To understand the history of nuclear technology we need to consider three main stages of its development.
First, physical and chemical studies of elements by various scientists. Second, development of atomic bombs (by the USA during World War II). Third, using the nuclear energy for civilian purposes.
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After the WW II governments decided to sign treaties for using the nuclear energy only in civilian field because nuclear bombs caused death of millions of people. That is when the nuclear power plants were developed. How it works:Nuclear power plants are complex structures. They should be located far from the urban areas, because of the risks of explosions and accidents. The most important part of the nuclear power plant is the nuclear reactor core, which is usually not visible from outside. All power plant are built with concrete and steel, so that they can withstand possible natural disasters such as tornadoes, fires, earthquakes and floods.
There are two types of nuclear power plants: PWR-Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR-Boiling Water Reactor. There are two loops to make a nuclear water that then turn into the steam to run the turbines and then generate electricity. In the first loop there is nuclear core and nuclear core have nuclear fuel.The water goes in the first loop through the nuclear core then it goes through a heat exchanger (which creates steam) and then it goes into the core again.
This process repeat over and over because the first loop closed. In the second loop there is water which came from the heat exchanger by steam. After that steam goes to the turbine where it turn and then it goes to the generator and create electricity.
Next steam condensed back to the water. The heated water from reactor and water from the first and the second loop never mix. The BWR also uses water and generate electricity. But in a BWR steam goes through the reactor and then through the turbine. The water heats because of reactor and steam created rises to the top of reactor vessel to create electricity. Economic:The nuclear power stations play a great role in contribution to creating workplaces as well as economic growth of a country.
Nuclear power plants have greater advantages compared to other stations generating electricity. For one thing, because of the size of a nuclear power station it needs a large number of workers who operate it. For example one plant may require four hundred to seven hundred direct permanent jobs. Additionally, these jobs pay thirty six percent more than average celleries in local areas.
When it comes to nuclear plant economic benefits it should be said that an average plant generates about $470 million in electricity sales in the local community and more than $40 million in total labor income. These numbers comprise both direct and secondary effects. The direct effects include expenditures for goods,services and labor. The secondary effects are subsequent spending creditting to the presence of the plant and its workers.And average nuclear plant pays about sixteen million dollars in state and local taxes annually this money benefits infrastructure schools,roads,etc. Such plants also pay federal taxes of fifty seven million dollars annually.
Environmental:(Topic – how do nuclear power plants affect the environment, explain, example)Nuclear energy is not really clean energy source. Nuclear energy pose serious issues to the environment. The issues are that nuclear wastes are difficult to manage. Nuclear power called clear source of energy because it does not produce carbon dioxide. But it is not true.
Nuclear power plants can not produce carbon dioxide, but the high amount of carbon dioxide Conclusion:This shows that there are many aspects of the development of nuclear technology; economic, environmental, among many others. Every development has its pros and cons, similarly nuclear technology has both positive and negative effects on the world economy and environment. ( you can add something more,examples?)