Title:
The experiences and impact of digital humanities and social sciences with regards to informatics in terms of computing solutions, with the regard of cybercrime and their impact in South Africa.

Introduction:
The proposed study will attempt to investigate digital humanities and social sciences through the motion of cyber-crimes and experiences of such within South Africa, where specific attention will be placed in regards to accessing stored communications (hacking) and individuals and organizations who have experienced attacks of such cybercrimes. The study will investigate how the experiences of cybercrimes has impacted South Africa as a country. Therefore the study will be conducted using a qualitative methodology which thus involves collecting data in the form of spoken words or languages, this will therefore be based on personal interviews that therefore involve a semi -structured interview and content analysis. Moreover the study framework will be conducted using a descriptive-interpretive (hermeneutics) paradigm which one can argue, focuses on the experiences of individuals. Therefore this method would be appropriate in order to facilitate a clear, reasonable, rich understanding of the experiences and impact of cybercrimes in South Africa.

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Literature Review:
1. Defining Cybercrime
Cybercrime is seen as a means of illegal acts which involves the commission with the regard to use of information and communication technologies. It can be therefore be in terms of a computer/ cybercrime in object of (hacking, phishing or even spamming) or a tool used to commit an offense such as ( child pornography, hate crimes and drug trafficking ). Therefore it is extremely hard to order wrongdoings .One can argue, even in reality wrongdoings like assault, murder or robbery require no discrete means, however cybercrimes are done often without individuals or organizations knowing. Moreover all cybercrimes include both the use of personal computers and the individuals behind it as casualties, it just relies upon which of the two is the primary target.
In addition subsequently, the use of personal computer in terms of cybercrimes have been taken a view as either an objective or apparatus for effortlessness in purpose. It is critical to observe that covering happens and in large it is difficult to have an impeccable characterization framework as it serves as an umbrella term that covers many great possibilities as to the types of crimes that is experienced by individuals through their own personal means.

2. History of cybercrime in South Africa
In South African cyber-attacks have become more advanced and frequent over the years, therefore it is said that South Africa is considered to be one of the most affected countries of cybercrimes in the world costing the economy an estimated R5 billion which vast amount of attacks coming from major intuitions and actors . Moreover cybercrimes syndicates have operated in two different cyber attacking methods namely phishing which is the attacks of individuals and whale phishing which focus on an organisation. This form of attacks are often used in what is called ‘social media engineering’, to which an individual’s social media information is gathered from statuses or posts that are used to attack individuals , ultimately leading to hacking through the means of stored communications .Moreover in South Africa cybercrimes not only affect the general public to be victims of crime but also companies and corporations are becoming more at risk of cybersecurity breaches which they risk exposing financial and customer data together with the damage of their network and IT infrastructure. It has been estimated in 2016 almost 9 million South Africans were victims of cybercrime according to the study done by security company Norton. Moreover cybercrimes in South Africa has become a growing issue in both public and private sector thus effecting all sectors of society including businesses, government, individuals through the use of the internet and its services.

2.2 Hacktivism in cyber crimes
Hacktivism a common element of cybercrime and in particular to which has greatly impacted many South Africans and is a growing and popular movement in the cyber world. The word ‘hack’ is essence is generally used to describe the use of cyber technology, most often computer systems and the word ‘actvism’ means social or political change. Hacktivism is generally carried out by individuals or organizations who operate because of shared values or a particular philosophy. Hackers don’t only operate for finical or criminal gain but also particular cases of injustice that they identified, such was noted in 2016 when South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) suffered a hacktivist attack on twitter, which stated the protest of new censorship and to which the broadcasting corporation was taken offline. Moreover whilst hacktivism might not amount to a finical means it often ambigious and controversial with regard to its several meanings , however in essence any invasion of ones privacy through the use of illegal means of technology amounts to cybercrimes.

2.3 Cybercrime attacks in South Africa
In addition cybercrimes has vastly impacted South Africa at large particularly hacking has played a major challenge to many South Africans together with large business and government organizations being victims to such activities by criminals. An example of such incident occurred in 2014 when South African Police Service (SAPS) website was hacked by a hactivist group, which allowed the hacker to download personal data on individuals who were assisting the police. Thereafter such information was made aware to a public website to which the hacker stated, that the attack was due to lack of action in arresting of police personnel who were involved in Marikana shooting in 2012. Moreover the hack had exposed a severe flaw in online data management which allowed easy prey for accessing stored communications.

Furthermore in 2017 the Minister of Home Affairs Ayanda Dlodlo had called hawks to investigate a criminal syndicate operating within South Africa on social media , that had created a fake account on social media in her name to which advertised fake government deals to which she had actual dealing in. Therefore one can argue that in South Africa hacking of one’s personal information, businesses and government organizations through the use of technology through the use of internet has collectively undermined the country’s ability to secure its people and sovereignty .

