TITLE:How is the theme of seperation explored in Diane Samuels Kindertransport?

INTRO (inc thesis statement / reference to what 3 body paragraphs will consist of / put it in some kind of historical context / talk about play’s genre)

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The Kindertransport book, written by Diane Samuels in 1995, examines several themes throughout the play mainly including seperation and the loss of identity. The short play also consists of many contrasts between the mother and daughters present and past relationships. This essay will show how seperation is presented in the play, and will mainly depict the Mother and daughter relationship, culture and seperation from religion.

BODY PARAGRAPH 1- Mother-daughter relationship

Point 1: Diane Samuels clearly defines the Kindertransport as seperation. The children are seperated from their parents and in order to avoid persecution which they would undergo if they stayed in the country, they have to emigrate to England. From the beginning of Act 1, Eva is forced to take the Kindertransport to escape and assures her parents that everything will be fine. “Mutti! Vati! Hello! Hello! See. I did get into the carriage. I said I would. See i’m not crying. I said I wouldn’t,” (Act 1, Page 17). As Eva boards the Kindertransport, she is nervous, but also excited and tries to comfort her mother as she says that she is not crying, which they most likely were. The relationship between Eva and Helga throughout this play is strong and loving, although Eva can be difficult to deal with and disobedient at times. As Helga teaches Eva how to sew, she rejects her offer and says: “I don’t want to sew…” (Act 1, Scene 1, Page 1). Helga seems like a patient mother who wants the best for her daughter and cares about her. The foreshadowing of seperation builds throughout the course of the play. When Eva asks her mother in Act 1 what an abyss and a chasm is, the words represent the unknown and the seperation as well as symbolism.

Point 2: The relationship between Faith and Evelyn is also loving, but odd at times. The way Evelyn educates and upbrings her daughter reflects her past, the culture and religion she lost during her time in England. Evelyn is one of the characters who can be compared to a perfectionist as she is constantly cleaning from the beginning of the play, but throughout the play, we can see that Evelyn becomes more unhappy and unstable with her life. She uses short sentences to contrast the rough language she has at times. “It seems perfectly straightforward to me.” The short sentences create tension and fear of what will proceed. Samuels uses objects to show the relationship between the characters for example the ratcatcher who is a dark fictional character and steals children to create fear. As Faith is packing her belongings to live on her own, Evelyn takes her as a grown up and says: “You’re quite capable of choosing a place to live without my help.” Evelyn trusts Faith and respects her daughter like an adult.

Point 3: The relationships between Eva and Helga, and Faith and Evelyn are very similar. Eva and Helga both have a loving relationship, although Eva can sometimes be a difficult child who is hard to deal with. Evelyn takes the example of her mother and raises her daughter in a similar way. The relationship between Faith and Evelyn is fairly similar. Evelyn takes the example of her mother Helga which is clearly shown as he helps Faith pack her clothes in Act 1. Both mothers love their daughters and and have a good relationship with them, although they can be harsh at times, because they want their daughters to have a good future and care about them.

TITLE: EXAM MALPRACTICES IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUION IN KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN
AMA International University Bahrain
College of Administrative and Financial Science
Research Submission –Ch. 1-3
3rd trimester SY 2017 -2018
Prepared by:
Lolwa Alsubaie – BH15500435
Fatima Khalifa Alqallaf – BH15500736
Reem Yaqoob – BH16500197
Key word
Malpractices:
Is the state of immoral behavior, misconduct and improper behaviorDiagnosis:
Determining the nature and cause of a particular phenomenon.Erroneous:
wrong, incorrect.

Loath:
don’t want to do something
Incurred:
Become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behavior or actions.

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Provision:
availableCheating:
Is to get something by dishonest means.Deception:
Trick or plan used to get what you want .Enterprise:
project, venture ,scheme .

Chapter 1
1. Introduction
malpractices is one of the topics of literature, psychological and educational, see forms of fraud and its effects and levels and methods. The subject of fraud has several aspects of education, economy and social ….Cheating is a form of fraud, deception and theft used by people of different levels.

It is action, not just behavior or confirmation, but it affects human ethics, learning ethics and the credibility of education and educational institutions. Some people have sex with each other (cheating) over the care of others.

There are many types of cheating methods, such as transferring a referral from a colleague, copying a project from a friend, or opening the phone during the exam.

The main objective of the study is learning and knowledge and not only success. Learning has many benefits, it affects and reflects on the student personality.

Based on the above, the phenomenon of fraud requires the study and research by specialists and professionals to resolve and address this phenomenon and reduce the effects and discuss the reasons or factors associated with the occurrence of this behavior and impact.

malpractices in job
In the case of obtaining a certificate without any educational effort, that he gets a certificate without education and knowledge, leading to failure in the field of work and causes many problems and disasters, for example: a doctor received a medical certificate by fraud and give the patient overdoses, which leads To his death, or the construction of engineers leads to the fall of the building.

malpractices in Business
That is, it uses malpractices in increasing profits and hurting consumers, which leads to poor trust among them and not dealing with them again
.1

1.1 Statement of the Problem
Why cheating in is a problem:
Exam malpractices in education or (Cheating) is a problem because Students may lose their marks, will waste time while doing the exam because they depend on cheating and may have to study again the subject, so then the students will not get more information and knowledge that will help them in their future jobs. Also Students may affect the graduation year because they may repeat the subject. Who cheats may feel depression after catching them, that’s will lead to lowers self-respect and confidence.

Cheating have many reasons like fear of failure, desire for better grade, increase his/her financial income and more of reasons that will leads to lots of effects on students like depression, losing marks and they will not get more information and knowledge for future.

Objectives
This study will be conducted to determine the common occurrence problem which is cheating, this study aims to:
To Study the reason of cheating.

To Find out the effects of cheating.

To provide suggestions based on findings.

1.2 Significance of the Study
This study contains many aspects to the phenomenon, including the reasons for Cheating, motives of cheating in exams, prevention measures and treatment of the phenomenon of cheating.

