TOPIC: IS LEGAL LANGAUGE
EXCLUSIONARY? Under the supervision of
FACULTY: DR. SABINA ZACHARIAS
NAME: SHIVI MISHRA
COURSE: BA LLB (HONS)
PROVISIONAL NO: PROV/BA LLB/7-18/065
SUBJECT: LAW AND LANGUAGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:
The final outcome and the success of this paper required a lot of assistance, help and guidance from all of you and I am very thankful and privileged to have got your support and guidance throughout the completion of this research. This paper was completed up to the mark and within the time frame only due to the assistance and supervision and for these all I thank you all. I owe my deep gratitude towards all who were a great help and resource for the completion of this paper. I would like to extend my sincere esteems to all of my friends and teacher for their timely support and guide.

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DECLARATION:
I hereby declare that the research paper entitled ‘IS LEGAL LANGUAGE EXCLUSIONARY? Is an original work carried out by me- SHIVI MISHRA as per the requirements of the BA LLB (HONS) program at ALLIANCE UNIVERSITY. I thereby declare that this work or any part or section of this work is original and not plagiarized.
SHIVI MISHRA.

ABSTRACT:
Legal English or legal language is the type of English that is used in legal writing. It is formulized language that is based on logical rules and technical jargons. Due to many jargons, Latin words, syntax and semantics this legal language is mostly difficult for the common people to understand and interpret. Most of the times people cannot understand laws and regulations due to these barriers and hence there is a breaking of the law or misinterpretation of the rules and regulations that create problems. So this paper deals with the need of legal language in the laws written and then proceedings of the courts –do we really need to have these technical jargons and terms in various legal aspects?

TABLE OF CONTENT:
INTRODUCTION………………………………………. 06
LEGAL LANGUAGE
MEANING…………………………………………. 07
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT……………… 07-08
FEATURES……………………………………….. 08
NEED OF LEAGL LANGUAGE………………………. 09
IS IT EXCLUSIONARY?
IS THERE REAL NEED……………………………. 10
SCENARIO IF IT IS EXCLUDED…………………. 10-11
CONCLUSION…………………………………………….. 12
BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………… 13

INTRODUCTION:
Legal English is that type of English which is used in various legal writings. This is based on various logical explanations and rules. It contains various technical law terms, jargons, legal terminologies syntax, vocabulary and semantics. It also contains various words and terms from various other languages too, in which, Latin words cover most of the parts of the legal language. The aim of the legal language is to achieve consistency, completeness and validation of the legal profession.
There are different kinds of legal writing such as-
Academic legal writing as in law journals
Juridical legal writing as in court judgements
Legislative legal writing as in laws, regulations, contracts and treaties,
Language used by the lawyers for the communication with their clients.

The style of writing or communication used by various legal professionals
Legal language has very significant relevance in various legal writing and drafting including-
Licenses
Contracts
Various legal documents
Summonses
Judgements
Court pleadings and proceedings
Laws
Acts of Parliament
Legislations
Case reports

LEGAL LANGUAGE:
2.1 MEANINGIn simple words legal language is a type of English that is used in the legal writings that is various legal documents, articles and debate. In general sense legal language is a language that is formulized and based on logical rules which differ which differs from the ordinary day to day language and the common language used in syntax, vocabulary, and semantics. The aim of legal language is to achieve validity, completeness and soundness while still retaining the benefits of the language such as complete meaning and open grade.

2.2 HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
Modern legal English based on Standard English. Modern legal English contains contain, a number of unusual feature. These feature related to terminology. They have their roots in history of the development of English as a legal language.
Common law was discussed in the Celtic law. The legal language and legal traditional changed with wave of languages in the following centuries. Roman Britain (after the conquest beginning in AD 43) roman legal tradition and its legal language was Latin. Roman departure from Britain circa 410 and the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain, the dominant tradition was invested Anglo-Saxon law, which was discussed in Germany and written in old English since circa 600 starting with the law of language. The Norman Invasion of England in 1066, Anglo-Norman French become the official language of legal proceeding in England for a period of nearly 300 years the pleading of English act 1362 (and continued in minor use for another 300 years), Medieval Latin was used for written records over the 650 years. Some English terms are used related to legal language.

Till 1066 Latin was the language of the formal records. Latin was replaced by English during the proceedings in the court of justice act, 1730. Latin never became the language of the legal proceedings debate and pleadings because Latin being a little tougher language so only learned persons were capable to understand Latin.

The legal language used in the medieval period combined Latin, English, French to avoid any kind of ambiguity starting in the twentieth century, various judicial lawyers often manipulated the language to make it more appealing for their campaigns and ideas and thoughts.

2.3 FEATURES:
There are many features of legal English that makes it different from normal and Standard English in a various number of ways.
The most important ones are discussed below:
Legal English uses a great number of various technical terminologies and jargons as compared to common English and language used by other professionals and in various other trades. Many a times these jargons and technical terms become difficult for the laymen to understand and interpret.

The various terms and jargons in English include ORDINARY WORDS which in most of the cases have SPECIAL MEANINGS.
One of the important features of legal English is lack of the punctuation. According to many lawyers and legal professionals punctuation is unimportant and ambiguous and the meaning of the legal documents according to them only contained in the words used and their context.