3. Reasons for cybercrimes in South Africa
In South Africa the main reasons as to why such incidents of cybercrimes takes place is due to element of corruption and particularly the human element that amounts to the many incidents that the country faces. Moreover in many cases much of the cybercrime activities are done through hackers who are provided with such information through inside sources or through hoax elements to trick others. Furthermore hackers use many sites and doggy email addresses to purse their victim, in order to gain access to their personal banking accounts and investments an example would be tab nabbing where fake sites are set up that look legitimate to gain access to login details before your redirected to actual site, in doing so hackers can now long into several other accounts and receive information. In addition cybercrimes can also amount to various other criminal activities such as electronic harassment to which people are threated through the means of text messages, calls and emails however the purpose of the research aims specifically to cybercrimes of hacking.
3. Struggles of cybercrime victims
The internet users in South Africa are estimated to have lost over 70% of their money through the hands of hackers in cyber activities which leaves these victims out of pocket for money, to which only a small fifty-three percent say they will be reimbursed by banks for cybercrime. Moreover cybercriminals are always on the lookout for new ways to exploit and defraud consumers, as a result not many are kept in the light on how to safe guard themselves and are often victims to cyber hackers. Fast development of online banking and investments makes it easy for hackers to gain information but puts a strain on individuals and organizations to move ahead with the times without falling victim. According to a reported case in 2013 by Norton revealed that approximately 12 people fall victim to cybercrimes every second of the day thus showing more and even more cybercriminals who are actively exploiting convenience, speed and the use of internet to commit diverse range of criminal activities to many South Africans not only just causing a monetary loss in particular.

TITLE:
The Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
This study aimed to determine the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
1. What is the level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks?
2. Is there a significant difference in the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks in terms of:
3. There is no significant difference between the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
Question Mark (?)
Period (.)
2.3 Comma (,)
2.4 Exclamation point (!)
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global ligua franca. English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language in a large number of countries. It is estimated that the number of people in the world that use in English to communicate on a regular basis is 2 billion!
Marks of punctuation play very important role in giving intended meaning to the language. Use of wrong mark of punctuation or even wrong placement of mark of punctuation can change the meaning of the sentence completely and sometimes even convert the sentence to complete nonsense. Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks are the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point, apostrophe, quotation mark and hyphen. Punctuation marks are used for sentences with high or extreme emotions, feelings and expressions. Different sentence have punctuation mark to easily determine the expression of it. There is important, because without punctuation marks we would not be able to determine the strong feeling of a written sentence or words.
Marks of punctuation play very important role in giving intended meaning to the language. Use of wrong mark of punctuation or even wrong placement of mark of punctuation can change the meaning of the sentence completely and sometimes even convert the sentence to complete nonsense. Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks are the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point, apostrophe, quotation mark and hyphen. Punctuation marks are used for sentences with high or extreme emotions, feelings and expressions. Different sentence have punctuation mark to easily determine the expression of it. There is important, because without punctuation marks we would not be able to determine the strong feeling of a written sentence or words.
Punctuation marks are very important also in every student. Because it can be a big help to them also in Grammar. Punctuation marks are symbols used to emphasize certain emotions in a sentence and serve as the end of it.
Punctuation and capitalization are basic, surface features of written communication. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that authorities recognized that punctuation marks should be primarily an integral part of the sentence pattern, not an indicator of pauses. Throughout the literature on punctuation two major purposes recur–to bring together and to separate. More recently, five major purposes for punctuation have been identified: to terminate and separate, to combine and separate, to introduce, to enclose, and to indicate omission. Generally, the rules for punctuation and capitalization are relatively standardized. Because of the large number of rules, however, errors can be expected–even among good writers. For most writers, the smaller set of rules that they know may be sufficient for adequate written communication. Nevertheless, sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and the punctuation of relative clauses are three problems that occur frequently. A review of the literature reveals that very little research has been conducted in the teaching of mechanics. Generally, introduction to mechanics begins with instruction in the rules, followed by mispunctuated or unpunctuated sentences that illustrate the need for appropriate punctuation. Whereas many people suggest teaching mechanics functionally–when students need it–they rarely have any suggestions about how to do this.
This research aimed to determine the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation marks. Also to be able to enhance their capability in using the correct usage of Punctuation marks. It can give the big help to all the students who are using for the grammar.
In Punctuation marks is one of the most important aspects in written English and yet it is one that is taken the most lightly. In fact this feauture in writing that gives meaning for the written words. Also for the grammar or in a sentence much like pauses and changes in tones of the voice when we speak. An error in Punctuation can convey a completely different meaning to the one is intended. And that it can have a big help also for student who work be it an article, blog, email or any other written material. And that any flow or mission in the use of Punctuation marks which convey the totally different meaning to the reader.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the study would be benificial to the following groups of people:
Students- The result would give them an opportunity to reflect the status of their using Punctuation Marks which have the ability to become actively participate for the intervention program of implement by the teacher to improve their performance in using correct usage of Punctuation marks.
Parents- Awareness of their children’s performance in using the correct usage of Punctuation Marks could serve us their basis to provide their necessary support to their children and work it with the teachers to improve the skill or performance in using correct usage of Punctuation marks.
Teachers- Finding of the study are reveal to the students also in performance of using correct usage of Punctuation marks that should cause to used by the teachers as the developing to appropriate intervention to improve for their using Punctuation marks.