The study should be beneficial to all educational organizations in addition to government and private institutions, establishment and for the provision of well-educated market force, such as:
The Students: This study will encourage the students not to cheat and depend on their study and knowledge, also to know the consequences of cheating.
Ministry of Education: This study will encourage Ministry of Education to make campaigns, lectures or even seminars about cheating to warn the students about it and encourage them to depend on their study and knowledge.
Social worker at school: This study will encourage Social worker at school to advise students by conducting some lectures entitled Cheating and its consequences.

1.3 Scope and Limitation
The research propose is study the malpractices is the educational institutions in kingdom of Bahrain , to research specifically conduct the study in the AMA international university.
Research have only two weeks to survey the sample respondents. This may limit the number of sample to be collected.

There is scope for students not being responsive and based.

The study involve cost which may he higher than the budgeted amount.

References
1 https://www.quora.com/Why-do-some-students-cheat-during-tests-and-examsChapter 2
2. Literature Review
Gallant, Binkin, and Donohue in (2015) they said the Student cheating has always been an issue in higher education stage, but recently detection of cheating has become more easier with great development technological devices. As result, the chances of the illegal practice of cheating became significantly less.

Identifying those at risk for being reported for cheating is a first step in developing preventive measures. Previous research has attempted to do this through the use of self-report surveys, but such research takes considerable time and resources to carry out and suffers from low response rates and social desirability bias. To address this constraint in existing research, this study links current data from records of other-reported cheating to university registration data in order to examine 6 cheating risk factors recognized in previous research: maturity level, sex, score average, major, international student status, and fright of punishment. The results of the study suggest that international and transfer students, particularly those who are men, in high-risk majors (like computer science, economics and engineering), and have lower grades are in particular need of preventative education. Likewise, those faculty who teach in computer science, engineering and economics majors should do more to educate implement practices to reduce the likelihood of cheating.1
Ballantine, Guo, Larres in (2018) explain this study demonstrates the prospective for influencing business students to act ethically by directing their undergraduate learning environment. Moreover, the bond between business students’ academic cheating, as a predictor of workplace ethical behavior, and their approaches to education is explored. The three approaches to learning identified from the students’ approaches to learning literature are deep approach, represented by an intrinsic interest in and a desire to realize the subject, surface approach, characterized by rote learning and memorization without understanding, and strategic approach, associated with spirited students that aims to achieve merit grades by adopting either a surface or deep approach. Consistent with the hypothesized theoretical model, structural equation modeling revealed that the surface approach is associated with higher levels of cheating, while the deep approach is related to lower levels. The strategic approach had result in decreasing the level of cheating and had a statistically stronger influence than the deep approach. Further, a encouraging relationship reported between deep and strategic approaches illustrates that cheating is reduced when deep and strategic approaches are paired. These findings suggest that future managers and business executives can be influenced to behave more ethically in the workplace by directing their learning approaches. It is hoped that the evidence presented may encourage those involved in the design of business programs to implement educational strategies which optimize students’ approaches to learning towards deep and strategic characteristics, thereby equipping tomorrow’s managers and business executives with skills to recognize and respond appropriately to workplace ethical dilemmas.2
Elias in (2017) wrote Cheating is an epidemic in higher education. The author tested the psychological variable of academic entitlement and its relationship with the ethical perception of cheating using a sample of business students. Contrary to some previous research, the author found that millennia’s were only to some extent more academically entitled than students from other generations but overall had a low sense of entitlement. Highly entitled business students viewed cheating actions as less unethical compared with less entitled students. 3
Cavanagh in (2014) explain the online tests are a relatively efficient way to assess large amount of job candidates and are becoming more and more popular with organizations. Due to their unprotected nature, nevertheless online selection tests provide the potential for candidates to cheat, which may undermine the validity of these tests for selecting qualified candidates. The aim of this study was to test the appropriateness of utility theory as a framework for understanding decision-making in regard to cheating on an online cognitive ability test (CAT) by manipulating the probability of passing the test with cheating, the probability of being caught cheating, and the value of being caught cheating in two samples: 518 adults recruited through Amazon mTurk, and 384 undergraduate students. The probability of being caught cheating significantly affected performance on the CAT for the mTurk sample, but not for the student sample, and significantly moderated the relationship between CAT score during session one and CAT score during session two for the student sample. Neither the probability of being caught cheating, nor the value of being caught cheating significantly affected CAT performance or validity in either sample. Findings regarding the prevalence and effectiveness of cheating are discussed. 4
Elias in (2015) examined Cheating is a common issue among college students. Research illustrates that business students cheat more often than other students and that this deceitful was interrelated with future unethical workplace behavior. The current research examines some psychological determinants of business students’ cheating perception. A survey was conducted to 474 undergraduate business students in two universities. The levels of Individualism/Collectivism and the Protestant Work Ethic were measured for each respondent as well as his/her perception of various doubtful cheating behaviors. The research indicated that high Collectivists and those with a high Protestant Work Ethic were more probable to view cheating actions as more unethical than other individuals those with a lower work ethic. The results have implications for college instructors in their attempt to reduce the chances of cheating. 5
Giluka and Postlethwaite in (2015) demonstrate that the Academic dishonesty is widespread within secondary and higher education. It can include unethical academic behaviors such as cheating, plagiarism, or unauthorized help. Researchers have recognized a number of individual and contextual factors in an effort to understand the phenomenon. In the last ten years there has been rising interest in the role personality plays in explanation immoral academic behaviors. We used meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between each of the Big Five personality factors and academic dishonesty. Previous reviews have highlighted the role of neuroticism and extraversion as possible predictors of cheating behavior. However, our results showed that conscientiousness and agreeableness are the strongest Big Five predictors, with both factors negatively related to academic dishonesty. We discuss the implications of our findings for both research and practice. 6
Blau, Kunkle, Mittal, Rivera, Ozkan in (2017) studied Dealing with academic dishonesty remains an ongoing issue for business school faculty. In this study, using an online survey, the authors examined responses of 233 business school faculty from a Tier 1 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business–accredited University and measured their perceptions of undergraduate cheating and recognizing such behavior. Study results showed promise for measuring 3 types of cheating behavior scales: paper based, internet based, and direct exam. Faculty who formally reported a cheating incident perceived a higher general cheating problem, and higher levels of paper-based, internet-based, and direct exam cheating than the faculty who had never reported a student. 7
Ellis, Zucker, and Randall (2018). Examined while there is growing awareness of the existence and activities of Academic Custom Writing websites, which form a small part of the contract cheating industry, how they work remains poorly understood. Very little research has been done on these sites, perhaps because it has been assumed that it is impossible to see behind their firewalls and password protection. We have found that, with some close analysis, it is indeed possible to find couple of ‘cracks’ in these sites through which we can look to gain insights into the business activities that operate within them. We have reverse engineered the business processes that operate within some of these sites. From this we have also been able to identify three diverse business models that are supported by these sites. Our analysis supports important findings about how these sites operate that can be used to inform future strategies to detect and deter contract cheating. 8
Kupchik, and Catlaw, (2015) studies the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health data set to evaluate the long-term influence of school discipline and security on political and civic participation. We find that young adults with a history of school suspension are less probable than others to vote and volunteer in civic activities years later, telling that suspension negatively impacts the chances that youth engage in prospect future political and civil activities.These findings are consistent with prior theory and research highlighting the long-term negative implications of punitive disciplinary policies and the role schools play in preparing youth to participate in a democratic polity. We conclude that suspension undermines the development of the individual skills and capacities necessary for a democratic society by substituting collaborative trouble solving for the exclusion and physical removal of students. The research lends empirical grounds for recommending the reform of school governance and the implementation of more constructive models of discipline.9
Hsiao (2015) explain Academic cheating is a global problem the face almost all universities worldwide. Many studies on academic cheating had focused on high school students and undergraduate colleges, few studies have focused on the scope of the students with and without jobs. Therefore, this study has empirically assessed the critical cheating issues by focusing on the uncovered area by many researches (comparing undergraduate students with and without jobs). To add, this study proposes a research framework based on the extended theory of planned behavior by including ethical and affective variables from the dual-process theory, the social learning theory, the decision affect theory, and the prospect theory. The survey method with a two-stage analytical procedure was used to achieve the research purpose. So a total of 525 student samples were preceded for subsequent analysis. The results demonstrate that all antecedents considerably affected students’ cheating intention. Moreover, the hypothetical relationships were examined across three groups of students. Firstly, individuals who are jobless; secondly, part-time employees; and finally, full-time employees. The results showed that some major differences existed in the relationships between antecedents and cheating intention across the different student groups. While perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect on cheating aim among students with no jobs and with full-time jobs, unethical beliefs in the workplace have a significant effect on cheating for students who are employeed, but not for students with part-time jobs and with no jobs. Implications for practitioners and academic institutions are discussed.10
References:
1 Gallant, T. B., Binkin, N., & Donohue, M. (2015). Students at risk for being reported for cheating. Journal of Academic Ethics, 13(3), 217-228.