Another important aspect of the legal language is using doublets and triplets. The tendency of legal English is to join together two three words to convey a single legal concept.

The most common feature is tom use unusual word order. Many a times the words order used in legal documents are differently arranged.

Another feature is use of unfamiliar pro- forms. This kind of use is very interesting since they do not replace the noun is the sentence but they are used as the adjectives which is used to modify the noun.

Legal language uses pronominal adverbs. This is used to avoid repeating various names and phrases.

The most interesting aspect is the use of –er, -or, -ee etc. Using these the RECIPROCAL AND OPPOSITE nature of the relationship is shown.

The last feature is the use of phrasal verbs. In Standard English, phrasal verbs do not play an important or vital part but in legal English phrasal verbs play a large role.NEED OF LEGAL LANGAUGE
In law words and sentences play the role of essential tools. In the study of the law language has very great importance as the lawyers must use the right words to convey their ideas, cases, and laws to put the case of their client is a more effective manner.

Similarly judges must also use the right terms and terminology to express their views and judgements. Legal language is important the lawyers and legal professionals to learn and practice as the proceedings and the law all are in this legal language containing various terminologies and jargons. Legal language is needed to make law and its language different from the common or Standard English. Legal language makes this profession of law and law not to get confused with the various other professions. Using a particular language containing its jargons and terminologies for the law, statues, rules and court room proceedings and presentations of the various cases and case laws make this profession more vibrant and dynamic.

IS IT EXCLUSIONARY?
4.1 IS THERE REAL NEED-
The real question is do we really need legal language and all those technical law jargons and terminologies in various case proceedings and in the court rooms, in making of the laws and the statues, in writing of the various law journals, books and articles?
According to me we do not really need these heavy Latin terms and jargons in all the aspects and working of the law.

Law is basically made and enacted for the general public at large, for the benefit of the society, its upliftment, smooth functioning of the society, providing security to the citizens and ensuring and maintaining peace and harmony in the society. In short the law is made for the betterment of the lives of the common people.
So, according to me, in any country most of its citizens can be refereed as laymen in he context of the legal profession as many of the people are not aware of the meaning of the legal terminologies, law jargons and various Latin and other language words used in the legal profession. So it becomes very difficult for them to understand the various terms and interpret the law and get the idea and then message that particular section of the law or statue wants to convey. Therefore many times we cannot get the meaning of the law and hence the rules and regulations or the law can be broken or misinterpreted or misunderstood. So to avoid these we do not really need to have difficult jargons and terms in the legal profession.

SCENARIO IF IT IS EXCLUDED-
If the legal language is excluded and the legal profession is also carried out in simple or ordinary English as in other professions without having many jargons and terms and terminologies then it will become very easy for the common people or citizens (laymen) to understand the laws and to get the meaning or the idea of the various statues and the rules of the government and the people will find is much convenient to interpret the various sections laws, and regulations and to understand and act accordingly.

The people need not to be dependent on the lawyers or legal professionals to understand the laws and the proceedings of the courts or their problems and the cases and the case laws and the laws and statues applicable in the various cases and its application and interpretation.

So due to this the work of the lawyers and the legal professions will also be decreased and hence they will get more time to focus on the case and present the case more efficiently as they need not waste their time in making their clients understand the various legal terms and terminologies and a number of Latin words used in the various sections and various jargons.

So if the legal language is excluded then the common people will also be able to understand the laws and statues so they will understand the laws and will act according to the laws and it will also decrease the risk of them committing a wring or crime. This will also save the time of the lawyers and legal professional so the cases can be presented more efficiently in the courtrooms.

CONCLUSION-
Legal language is a very important and vital part in the work course of all the legal professionals. It contains various technical jargons relating to laws, law terminologies and jargons in various laws and statues. These terms and jargons are extensively in the law books, articles, journals and case laws, cases, court proceedings and all. These are easily understood and interpreted by the lawyers and legal professionals as these words have become a daily routine in their day to day lives. But for a layman or for common citizens and people of a country is it very difficult to understand and interpret these laws and sections of laws containing various technical jargons and Latin words and this creates a problem and difficulty for most of the citizens and hence they commit mistakes or wrong and crime. So according to me these various heavy terms and terminologies Latin words and jargons are not required. This will make the laws and statues for the common people to understand easily and these will also save the time of the lawyers and this will also lead to the decrease of wrong in the society as the people will understand the
law easily and by themselves.

BIBLIOGRAPHY-
LEGAL LANGUAGE, LEGAL WRITING AND GENERAL ENGLISH
JHABVALA LAW SERIES
ENGLISH AS A LEGAL LANGAUGE
GUIDE TO LEGAL LANGAUGE
LEGAL LANGUAGE- NEED AND IMPORTANCE

TOPIC:
THE LAWS ON MEDICAL INSURANCE FRAUD AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN KENYA.

