Today academic performance continues to be understood as a precise proxy for
aptitude and is a core determinant of career paths and status achievement even
though some doubt its value ( chammore-premuzic & furnham, 2010)
Academic performance is vital to understanding the development of today’s well
known psychometric “tool” : the intelligence test. Because academic performance
was thought to mirror individual differences in ability, it became the top criterion
for intelligence tests(Chamorro-premuzic, 2006)
Alfred Binnet(1857-1911) developed the pioneer intelligence test to identify
children who were challenged by the school curriculum and their academic
performance. Future ability tests continued to be validated by educational
achievement as accurate measures of intelligence. Indeed if an intelligence test
failed to account for individual differences it was not regarded as a meaningful
measure of intellectual capacity(e.g Bolton 1892)

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