2 Ballantine, J. A., Guo, X., & Larres, P. (2018). Can future managers and business executives be influenced to behave more ethically in the workplace? The impact of approaches to learning on business students’ cheating behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 149(1), 245-258.

3 Elias, R. Z. (2017). Academic entitlement and its relationship with perception of cheating ethics. Journal of Education for Business, 92(4), 194-199.

4 Cavanagh, T. M. (2014). Cheating on online assessment tests: Prevelance and impact on validity (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University. Libraries).5 Elias, R. Z. (2015). The Effect of Personality Characteristics on Business Students’ Perceptions of Cheating. Journal of Learning in Higher Education, 11(1), 11-16.

6 Giluk, T. L., & Postlethwaite, B. E. (2015). Big five personality and academic dishonesty: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 59-67.

7 Blau, G., Kunkle, M., Mittal, N., Rivera, M., & Ozkan, B. (2017). Measuring business school faculty perceptions of student cheating. Journal of Education for Business, 92(6), 263-270.

8 Ellis, C., Zucker, I. M., & Randall, D. (2018). The infernal business of contract cheating: understanding the business processes and models of academic custom writing sites. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 14(1), 1.9 Kupchik, A., & Catlaw, T. J. (2015). Discipline and participation: The long-term effects of suspension and school security on the political and civic engagement of youth. Youth & Society, 47(1), 95-124.?
10 Hsiao, C. H. (2015). Impact of ethical and affective variables on cheating: comparison of undergraduate students with and without jobs. Higher Education, 69(1), 55-77.?
Chapter 3
Research Methodology
3.1. Conceptual Framework and Theoretical Framework
Theoretical Framework
?McGregor Theory X and Theory Y: Vroom and Deci: 1970
?In his theory McGregor developed two distinct preconceived perceptions of how people observe human behaviour at work and organisational life. He believed that companies follow one of the two opposing approaches. He called these approaches theory X and theory Y.

?He argues that in theory X, management has the responsibility to ensure that the productive elements of the enterprise are organised such as money, materials, and people with the purpose of meeting economic ends.

?People have an inborn dislike of work and tend to avoid it whenever an opportunity arises, they are inborn selfish, indifferent to the needs of the organisation, peoples efforts need to be directed through motivation, controlling their actions and modification of their behaviour so as to fit organisational needs, they always need to be directed to take responsibility and have little or no ambition but above all everything they seek security. Due to the lazy inherent nature of human beings they are not able to perform well in their own initiative. In order to make people to achieve the organisational objectives they need to be persuaded, rewarded, coerced, controlled, directed or threatened with punishment. The role of management is to coerce and control employees.

?If management does not have an active intervention, people tend to remain passive and resistant to the needs of the organisation.

?On the other hand theory Y stipulates that management is charged with the responsibility to organise the elements of productive enterprise such as money, materials, equipment and people with the aim of meeting economic ends. To people work is a natural thing, they are not passive or resistant to organisational needs and are always ready to express self direction when committed to the objectives because people are naturally not lazy. Unlike theory X people accept and seek responsibility at all times. However the only way management can ensure that people are committed is to provide them with the right conditions and operation methods to enable them achieve their goals through the direction of their efforts to meet objectives of the organisation.

?In the assumptions suggested in theory Y, management’s role is to develop employee’s potential and help them to release that potential towards the achievement of common goals.