ABSTRACT
Insurance fraud is a major economic crisis facing the Insurance Industry all over the world. Depending on the policy coverage and offers, fraud still manifests in different ways in relation to the economic time. The validity of claims is not clearly stated out anywhere in the laws of Kenya. Fraud in the health sector is an immense problem and is responsible for losses of substantial amounts of money. Medical insurance policies or covers provide for payment of the costs that one incurs from sickness, injury as well as all other medical expenses covered by the policy contract signed by the policy holder. A report prepared by the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) in 2015 states that medical insurance in Kenya has had a high loss ratio and this maybe the reason that it is not underwritten exclusively. Medical insurance fraud involves overcharging of medical services by a physician, unnecessary tests being carried out and impersonation among others. This kind of activities have affected medical insurance in a way that it leads to the increase in the cost of health care due to rising insurance costs, affects the rate of penetration of medical covers and has contributed to the poor performance of the insurance firms. However, some efforts to reduce insurance fraud have been put in place. These include the establishment of the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) which was founded in 2006. This body later introduced the Insurance Fraud Investigation Unit (IFIU) due to the increasing insurance fraud which has also increased the cost of doing business, places businesses at risk and leading insurance companies to insolvencies. The main functions of the unit include to interview suspects, make arrests and charge suspects per the law, profile fraudsters, manage fraud intelligence data and advice on ways of mitigating fraud. The Association of Kenya Insurers (AKI) was also formed to build a connecting bond between the insurance companies in Kenya. This Association is the voice of all the member insurance companies when it comes to problems and challenges facing the insurance sector that need to be addressed. Statutory provisions under the Penal Code Cap 63 laws of Kenya have set out punishment for fraudulent activities such as forgery among others. This research delves more on highlighting the inadequacy of the law and stating recommendations and strategies that could be devised to reduce on the cases of fraud particularly medical insurance fraud.

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MEDICAL INSURANCE FRAUD
Generally, Insurance Fraud is one of the biggest challenges facing the insurance industry. Insurance Fraud is defined as criminal acts, provable beyond reasonable doubt that violates statutes by making the willful act of obtaining money or value from an insurer under false pretenses or material misrepresentations (Derrig & Krauss, 1994).
Medical insurance covers are one of the policies provided by General insurance service providers. The medical policy mainly provides for payment of the costs of medical care.

Fraud in health insurance and health care is an immense problem and is responsible for loss of big amounts of money. Fraud in the health care system includes the pocketing of fees by a service provider or overcharging of a health insurance benefit by a physician, concealment of medical history of the patient and fraudulent identity/impersonation, document theft fraud.

Medical insurance fraud has been increasingly prevalent in the medical class of business for a couple of years. This has continuously increased due a number of factors. One of the major ones being that service providers have been known for applying two tier pricing for their services. This works in a way that a patient who presents an insurance medical card is charged twice more than a patient who pays in cash.
The other factor is fraud can be also committed by the insured person who allows another individual who is not covered by the medical cover to access services using their credentials.

Identity theft or what is known as impersonation has also become so come in medical facilities of late. This happens where the health facility uses the identity of an insured patient and bill services that were not rendered to them using the patient’s information.
Frivolous services at the health centers. Some hospitals also engage in committing fraud by ordering frivolous tests to unsuspecting patients. Since many patients usually don’t question what the doctor orders, many take advantage to make extra money from such unnecessary tests.

As for document theft fraud in medical facilities, this involves theft of one’s medical records which could be used for black mail among other fraudulent ways. However is not so common in Kenya.

EFFECTS OF MEDICAL INSURANCE FRAUD.

The Insurance companies make very huge loses of money in paying of fraudulent or overstated medical bills for insured persons. This has led to the increase in medical insurance premiums so as to reduce on the big loses of money.

Medical insurance fraud has led to the increase in the cost of health care due to the increased insurance costs resulting to the inability to afford medical covers by many Kenyans.

Due to frivolous services and two tier pricing, the insurers continue to bleed from this kind of medical fraud since they lack adequate data on medical card fraud for them to take action.

Medical fraud puts insured clients in a situation where they can exhaust their medical covers easily since they are over charged and given unnecessary medical tests.

For cases of impersonation, if caught one could be sentenced to imprisonment or payment of huge fines. This is where someone else uses an insured person’s information to access medical services without their consent.

To some extend this kind of fraud also tarnishes the image of insurance companies especially when they decline to pay false claims. Angry insured clients’ start to speak negatively about how insurance is bad.

To mention but a few the above effects of medical insurance fraud have really affected the Insurance Industry generally. Most of the biggest and well known insurance companies in Kenya all suffer from this dilemma thou at different scales.

SOLUTIONS THAT HAVE BEEN PUT IN PLACE TO REDUCE MEDICAL INSRANCE FRAUD.

The Insurance companies and Medical institutions have devised means on how to reduce healthcare fraud which include the following;
First and foremost, health facilities have encouraged all insured clients to register with the hospital administration with their full details so as to reduce on the problem of impersonation.

Health centers have also maintained databases with details for all their insured clients hence this has helped in reducing of fraudulent identity.

There has been a restriction of accessing client information by unauthorized employees both at the medical facilities and the insurance companies.

Medical bills have been audited through automated processes so as to determine their validity to equate the services offered.

Medical employers and insurance companies have continuously encouraged their employees to promote work ethics when serving their clients and carrying out their duties with due diligence.

LEGALLY PROVIDED SOLUTIONSIN KENYA.

