.62). However, although differences in terms of effect sizes were not large, the effectiveness of training varied depending on the training delivery method and the skill or task being trained.
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For example, the most effective training programs were those including both cognitive and interpersonal skills, followed by those including psychomotor skills or tasks. found that on-the-job training led to greater innovation and tacit skills. Tacit skills are behaviors acquired through informal learning that are useful for effective performance.