?Management in accomplishing its tasks uses these assumptions as guides and this leads to a variety of possibilities which fall between two extremes. In one extreme side management can be hard or strong and on the other management can be soft or weak.

?Theory X is the standpoint that traditional management has taken towards the work force while many modern organisations are now taking the enlightened position of theory Y (Boeree, 2006:3).

?Mc Gregor’s theory Y is linked to the questions in the questionnaire that are concerned about training, monitoring performance, performance assessment, working conditions.

Reference:
Schiphorst, F. (2008). Motivation and Work Performance: Complexities in Achieving Good Performance.

3.1.2 Conceptual framework:
20320288925
Want to learn.

Self-reliance.

A serious person
Certificate with knowledge.

experience
Want to pass only.

Dependence on other.

A neglected man.

Certificate without knowledge.

No experience

Based on the problem we identified the motivation theory the study has developed the concept frame work of Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students.
Research methodology
In this chapter the research design is presented in detail.

Research design.

Type pf research.

The type of research used is descriptive in nature, this means we are collecting information as it is present now, this information can change in future.

3.1(b) sources of data:
there are two methods of gathering data which are:
Primary source: First time data. By contrast, are collected by the investigator conducting the research, In this study the research uses primary data for analysis
Secondary source: the information is already available, The study has used articles, journals, and websites to collect information.

3.1(c): method of data collection:
Survey 🙁 Question, Answer): The methods involved in survey data collection are any of a number of ways in which data can be collected for a statistical survey. These are methods that are used to collect information from a sample of individuals in a systematic way.

In this Research we use survey method to collect information from respondents.

Method used for gathering data in our survey is depended on the survey method.

Research Instrument:
Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.

In this research a questionnaire is used to collect information from the respondents
Sampling design :
The sampling technique that can be used on probability & non probability in this study.The research used non probability technique.

Nonprobability samples: represents a group of sampling techniques that help researchers to select units from a population that they are interested in studying.

Convenience: A convenience sample is simply one where the units that are selected for inclusion in the sample are the easiest to access
Judgmental: Judgmental sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where the researcher selects units to be sampled based on their knowledge and professional judgment.

3.4 Tools used in this study
The statistical tools are :Percentages analysis – Method of analyzing information obtained over an extended period by choosing a baseline period and stating the data associated with subsequent periods as a percentage of that period.

Frequency distribution – is a tabular form of statistics. Each entry in the table contains the frequency or count of the occurrences of values within a particular group or interval, and in this way, the table summarizes the distribution of values in the sample.

Sample size:
The sample size in this research is 100. This it got by using the Cochran formula:
n=z2(p)(q)e2Where:
Z= 1.96 , p=0.5 , q=0.5, e=0.10

Title: CHALLENGES FOR JUDICIARY POST LIBERALIZATION
Subject : Sociology
Submitted By
Name and Roll No. : Monarch Pandya
Semester : V
Under The Guidance of : Dr. Deb Hota
Submitted to
GLS Law College,
Gujarat University,
Ahmedabad
Academic Year 2017-18
Table of Contents
SR. No.

Topic
Pg. No.

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From To
Declaration 3 3
1 Introduction 4 6
2 Review of Literature 7 10
3 Discussion of the main Topic 11 13
4 Conclusion 14 14
5 References/ Bibliography/End Notes 15 –

Declaration
I Monarch Pandya Roll no. :41 declare the work entitled “CHALLENGES FOR JUDICIARY POST LIBERALIZATION” being submitted to GLS Law College, Gujarat University for the project in the subject of Sociology is original and where the text is taken from the authenticated books, articles or any other web sources appropriate reference is given.

It is true to the best of my knowledge.

Name: Monarch Pandya
Roll No: 41
Semester: V
Date: 19september,2017
GLS Law College,
Gujarat University,
Ahmedabad
Introduction
The role of the judiciary is highly important in any democracy. More specifically it has enhanced itself to a great extent post development of welfare state and liberalisation. The Judiciary is known for delivering many land mark and prominent judgments that has improved the conditions of life for a number of groups and individuals. At the same time, it is constantly exposed to new challenges and new dimensions. Indian Judiciary today faces many impediments like huge amount of delay and pendency of cases, inappropriate Judge Population ratio, lack of infrastructure, lack of funds, faith in the system, accessibility, impact of legislations, procedural pitfalls etc. It is fighting to keep the faith of the people in the institution alive by dealing with various obstacles in the way of quick and qualitative dispensation of justice.

Many highly specialized areas of law like Intellectual property, Corporate law, Cyber law, Human rights, Alternative dispute resolution, International business transactions, are emerging and we have to be updated with new laws and amendment to provide timely and qualitative Justice. With the increasing challenges, the role of judicial institutions has also increased many folds. The concept of Judicial education has tremendously changed and the stake holders of Justice delivery system have also increased. The Judicial Institutions have to align its role of imparting Judicial education with the Judicial functioning. The Institution has to contribute as a change agent to assist judges in Managing change. As per Charles Darwin “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”
The most important function of Judge is adjudication of disputes which not only impacts the parties involved, but also the society at large. Judicial reasoning is said to be both an art and a science to be developed by judges by his knowledge, skills and attitude. The factual positions with the important legal position have to be analyzed before passing any Judgement. In criminal proceedings, the judge has to perform another important function of awarding an appropriate sentence to the guilty and awarding of compensation to the victim. The sentencing has assumed a critical role in criminal justice administration. Similarly, the adjudication of rights of parties and calculation of damages in a civil court is a challenging function of a Judge. With the emergence of Jurisprudence in various dimensions in substantive and procedural laws makes the assignment of a judge in criminal trials, Civil adjudication, family dispute settlements, juvenile justice etc, a very challenging task. The judge cannot afford to be obsolete in Justice Dispensation System.