With all the effort that the insurance industry has put in curbing medical insurance fraud and all other types of fraud in general, the Law has also come in to help curbing fraud through various ways. These include;
The formation of the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) which is a statutory government Agency established under the Insurance Act (Amendment) 2006 CAP 487 laws of Kenya. This agency was formed to regulate, supervise and develop the insurance industry. It is governed by a board of directors which is vested with the fiduciary responsibility overseeing operations of the Authority and ensuring that they are consistent with provisions of the Insurance Act.

Introduction of the Insurance Fraud Investigative Unit (IFIU) which was established by the IRA because of insurance fraud increases the cost of doing business, places businesses at risk and is a leading cause of insurance company insolvencies. The major role of this unit is to investigate fraud matters in insurance, interview suspects, make arrests, charge suspects according to the law, profile fraudsters, manage fraud intelligence data and advise on ways to mitigate fraud cases.

Medical insurance fraud is not really defined in the laws of Kenya however the fraudulent activities that amount to healthcare fraud are. Some of these Fraud activities defined and handled in the Penal code are forgery (making false documents), document theft and impersonation.
Section345 of the Penal Code CAP 63 laws of Kenya defines forgery as the making of a false document with intent to defraud or to deceive.

Section 347 states that any person who makes a false document who under sub-section (d) signs a document (1) I the name of any person without his authority whether such name is or is not the same as that of the person signing.

Section 348 states that an intent to defraud is presumed to exist if it appears that at the time when the false document was made there was in existence a specific person ascertained or unascertained capable of being defrauded thereby and this presumption is not rebutted by proof that the offender took or intended to make measures to prevent such person from being defrauded in fact, nor by the fact that he had or thought he had a right to the thing to be obtained by the false document.
Section 349 states that the general punishment for forgery is three years. It elaborates that any person who forges any document is guilty of an offence which unless otherwise stated, is a felony and he is liable, unless owing to the circumstances of the forgery or the nature of thing forged some other punishment is provided, to imprisonment for three (3) years.

While section 351 states that any person who forges any judicial document is liable to imprisonment for seven (7) years.

Section 357 talk about making documents without authority and it states any person who with intent to defraud or to deceive (a) without lawful authority or excuse makes, signs or executes for or in the name or on account of another person ,whether by procuration or otherwise, any document or electronic record or writing or (b) knowingly utters any document or electronic record or writing so made , signed or executed by another person, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 361 states that any person who, having the actual custody of any register or record kept by lawful authority, knowingly permits any entry which is any material particular into his knowledge false , to be made in the register or record, is guilty of a felony and is liable to imprisonment for seven (7) years.

The penal code under section 382 (1)defines personation as any person who, with intent to defraud any person , falsely represents himself to be some other person , living or dead , is guilty of a misdemeanor.

Section 382(2) states that if the representation is that the offender is a person entitled by will or operation of law to any specific property and he commits the offence to obtain such property or possession thereof, he is liable to imprisonment for seven years.

Section 384 states that any person who utters any document which has been issued by lawful authority to another person, whereby that person is certified to be a person possesses of any qualification recognized by law for any purpose, or to be the holder of any office , or to be entitled to exercise any profession , trade or business, or to be entitled to any right or privilege , or to enjoy any rank or status, and falsely represents himself to be the person named in the document, is guilty of an offence of the same kind and is liable to the same punishment as if he had forged the document.
ANALYSIS OF THE LAW IN RELATION TO THE ISSUE OF MEDICAL INSURANCE FRAUD
Medical insurance fraud is not deeply defined in the laws of Kenya. The types of fraudulent activities that amount to healthcare fraud is what is defined in the Penal Code CAP 63 laws of Kenya. Articles from Section 235 to 386 explain more on issues relating to fraud.
The most common types of fraudulent activities involved in medical insurance fraud are two tier pricing (overstated medical bills), impersonation and document theft which involves theft of medical history of insured patients.

The law in Kenya addresses the issues on document theft and impersonation however it doesn’t address the issue of overstated medical bills especially in public health facilities. This is the most common kind of fraud that affects the Insurance Industry at large.

The law sets out general punishments for fraud in general under the Penal Code of Kenya. As stated under section 349, the punishment for forgery is imprisonment for three years if found guilty of the offence.
The law lays out imprisonment as the key punishment for fraudsters. It does not clearly state how the affected parties recover from any money loses made. This makes the law ineffective and inadequate because if they arrest the fraudster and after their imprisonment time they are set free how about the victims. The Civil courts deal with civil cases when it comes to payment of damages and compensation for any lose made but victims still have no elaboration on the option of compensation under the laws of Kenya.

In relation to my experience at Sanlam, most of the cases taken to court, when the fraudsters are found guilty and arrested, the company still has to pay the overstated health bills and compensation to their clients hence it has affected the company a lot since they end up paying so many claims of fraud hence them losing lots of money.

The law has made the insurance business a hard one to maintain since the law doesn’t cover them in terms of any loses made. There are no clear measures of the companies recovering from the loss of huge amounts of money made when settling the claims.

RECOMMENDATIONS
The law needs to clearly define each type of fraud deeply and elaborate the fraudulent activities that can be associated with it. It should also clearly set out punishments in the Penal Code depending on the intensity of the fraud activity and damage or loss caused.

The Penal Code sections on fraud need to be amended to cater for all connections surrounding fraud. The law should be set in a way that it covers the most common fraudulent activities that affect the insurance industry among other industries so as to curb the fraud problem at a fast rate.

Health Laws on how public health centers carry out their business should be amended n a way that they can be used to monitor their activities especially when it comes to payment of services so as to reduce o the two tier pricing on insured clients.

Under the Insurance Act CAP 487 provided for the establishment of the Insurance Regulatory Authority (IRA) should also establish laws that govern the formation of a national forensics department to work hand in hand with the Insurance Fraud investigative unit (IFIU) and Finance Reporting Centre (FRC) so as to oversee cases on medical billings and health care fraud.
A multiagency approach could also be tried. In this sense, several agencies could come together to work means and ways on how to best curb the issues of medical fraud and fraud in general. This could be done by having for example a National Policing Fraud Strategy.
The law should be revised so as to also state on punishment on bodies or institutions that get involved in matters of fraud. If the people or employees of a certain association or organization are found guilty of carrying out fraud, they should face the consequences to. The law needs to treat all people equally and fairly as when it comes to administration of justice as stated under article 47 laws of Kenya.

CONCLUSION
Medical insurance fraud is one of the disasters affecting the insurance industry at large. Not only at Sanlam, also have other well established and known insurance companies faced the same problem. Companies like ICEA lions, APA, Jubilee insurance, Britam among many others have also written reports addressing the same matter on how it’s affecting them and the means they have devised on curbing medical insurance fraud and fraud in general.

At Sanlam, in 2017, the company paid more than 99% of death claims, 85% of disability claims, 72% of several illness claims, 92% of the income protector claims and 95% of sickness claims. All these claims all under health care or under medical insurance covers.
These statistics elaborate on the load of money spent by insurance companies in settling health care claims. If this much is spent on paying the claims how much more would have to be spent on paying off fraudulent claims? The question at hand is about the inadequacy of the law in addressing matters of fraud specifically medical insurance fraud.

The law is inadequate when it comes to handling the matter of medical insurance fraud and it barely explains on what health care fraud is. It doesn’t define it and neither does it state any ways on how it can be reduced or regulated by law.

With the above recommendations, amendment of the penal code specifically on the sections that talk about matters of fraud would be the best first step to take so as to provide legal provision for the problem at hand then other means can be devised through the law on how to curb medical insurance fraud and reduce on the huge money losses made by Insurance Companies in Kenya.

Bibliography
The Insurance Act CAP 487, laws of Kenya
CAP 63, Penal Code.

www.Sanalam.co.kewww.akinsure.comwww.ira.go.keHealth Insurance Fraud Survey by AKI.

Derrig ; Krauss, 1994.

TOPIC: The Colonisation of Africans by Europeans
RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT

-2571754431665Darian Govender
Grade 8.1
1000000Darian Govender
Grade 8.1

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QUESTIONS
Definitions:
Colonisation:is an act of where a centralised system of power is used to dominate the surrounding land and people with all its components, ceasing control thereof.
Oppression: is an act in where people are treated in an unfair and cruel manner and are prevented from having opportunities and freedom.
Partition:is where a country or continent is separated into areas of government or status which has a result of dividing or being divided into parts.

The three main things the European colonisers claimed were their purpose behind colonisation at the Berlin Conference in 1884 were:
The first purpose of the conference was for the Europeans to come to an agreement in respect of the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins where they would be considered neutral and open to trade;
2.2When the conference was held, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers and it was there that they made their move to gain control over the inland of the African continent.
2.3They negotiated over the various inland boundaries in the continent, not taking into account the cultural and language boundaries which was already adopted byt he African population.

3.European colonisers were in fact trying to:
3.1compete for control over the different parts of Africa and strip Africa for their own gain.

Meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 Causes of colonisation
Effects of colonisation
European causes
European explorers saw great opportunity in resources and investment which could be tapped into by them.
The best method to ensure that the Europeans could realise their vision was to take complete, political control of Africa through the process of colonisation.

At the time that the explorers travelled into Africa, unemployment and a decrease in investment was a major threat to Europe.

The Industrial revolution also meant more people would need work which posed a threat.

Political (geographical) effects
A resolution was taken at the Berlin Conference wherein the continent of Africa was divided into fifty different countries.
This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa.
The division of the countries did not work as different people were grouped together from dissimilar groups who really did not get along.

New African societies were formed based on different ideological and social beliefs which resulted in them being weak and politically unstable.

African causes
The various Kingdoms were constantly in competition with each other to be the wealthy and have great power;
The competition between the kingdoms thus allowed the Europeans to make use of the opportunity of creating rivalry between the Africans;
The Europeans therefore managed to get the African leaders to side with them against other leaders.

Economic effects:
European explorers saw great opportunity in the markets, resources and investment which could be tapped into by them which was due to the depression was in play in Europe. Countries like France, , Great Britain and German were losing money and they saw Africa as their0golden ticket, the easy way out of the depression. 
Europeans stripped Africa of its many raw goods which included oil, ivory, rubber, palm oil, wood, cotton, and gum (for paper). 
Because of cheap African labour, these materials were easily acquired which assisted to spark a financial boom in Europe.

Africans lost their land and cattle and were stripped of all of their natural resources such as gold, silver, diamonds and coal .