In addition to above, he has to manage the docket and the Court staff for effective results. He has to maintain cordial relations with the bar along with a message of impartiality and competence. The Improvement of Justice delivery cannot be confined to the Judicial Officers. The stake holders of the legal system have to be developed for working towards a better legal system. The effective administration of justice is based on the competent Lawyers, Government pleaders, Ministerial staff of courts, Prosecution Officers, Members of Juvenile Justice Boards, Mediators etc. It has now become essential that these stake holders are trained to have positive synergic development of legal system for fulfillment of constitutional goal.
They need to be trained at the one centre like the National training Centres for Judiciary so as to implement better coordination amongst all the functionaries. The 13th Finance Commission has recommended for judicial reforms under which, funds have been allocated for enhancing quality of adjudication through training programmes and also for infrastructural improvements. The recommendation includes the development of judicial academies/institutes. Apart from this, allocations for enhancing support to Lokadalats, promoting Alternative Dispute Resolution, training for Public Prosecutors, creation of posts of Court Managers in every judicial district etc. have also been carried out. Five years period is slightly short to improve the long drawn maladies which have emerged out during last several decades. It may therefore be suggested that under the 14th Finance Commission also, all the existing measures for improvement must be extended.
Emphasis is laid on improving quality of justice and also sensitizing the judicial officers towards speedy justice delivery and marginalised section of the society. In imparting training, emphasis is upon the attitudinal change particularly for women, children, weaker section and senior citizens etc. Henceforth it can be seen that not only has the system of dispensation of justice by judges become complex, but also the fact that there are other administrative and departmental work to be done by them may be under the tribunals set up or under any other scheme set forth by the government. Post liberalisation period, the challenges for the judges have increased on a huge rate with respect to daily working, affairs and management. Some of these have been analysed critically in this paper presentation.

Review of Literature
The said assignment would critically analyse the impact of economic and political liberalisation and the approach of the judiciary towards it. Analysing the economic part of it first, it would be prudent to mention certain backgrounds which existed before the Courts to analyse the scheme of Economic Liberalisation. The reform process in India had been initiated with the aim of accelerating the pace of economic growth and eradication of poverty.

Since independence, India had followed the mixed economy framework by combining the advantages of the market economic system with those of the planned economic system. India’s economic reforms began slowly in the 1980s, and then accelerated under the pressure of an external crisis at the beginning of the 1990s.  But over the years, the economic policy enacted in 1991 resulted in the establishment of a variety of rules and laws which were aimed at controlling and regulating the economy and instead ended up hampering the process of growth and development.

From reading this assignment one can get general understanding that how the governmental policies affect the citizens of the country that is whether the policies bring about changes in the interest of the country as a whole or whether there is infringement of people’s rights and only a certain section of the population benefit from these policies. It also examines that whether the exercise of power by the government in view of these reforms does not an unreasonable restriction on the rights and freedom of others.

The process of economic liberalization in India began in the year 1991 with the objective of introducing  the new neo-liberal policies including opening of international trade and investment, deregulation, initiation of privatization, tax reforms, and inflation-controlling measures but over the years the overall direction of liberalization has since remained the same, irrespective of the ruling party, although no party has yet tried to take on powerful lobbies such as the trade unions and farmers, or contentious issues such as reforming labour laws and reducing agricultural subsidies.

The aim of the economic reforms and the policies should be to increase the Gross Domestic Product and as well as ensure that there is equal distribution of national income among the population of the country. Unequal distribution leads to a development of disparities among the different sections of the society, thus resulting in creation of a feeling of inferiority among some people. Citizens would start believing that the rights granted to them by the Constitution of the country are being denied to them and there is favourable behaviour noticeable among the policy makers of the nation.

However there are serious questions about the credibility of these reforms since people have alleged that these reforms, instead of harbouring collective good, favour the higher strata of the society only, thus resulting in denial of rights and advantages of such provisions to others. There are also grave concerns as to till what extent the courts have the power to adjudicate the economic matters coming in the courts regarding the policies adopted by the government for the betterment of the economy.

The economy of a country must include an interpretation of public good which is based on the conception of justice. It should guide the reflections of the citizen when he considers questions of economic and social policy. An economic system is not only an institutional device for satisfying existing wants and needs but a way of creating and fashioning wants in the future. This idea was put forth by economists such as Marshall and Marx.

The reforms of 1991-1993 were not just about macroeconomic stabilization. It was about taking the first step towards freeing India from its old isolationism. For the first time in a millennium, India had the courage to face the real world—to compete in global export markets, to attract foreign investment, and to allow the messy hustle-bustle of free markets. Even more importantly, it opened itself intellectually and culturally to the outside world—a precondition for economic prosperity as well as a socio-cultural renaissance.

After the adoption of the new economic policy in 1991, there were problems faced by the importers in the country mainly due to the Liberalization of trade and foreign investment – the ‘globalization’ aspect of India’s reforms –has not been sufficient to promote widespread competitiveness, nor to overcome or rectify the poor state of India’s infrastructure. Thus the economic reform agenda in India remained lengthy as well as complicated.

Response by the Indian Judiciary
It is interesting to note the rather conservative approach of the Supreme Court of India while interpreting the economic policy of the Government of India. The most celebrated case in this context is Balco Employees Union vs. Union of India and others; the relevant extract is quoted hereafter: “47. Process of disinvestment is a policy decision involving complex economic factors. The Courts have consistently refrained from interfering with economic decisions as it has been recognised that economic expediencies lack adjudicative disposition and unless the economic decision, based on economic expediencies, is demonstrated to be so violative of constitutional or legal limits on power or so abhorrent to reason, that the Courts would decline to interfere. In matters relating to economic issues, the Government has, while taking a decision, right to “trial and error” as long as both trial and error are bona fide and within limits of authority. There is no case made out by the petitioner that the decision to disinvest in BALCO is in any way capricious, arbitrary, illegal or uninformed.

From its nascent stage, the apex court in India has struggled with the issue of striking equilibrium between economic and social reform programmes on the one hand and establishing the credibility of India by fostering respect for rule of law, on the other.
Further, the judicial reforms initiated to enhance administration, including the introduction of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, the constitution of Lok Adalats to amicably settle and compromise the disputes pending in the courts, the providing of free and competent legal aid to the poor and weaker sections of the society in consonance with Article 39A of the Constitution, the establishment of specialized tribunals, both administrative and internal (for instance Administrative Tribunals and the Armed Forces Tribunal) as well as tribunals dealing with the disputes arising out of or associated with economic activities such as Competition Appellate Tribunal, Securities Appellate Tribunal etc. have shown a great impact on the Indian society with reference to their working.