Africa and its inhabitants suffered with many consequences at the hands of Europeans.
Social effects:
The division of social groups were created by the Europeans which brought about conflict amongst the different ethnic groups that had not existed before.
The African culture was affected, the Africa way of life, their traditions and way of life were destroyed.

The African religion was also affected by the introduction of Christianity, which forced people to learn the European languages. Africans were taught to change their eating habits and to dress like Europeans abandoning their own traditional ways.

Families were separated due to the partition of Africa. This created new boundaries leading to conflicts and the slavery where millions of people were forcibly separated from their families and homelands.

Psychological (mind) effects
Colonised Africans were treated not only as sub-humans, they were denied basic rights such as education and the right to land for decent housing, farming, mining and fishing.
Africans were made to feel inferior due to the social inequality in the colonies
European settlers and Europeans in Europe were encouraged to feel superior.
The British government honored its colonial officials such as “Sir Andries Stockkenstrom”. He had earlier said: “The question of robbing natives of their land is not whether it is right or wrong to plunder their land, simple question is will it pay?” (R.U. Kenny, Piet Retief, Cape Town and Pretoria: Human & Reason, 1976 page 77)
.

Source 1:
Source Name Type of source URL / Pages: Useful Information Limitations
Platinum Social Sciences Learner’s book 171 – 175 Details on the causes of colonisation and the Berlin Conference Not very detailed breakdown

Source 2:
Source Name Type of source URL / Pages: Useful Information Limitations
The first meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 Picture https://www.thoughtco.com/berlin-conference-1884-1885-divide-africa-1433556The picture reflects the first meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884. A sepia picture that is not very clear

Source 3:
Source Name Type of source URL / Pages: Useful Information Limitations
European colonisation of Africa in the late 19th century
Article https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/grade-8-term-3-scramble-africa-late-19th-century
Breakdown of the various aspects of European colonisation of Africa in the late 19th century
Not very detailed breakdown

Topic: Euthanasia
Source: Films on Demand.
Summary: Euthanasia is when someone choose to end their life through a doctor because of the suffering of a disease such as cancer, paralysis, vegetative state and others. Some people claimed that the duty of a doctor is to preserve their patient’s life and others think that people have the right to die with dignity.
Three key terms:
1.Euthanasia (noun) – Some say euthanasia is outright killing and playing God, others view it as a merciful way to maintain a measure of dignity at death.
2.
3.
Three interesting ideas:
1. The state of Oregon allows the passive euthanasia, but not active euthanasia.
2. Passive euthanasia – It is when the patient requests the end of his life and a doctor performs it providing pills or an injection, so the patient will be dying gradually.
3. Active euthanasia- The doctor get involves in the end of their patient’s life providing a lethal injection to cause their death immediately

Discussion Questions:
1) What is your point of view about euthanasia?
2) Do you think a doctor should preserve their patient’s life, or they should adapt to their patients’ necessities?
3) What would you do if a family member who is under pain because of a disease and is considering the euthanasia?
4) Do you think euthanasia is the same as murder?
5) Do you think we have the right to decide when we are going to die? Or that decision should be made by God?

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Topic: Study Habits Among Students and Their Effects to their Academic Performance
Thesis Statement: This research aims to discuss the effects of study habits among students to their academic performance.

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Significance of the Study
Thesis Statement (What are the effects of study habits among students to their academic performance?)
BODY
Facts on study habits
Kinds of study habits
Good
Bad
Effects of study habits
CONCLUSION
Being studious is an instinct attitude of an individual. Students with strong determination in life possess good study habits. Good study habits may contribute high academic performance among students in which it can promote to an optimum level of learning.

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“Study Habits among Students and their Effects to their Academic Performance”
INTRODUCTION
Study habits are the behaviors used when preparing for tests or learning academic material that formed during school years. These can either be buying out a dedicated scheduled and uninterrupted time to apply one’s self to the task of learning.

Study habits can make students be more determined and can help them get the grades they want to achieve and the diploma they are waiting to receive.

The key to becoming an effective student is learning how to study smarter, not harder. This becomes more and more true as you advance in your education. An hour or two of studying a day is usually sufficient to make it through high school with satisfactory grades, but when college arrives, there aren’t enough hours in the day to get all your studying in if you don’t know how to study smarter. While some students are able to breeze through school with minimal effort, this is the exception. The vast majority of successful students achieve their success by developing and applying effective study habits. The following are the top 10 study habits employed by highly successful students. So if you want to become a successful student, don’t get discouraged, don’t give up, just work to develop each of the study habits below and you’ll see your grades go up, your knowledge increase, and your ability to learn and assimilate information improve.
Every student involves a study habit which can be good ones or bad ones. Good study habit include being organized, keeping good notes, reading textbooks, listening in class and working the assignments every day, while bad study habits include skipping class, not doing one’s work, watching television or playing video games instead of studying and losing one’s work.

In the era of globalization and technological revolution, education is considered as the first step for every human activity. It plays as a vital role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual well-being and opportunities for better living.

Success as the name implies is wished for by everybody but it is not easily come by on a mere platter of gold; one must work for it through hard work and diligence. Schools, colleges and universities have no worth without student. The desire of success is derived from individual’s concept of himself and in terms of the meaning of various encouragements as they spell success and failure in the eye of others.

Student’s performance play an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leaders and man power for a country thus responsible for the country economic and social development,( Ali et al.,2009).
Student performance occupies a very important place in education as well as in the learning process. It has long been recognized that in the process of learning, study habits of the student plays an important part in their academic performance.

In every school setting, the success of academic performance is the ultimate goal. Academic performance can be expressed in the form of good scores and prizes as a result of hard work and exceptional performance in classroom tests, assignments and examination (Robinson, 2001).

Study habit is described as the adopted way and manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning, so as to attain mastery of the subject (Azikiwe, 1998). According to her, good study habits are good assets to learners because the habits assist students to attain mastery in areas of specialization and consequent excellent constraints to learning and achievement leading to failure”.

Due to the increasing nature of poor academic performance of all grade levels, many educations tend to shift the blame on the teaching methodology adopted by the teachers and lack of fund from the government to provide quality textbooks.

However, these might not be the main reasons why students perform poorly in examinations. It is clear from all indications that students have poor study habit which might lead to poor academic performance. As true as this might sound, it is yet to gather adequate research evidence to prove that it is a key factor on why students fail.

Education is an activity or process which modifies the behavior of a person from instinctive to human behavior (Taneja, 2003). This definition reveals the innate truth that education aims at discovering aptitudes as well as to progressively prepare man for social activity; because of this, education through which the basic needs, the food, shelter and the clothing, are provided is necessary for the survival of the society.

Simply put, performance is how well or badly something is done. Its relevance stand out because of the significance it holds to the society. In the educational parlance, performance manifests through academic achievement which is the manifestation of a student’s habit of the study and they in turn are formed and strengthened through education. The development of good study is equally relative and helpful not only in academic work but in career actualization.

Learning is reflected in the way a student respond to an environment, socially, emotionally and physically stimuli and understands new information. The key to better learning and better academic performance in schools are good teachers, good study environment, parent’s cooperation, high quality books and the most important of all is the study habit, because study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately.

The habits of studying must be a sustainable one, for students must see the need to develop good study habits. It is yet important as study habits influence the academic performance of students, so parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of the students.

This research aims to help students enhance their study habits as these will directly affect their academic performance. Consequently, this will benefit the parents and the school, as good academic performance is equated to development.
This study will be used to many people who may want to know the factors that could blemish student’s academic performance. It attempts to combine study skills with study habits and it effects to academic performance of students, provides valuable information about effects of poor study habit on the academic performance of students and students will get benefits from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current role habits affect their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviors related to their studies influenced study habits. Therefore, it is significant in this regard.

BODY
Summer is over and it’s time for our children to get back to the job of learning. Wanting the children to succeed, parents take great pains to provide a quiet, consistent corner for their little scholar to absorb all that information thrown at them by the book load. We help our children in whatever ways we can to succeed in school, but if parents don’t know what study habits and learning strategies work, how can they be expected to pass on useful information to their children?
For instance, the idea of having a single, isolated study location may be misguided. Studies have consistently shown that varying the location of studying actually improves retention of the information. It has been shown time and again that alternating study environments improves grades, and not the opposite.

Other surprising, or maybe not so surprising strategies students of all ages can use to improve learning, retention and grades are studying mixed content, spacing study sessions, and self-testing. Some excellent students have discovered some or all of these methods on their own to great success, while other, less successful students keep trying the same old methods that have been shown not to work; but with no idea what else to try, keep on studying with the old, failing ways.

During the past few years, students who maintain good study habits are becoming fewer and fewer. Social activities become more important than staying at home and study. Students these days consider studying as hassle even though they have been lectured how important studying is. There are two kinds of study habit that most students often use. The good study habit and the bad study habit.
When developing good study habits, you have to set time for everything and apply the things that can help you have proper study skills. An individual should also follow some other ways in having good study habit, such as:
Don’t attempt to cram all of your studying into one session.
It’s time for a change. Successful students typically space their work out over shorter periods of time and rarely try to cram all of their studying into just one or two sessions. If you want to become a successful student then you need to learn to be consistent in your studies and to have regular, yet shorter, study periods.

Plan when you’re going to study.

Successful students schedule specific times throughout the week when they are going to study — and then they stick with their schedule. Students who study sporadically and whimsically typically do not perform as well as students who have a set study schedule. Even if you’re all caught up with your studies, creating a weekly routine, where you set aside a period of time a few days a week, to review your courses will ensure you develop habits that will enable you to succeed in your education long term.

Study at the same time.

Not only is it important that you plan when you’re going to study, it’s also important to create a consistent, daily study routine. When studying at the same time each day and each week, your studying will become a regular part of your life. You’ll be mentally and emotionally more prepared for each study session and each study session will become more productive. If you have to change your schedule from time to time due to unexpected events, just get back on your routine as soon as the event has passed.

Each study time should have a specific goal.

Simply studying without direction is not effective. You need to know exactly what you need to accomplish during each study session. Before you start studying, set a study session goal that supports your overall academic goal.
Never procrastinate your planned study session.

It’s very easy, and common, to put off your study session because of lack of interest in the subject, because you have other things you need to get done, or just because the assignment is hard. Successful students DO NOT procrastinate studying. If you procrastinate your study session, your studying will become much less effective and you may not get everything accomplished that you need to. Procrastination also leads to rushing, and rushing is the number one cause of errors.

Start with the most difficult subject first.