Discussion of the Main Topic
The vitality of law as a living organism is primarily dependent on the judge’s ability to pour life into it when the circumstances so demand by making new inroads into the law. Undoubtedly, no other Constitution can be found envisaging such a detailed cluster of provisions regarding a country’s highest judicial organ, as the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court of India is one of the most potent judicial organs in the world today, and it plays a fundamental role in determining constitutional jurisprudence in India.

In the early phases of post-independence, the Supreme Court grappled with the problem of striking an equilibrium between programmes of economic and social reform (for example, the land reform and land redistribution policy during the late 1950?s and 1960?s) on one hand and instituting the credibility of the Indian State in terms of strengthening the rule of law and respecting the rights vested under the laws that preceded independence, and the very Constitution itself, on the other. However, the gradual movement towards judicial activism can be discerned from the 1970’s. In numerous constitutional decisions delivered by the Supreme Court, one of the most important among them being the Kesavananda Bharathi Case, the Court legitimated its interpretative method on the extent of parliament’s amending power under Article 368 of the Indian constitution, by referring to the interests of the people of India.
Expansion of judicial authority was witnessed in the post emergency phase, which saw the growth of the phenomenon of Public Interest Litigation (PIL), wherein the court reinterpreted the provisions of the fundamental rights liberally, in order to maximize the rights of the people, especially those of the disadvantaged sections of the society. The access to courts was facilitated by relaxing the technical rules of locus standi, along with other procedural and institutional innovations. The Court has been vigilant and pro-active in a plethora of cases, thereby adequately ensuring dynamism and vibrancy in the Indian Constitution.

Justice Krishna Iyer in the Fertilizer Corporation Kamgar Union Caseenumerated certain reasons for the liberalization of the rule of locus standi, namely that the exercise of state power to eradicate corruption may result in unrelated interference with individuals? rights and social justice which warrants liberal judicial review of administrative action and that the restrictive rules of standing are antithesis to a healthy system of administrative action and activism is essential for participative public justice.

Public Interest Litigation has therefore greatly widened the scope of access to justice as any public minded citizen is now given the opportunity to move the court in the interest of the general public. The Courts have given decisions in cases pertaining to different kinds of entitlements and protections, such as the availability of food, access to clean air, safe working conditions, political representation, affirmative action, anti-discrimination measures and the regulation of prison conditions among others.
The seeds of the concept of Public Interest Litigation in India were initially sown by Krishna Iyer J. in 1976, in Mumbai Kamgar Sabha v. Abdul Bhai Akhil Bharatiya Shoshit Karmachari Sangh (Railway) v. Union of India, saw an unregistered association of workers being permitted to institute a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution for the redressal of their common grievances. Later, the idea of PIL flourished in S.P. Gupta and Ors. v. Union of India.
Judicial Activism in India can be examined with reference to the review power of the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution, particularly in areas pertaining to public interest litigation. Through judicial activism, Supreme Court has played a pioneering role in the formulation of several principles like the Principle of Absolute Liability in Oleum Gas Leak Case, Public Trust Doctrine in Kamalnath Case etc. Furthermore, a host of guidelines were also issued by the Court in diverse cases of PIL like the Ratlam Municipality Case, Taj Trapezium Case, Ganga Pollution Case etc.

Conclusion
The Indian judiciary has sustained tremendous changes over the years and is still in the process of development in order to effectively administer justice in consonance with the government’s general policy. In addition to the setting up of courts and the enactment of legislation, electronic services have facilitated litigation process in the courts in an unprecedented manner resulting in faster dispensation of justice and case resolution, despite the heavy workload.
Amongst the most remarkable developments witnessed by the judiciary over the past few years is the diversity in cases adjudicated. Specialized courts and special committees have been instituted to handle cases with distinctive features. There has also been an increasing interest in regulating the legal profession, in what seems to be a serious move towards advancing the profession, taking into account the importance of this vital sector and its influential role in the judicial system. Thus, after the period of liberalization the courts have developed their way through by a series of judgments as shown above and also keeping in mind the increasing interests of the population of the country and the policy of social welfare and liberalization. After all these situations and conditions adverse to working, the judiciary is providing an efficient mechanism in rendering justice. Hence, the job of the judiciary and the judges has changed considerably and none of them have succumbed to this change rather the spirit of moving with it has been induced by the law and apex court itself.
In the end, as a conclusive note it is all of us who bring about change in society and thus unless our mental barriers towards reform are broken, all attempts for external remedies are bound to fail. We must remember what Gandhiji said:
“If you want to change anything, you be the change.”
Bibliography

Title : Monoclonal antibody manufacturing via hybridoma processing
Preface : Hybridoma processing is significant for monoclonal and polyclonal antibody formation. Monoclonal antibody origination are mentioned hither solely. Amid this scheme, standard B-cell and neoplastic cell are needed. Antibody origination is B-cell’s power. Everlasting and high spreading rate are neoplastic cell’s ability. Created antibody are definite in activity. So, same antibody making strategy is indicated as hybridoma processing.
The method incorporates six stages.
1. Vaccination: To begin with, mice is vaccinated. Thereafter antibody originates against the vaccination inside the mice’s body. Whereas,the content of the antibody is optimum inside the mice. Splenocytes are obtained by killing it. Splenocyte retains antibody manufacturing B-cell.
2. Co-ordination: Cancer cell is assembled with splenocyte here. Fifty percent of PEG is applied to combine those cells. A Combined cell is directed as hybridoma cell.
3. Choice: Selection is completed via HAT medium. The cells are found here are:.
*unmixed B-cell : which can die beneath the medium in brief time because of it’s short life.
*unmixed cell : which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*hybridoma cell: it’ll live in the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.
4. Screening : It is done by ELISA system. The chosen cells are shifted to ninety-six plastic well plates. One cell is stays at one well. At, an underside of the plates definite antigens are adsorbed. Antibody will bind to the antigens if the cells generate desired antibody. Antibody is then identified by immunoconjugate what contains 2 ingredients. One ingredient is definite for an epitope and antibody is immobilized by this component. Another one is enzyme that brings color to the well. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is surveyed by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : Afterwards of screening,with the help of interleukin-6 system antibody cloning proceeds for additional creation and growth of antibody.
6. Indication and saving : Antibody’s will be placed in liquid N2 media after characterization.