As your most difficult assignment or subject will require the most effort and mental energy, you should start with it first. Once you’ve completed the most difficult work, it will be much easier to complete the rest of your work. Believe it or not, starting with the most difficult subject will greatly improve the effectiveness of your study sessions, and your academic performance.

Always review your notes before starting an assignment.

Obviously, before you can review your notes you must first have notes to review. Always make sure to take good notes in class. Before you start each study session, and before you start a particular assignment, review your notes thoroughly to make sure you know how to complete the assignment correctly. Reviewing your notes before each study session will help you remember important subject matter learned during the day, and make sure your studying is targeted and effective.

Make sure you’re not distracted while you’re studying.

Everyone gets distracted by something. Maybe it’s the TV, maybe it’s your family or maybe it’s just too quite. Some people actually study better with a little background noise. When you’re distracted while studying you (1) lose your train of thought and (2) are unable to focus — both of which will lead to very ineffective studying. Before you start studying find a place where you won’t be disturbed or distracted. For some people this is a quiet cubical in the recesses of the library. For others is in a common area where there is a little background noise.

Use study groups effectively.

Ever heard the phrase “two heads are better than one?” Well this can be especially true when it comes to studying. Working in groups enables you to (1) get help from others when you’re struggling to understand a concept, (2) complete assignments more quickly, and (3) teach others, whereby helping both the other students and yourself to internalize the subject matter. However, study groups can become very ineffective if they’re not structured and if groups members come unprepared. Effective students use study groups effectively.

Review your notes, schoolwork and other class materials over the weekend.

Successful students review what they’ve learned during the week over the weekend. This way they’re well prepared to continue learning new concepts that build upon previous coursework and knowledge acquired the previous week.

On the other hand, bad study habits according to (John, 2010) are negative or non-productive study habits which are undesirable and counter-productive to students’ academic performance. When developed and utilized by students at all levels, they tend to hamper academic progress and performance of the users.

However, bad study habits generally range from procrastination, truancy, not taking note, selective reading, studying while watching television or what is generally regarded as distractive study.

There are several factors that tend to affect students study habits. Anything can affect students’ study habits. Their ability to study and concentrate can be increased by finding a quiet place where they can concentrate. Distractions such as phones, chat rooms, TV, video games, music and computers can all decrease students’ ability to learn. Whatever is going on around and within a student’s own mind is going to affect his study habits.

Students in today’s generation also, are often provided with poor study skills which prevents them the chance of having satisfying grades. Studying is the major concept of education and having poor study skills continues, students can’t grab the opportunity they wished they could have. The opportunities which can lead them to a good life in the future even the opportunity to receive a high-paying job.

As years goes by, many lives have been changed because of the improper study habit. Students have been dropped out from schools for having bad study skills. As the lack or the misuse of studying continues, it consistently deprives one’s opportunity to gain the knowledge and the potential a student might obtain in the future.

Student’s population is not a threat to the poor use of studying. It is not a hindrance of the students improper study skills. However, the threat comes from when a student is lazy and not wanting to do the task on hand. The task of participating in class and as well as at home.

Since today’s society is surrounded by modern technologies, it is also one of the reasons why students have the attitude of having improper study skills. Students are fond of following what is new or the things which is trending where studying is being rejected in their minds. Addiction to video games, mobile phones or televisions allows them to not focus or concentrate in their study. It could also be, by the influence of other people or friends or even the problems they’re bringing from home or in their surroundings which leads them to a bad study habit.

A number of causes contribute to poor skills in studying because of the lack of time. Students in colleges or in high school are most often on a hectic schedule or plan for an entire week, so when a student gets behind on schedule, time can be scarce.
Time management is an important factor when it comes to studying. One must consider his/her studies to be important enough to create a time and place where they can accomplish and keep up with their classes. Students must consider their classes a top priority in which they must study on a daily basis to prevent cramming.
When the problem of having poor study habit continue in high school and college students, the chance of receiving the amount of knowledge and good grades are slim to none and their opportunities later in life won’t be the same as the people who worked hard and studied the correct way.
Study habits act as another variable connected with distance learners’ performances. Study habits reflect students’ usual act of studying and also call forth and serve to direct the learner’s cognitive processes during learning. Study habits includes a variety of activities: time management, setting appropriate goals, choosing an appropriate study environment, using appropriate note-taking strategies, choosing main ideas, and organization (Proctor et al.,).

Having a good study skill brings the students’ future successful. They can assure to receive enough knowledge and could be confident on the things they wanted to do. It will be easier for them in the future to apply for a job especially during interviews because they have the knowledge due to having proper study habit.
CONCLUSION
Being studious is an instinct attitude of an individual. Students with strong determination in life possess good study habits. Good study habits may contribute high academic performance among students in which it can promote to an optimum level of learning.
http://www.academia.edu/6252608/THE_IMPACT_OF_STUDY_HABITS_ON_THE_ACADEMIC_PERFORMANCE_OF_STUDENTS
https://studymoose.com/develop-good-study-habits-essayhttps://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1143649.pdfResearch Paper
Study Habits among Students and their Effects to their Academic Performance
Diane Calumpang
Colette Morito
Felix Adolf Recentes
English Elective 10
Ms. Fretzell A. Actub
February 28, 2018

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