TITLE: HOW GOAL-SETTING TECHNIQUES HELPS INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN COPING UP WITH CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN AUSTRALIA.
INTRODUCTION
Background Material
Globalisation encompasses the coming together in education (Held et al., 1999). The aspect of globalisation and international studies is prominent within Australian schools, with international students coming from all over the world with different cultural background to study in Australian within Australian culture (Erlenawati Sawir, 2005). The new environment is accompanied with cultural differences. Cultural sensitivity is a very vital and key issue as it influences the stay, study and academic performance of international students in various ways (Charles and Steward, 1991). According to Rajab et al. (2014) cultural differences and cultural unfamiliarity affect goals, feelings, motivation and belief of students or any individual in new cultural environment. For international students to succeed they is need for adaptation and/or finding a way to cope with this differences and achieve their goals. One of the ways through which international students can adapt to these cultural differences in Australian schools is goal setting technique (Info Study Team, 2015).
The goal setting theory has been well developed in company context as a means of improving employee performance. The performance of workers in any business organisation or any working environment is influenced by goal setting technique, with a corresponding increase in performance when goal setting technique is well implemented (Locke and Latham, 2002). When goals are specific, and difficult but attainable individual perform better (Lunenburg, 2011).
According to Info Study Team (2015), setting of goals posses as a challenge to students, creates a strong bridge between the student and their end goal and give students a sense of control over his/her end results. This can help students deal with cultural differences and achieve their objectives.
Due to the fact that Australian school harbour a large number of international students, with different cultural differences, coupled with the fact that these cultural differences post as limitation and affect their academic performance, they is need to need to develop appropriate methods through which they can cope with these differences. This research aims to determine how Goal-Setting theory can be used by international student to adapt to these cultural differences in Australia.

Problem Statement
There is increase in the amount of international student coming from all over the world from different cultural backgrounds to study in Australia (Asialink, 2004). These cultural differences pose a problem to international students as it affect their performance. As a result there is need to determine how international students can cope with these cultural differences. One of the methods through which they can cope with these cultural differences is Goal setting technique.
Justification
Performance of international students is important to Australia as it hope to attract more international student. This performance is influenced by cultural differences. Determining how goal-setting technique can be used to cope with this cultural difference will help to international students to cope with cultural differences as a result increase the academic performance of these international students and hence attract more international students to Australian schools.
Theoretical Framework and a Review of Related Studies
This study take bases from goal-setting theory (Locke & Latham, 1990), this theory states that setting goals increase performance when well implemented as it increase focus, built self confidence and create a link to goal as a result enables a person to achieve aims easily and more effectively (Idowu et al 2014). The individual must be conscious of the goal and goals must be attainable (Locke and Latham 1990). This theory is hence important to the study as it brings clearly spells out that students have to have goals and focus to guide them to attain pre set goals.
The relevance of theory is based on using goal setting technique and skill to enhance student academic performance. Psychology research have also studied learning in social context (O’Donnel, 2006), which leads to increase need to access methods that benefit students, with Goal setting technique being one of the most common methods (Ridley, 1992). Goals are specific predetermine end point or target an individual tries to achieve (Ilogu, 2005).
In addition, according to Brown and Latham (2000), setting specific, realistic and attainable goals perform higher compared to individuals without pre-set specific goals. For example Schunk (1993) carried out a research on goal setting technique on sixth graders and he found that goal-setting enhanced performance. In another study, according to Hopman and Glynn (1989), writing performance was improved in 13-year-old boys with academic difficulty when the goal setting technique was used whereby student where asked to set goal in terms of amount of words to use in their essays. Also in another research, it was found that college student in remedial writing classes increase the amount of journal they write a day as a result of setting goals on the amount of line to write each every 24 hours (Hall, 1990). Many other characteristic also influence student academic performance for example such as social class, financial need and others (Idowu et al 2014). However goal setting is a vital technique that can be used to increase academic performance in international students from different cultural backgrounds.
Objectives
General objective
To determine how goal-setting techniques help international students in coping up with cultural differences in Australia.
Specific Objectives
To determine performance of international students before exposure to goal setting technique.
To evaluate the students performance after exposure to gaol setting technique.

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To analyse how goal setting helps these students.

Hypothesis
This hypothesis will serve as a guide to this research.

H: There will be a significant difference in academic performance of participants pre and post exposure to goal-setting techniques.
LITERATURE REVIEW
There is an increase in amount of international students studying in foreign countries (Held et al., 1999). Migrants student are often faced with cultural stress as a results their performance is affected (Charles and Steward, 1991). Goal setting can be used to cope with this cultural difference. Goal setting theory has been research by many researchers (Low and Patrick, 2016).
International Education
Globalisation and likewise International education is on a rapid rise in recent years. An estimated 1.7 million students according to OECD (2004) leave their home countries to study in other foreign countries. These migrations are cause by various reasons such as search for better study opportunities (Marginson and McBurnie, 2004).
Foreign education plays a vital part in Australian educational sector and Australian economy as a whole, being the third largest service sector after transport and tourism. (Erlenawati Sawir, 2005). The number of Australian foreign students in Australian universities and other higher education rose from 24,998 in late 1990s to about 219, 397 in the early 2000s (OECD, 2004). Foreign students coming to Australia are faced with change in culture and as such they need to adjust to this new culture such as language and societal values, as a result there is need focus on difficulties encountered by these students and how they can cope or overcome them (Erlenawati Sawir, 2005).

Culture
Culture consist of patterns and behaviours acquired and transmitted by symbols that are peculiar to particular group of individuals and usually represented by artefacts showing specific culture consisting of traditional values (Kroeber and Kluckhohn, 1952).

Culture is defined by John et al (2007) as cited by Yao Ma and Xi Ran (2011) as a set of values, beliefs, rules and institution that is peculiar to particular set of people. Psychologically, culture has a great and significant influence on behaviour according to Robert Serpell (1976); He explained the that culture has a marked influence on personality, motives and attitude of a person and also influences the way the person sees certain things with respect to intellectual structure and structural reasoning, way of communication and perception (Robert Serpell, 1976).
Cultural stress among international students at Australian Universities
Students studying in foreign countries are faced with a lot of difficulties in the new country due to difference in culture with respect to home countries which affects the physical and psychological wellbeing of the student and hence affect his/her academic results and performance (Ward et 2001).
These students are subject to cultural shock associated with change in cultural environment which can result in psychological stress as a result they is need to use coping strategies to cope with the stress encountered to be able to achieve their goals (Oberg, 1960).
Many factors affects the adaptation of international students to the culture of new environment, this includes status, level of education, self esteem, language proficiency, prior cross0cultural experiences and other factors such length of stay, support and information acquired, how they interact with citizens of host countries and the interaction with their original (Ward et al., 2001); interaction with original culture will slow down the adaptation (Berry, 1997). The amount of time they have spend in the new environment is one of the key aspects to adjustment and thriving of international students; as they become usually more comfortable as they become more and more acquitted with new cultural environment (Adler, 1975; Wars et al., 1998; Ward and Rana-Dueba, 1999)
The level at which these students interact with host nationals is vital in the adaptation to host culture and practices, with more interaction being associated with faster and easy understand of host culture and hence facilitate adaptation leading to better academic performance (Church, 1982 and Li and Gasser, 2005).
According to (Hofstede, 1997), there has been trials and proposal to classify and categories cultural values and characteristic, an example is the set of dimensions. Hofstede dimension put Australian and Asia culture at opposite ends of each dimension to the relative wide gap in cultural beliefs and practices; this dimension method has been implemented to determine the difficulties faced by Asian students and Australian learning facilities (Asialink, 2004).
Goal Setting Techniques
Setting goals and making plans to achieve them are very important as it will contribute to individual success, and make it easy for an individual if he or she sets difficult, specific attainable goals. These goals ensure that you make a decision how your goals change and ensure your goals vary according to what you want (Mikeal Olssson, 2011). Creating goals create a personal awareness and as a result and individual become more conscious to environmental challenges and opportunities and how to manage his or her assets (Mikeal Olssson, 2011).

The impact of goal setting on performance is function of various factors such specificity, proximity and difficult level (Bandura, 1988; Locke et al., 1981).
Goal usually incorporate standards, which enhance learning and boost performance due to greater specification, proximity of goals on the other hand increases motivation more that farfetched goals (Schunk, D. H., 1990)
Implications of goal setting theory
Under the right implementation conditions, goal setting is a powerful technique for motivation of organisation members (DuBrin, 2012). They are various suggestions for stakeholders to consider when attempting using goal setting techniques as a means of enhancing motivation and performance (DuBrin, 2012, Greenberg, 2011 and Newstrom, 2011).

Goals need to be specific: Research indicates that setting non specific goals will lead to a poor performance. Goals need to be specific. Specific goals help to bring about desirable organisational goals (Locke and Latham, 2002).

Goals must be difficult but attainable: Very easily achievable goals will not bring about any significant desirable increase in performance. Hence, importantly the goals must be difficult to attain (Lunenburg, 2011).

Must Have deadlines: Deadlines improves the effectiveness of achieving goals, as it serves as a time frame control and increase the motivational impact of goals (Lunenburg, 2011).
Importance of setting goals
Setting difficult but achievable goals is very important; it improves performance in various ways including (Team FME, 2013):
Goals ensure focus and commitment to achieve pre-set end results.

Goals lead to spirit of hard work, thrive and energy to succeed.
Goals make an individual conscious and a work according to a well structured plan of action.
Goal setting theory
Goal setting theory was developed by Professor Edward Locke, where he argued that preset goals lead to increase performance and drives intrapersonal willingness to achieve a preset objective (Locke et al., 1981). There are many goal setting methods, including 4C F, SMART and background goal setting
-4? F: This stands for Clarity, challenge, complexity, commitment and feedback.
-???R?: Mnemonic for Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.
-Background Gaol Setting: Working from end goal.
According to Team FME (2013), these goals setting theory methods are interrelated with each method complimenting each other. For example, the 4C F, make the goal appear in widest sense while SMART compliments 4C F, by stating the specific goal. However every of these methods has its negative and positive threats. Using two of these methods at once will produce more positive results (Team FME, 2013). Using 4C F alone will present vary wide but vague goals while SMART on the other hand will produce very clear goals but either very complex or very simple goals, combination of these methods will produce a better result while on another hand, Background goal setting method take decision based on analysis of result and feedback (Team FME, 2013).
General Model of Goal setting theory
Leaders in goal setting theory and research have incorporated aver 400 studies about goals into a theory of goal setting and task performance, according to Locke and Latham (1990). A goal is simply what an individual is consciously trying to do. “Goals, in conjunction with self-efficacy often mediate or partially mediate the effects of other potentially motivating variables, such as personality traits, feedback, participation in decision making, job autonomy, and monetary incentives” Locke and Latham (2006).

Goals affect individual and increase performance, and according to Locke and Latham (1990), goals direct attention and action. Furthermore, challenging goals mobilize energy and hence increase efforts and persistence. Goals motivate individuals to succeed, and finally, motivation can cause satisfaction and further motivation (Lunenburg, 2011).
Summary of literature
Based literature search, a high amount of work has been done on multiculturalism among universities with students from different parts of the world and cultural background. Also much work has been done on goal setting theory in business and industrial settings, which have provided positive results. Work has also been done on cultural differences and adaptation of foreign students in Australian culture, with various means and method of adaptation studied. But however literature is lacking when it comes to methods through which international student can cope with cultural differences encountered in Australian schools. This research aims to study how the goals setting method can be used by foreign students to cope with cultural difference between origin culture and Australian culture in Australian learning environment.
Methodology
Conclusion
References

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