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Period (.)
The period is placed at the end of declarative sentences, statement thought to be complete and after many abbreviations.
As a sentence ender- Jane and Jack went to the market.
After an abbreviation- Her son, John Jones Jr. was born on Dec. 6,2008.

Exclamation Point (!)
Is used when a person wants to express a sudden outery or add emphasis.
Within dialogue- “Holy cow!” screamed Jane.
To emphasize a point- My mother-in-law rants make me furious!
Comma (,)
Is used to show a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence. Additionaly it is used in members,date letter writing after the salutation and closing.

Direct Address- Thank’s for all your help,John.
Separation of two complete sentences- Suzi wanted the black,green and blue dress.

Question Mark (?)
To indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence.
When did jane leave for the market?

Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents a review of some definition of punctuation marks which have relevance to study.

Literature Review
In this study, the researcher shows the definition and theory in literature review. It have the write some definition of punctuation marks that taken from the some of Researcher.

English Punctuation
According to Jones (1994)”Punctuation as we consider it, can be defined as the central part of the range on non-lexical orthography.” Non-Lexical orthography it is the system of writing convention used to represent spoken English in written form. That allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Although arguments could be made for including the sub-lexical marks.

Writing
Writing is an outward expression of what is going on in the writer’s mind.”Writing is the visual medium through which graphical and grammatical system of a language is manifested.” Another statement in writing ability can be formed as teachers and philosophy of writing taken into consideration characteristics of learners and aims in a given contex.
However writing also can improve the grammatical and lexical accuracy in writing English. Writing skills are an important part of communication. In writing requires to know the factors that influence both its process and product.
Punctuation and capitalization are basic,surface features of written communication. However,it was not until the nineteenth century that authorities recognized that punctuation marks should be primarily an integral part of the sentencepattern,not an indicator or pauses. Throughout the literature on punctuation two major purposes are recure to ring together and to separate. More recently,five major purposes for punctuation have been identified to terminate and separate,to combine and separate,to introduce,to enclose,and to indicate.

Error Analysis
Errors are something usual done by the learners who are learning process.
They usually made many mistakes in writing process. Also to know the students difficulties in writing, the teacher required the investigation of the errors by analyzing the sources of errors. The one way to identify the student’s error analysis method.
According to Gass and Slinker the error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis which focus on the errors made by the learners. It starts from the learner production data. The comparison is between the learners error in producing the target language and the target language itself. There are some steps in the conducting an error analysis.
Collecting Data
Identify Errors
Classify Errors
Quantify Errors
Analyze Sources
Remediate

Mistakes and Error
Mistake and error has roughly the same meaning which is to analyze learners language and apply error analysis both have differences. Therefore, the researcher provides some definition of mistakes and error as here below:

Mistake are the division that occurs because of the influence of the situation in language learners.
Mistake are no significant to the process of language learning. However, the problem of determining what learner’s mistake is and what is learners error is one of the some difficulty and involves much more.

According to Brown, a mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip and that is a failure to utilize and known system correctly.
Mistake reflect occasional lapses in performance they occur because in particular instance the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. From opinions above we can learn that mistake is caused by learner so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners with concentrate.
Error
Knowing learner’s error will provide useful evidence of the system of the language.
For beginner learner certainly they do not understand how to learn language so the teachers are very active to help students with knowing errors made by learners and follow the development of learner’s toward to the purpose of learning language.
Ellis, stated that error reflect gap in learner’s knowledge which arises because the learner does not know what is correct. And meanwhile,brown explain error as an idiosyncrasies in the language of the of the learner that are direct a system within which is learner is operating at the time. An error is noticeable deviation from the native grammar to reflect the competence of the learner.
Error take place when learner has incorporated a particular erroneous from perspective target of language into his or her system. From the information above, we can know that error is the deviation that occurs because language learners do not understand the rules of the language learners do not understand the rules of the language it can be helped by the teacher who provide additional exercise.
Chapter III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research method, the respondents of the study, sampling technique, the research instrument, validation and reliability of the instrument,scaling and qualification, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.
Research Method
This study made use of Descriptive-correlational and comparative Methods of research. Descriptive research is a purposive process of data gathering, analyzing, classifying and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs processes,trends and cause effect relationships and adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without and of statistical treatment.
Correlational method describes the link between the different variables and tells that they are somehow related. It explains a mutual relationship between two variables.
Comparative method, on the other hand, provides an explanation about the extent of relationship between two or more variables. It examines the relationships including similarities of differences in the extent of factors affecting the correct usage of Punctuation Marks ability and the level of performance in correct usage of Punctuation Marks of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy.

Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study were the Ninety Three (85) Grade 8 students.
Based on the correct usage of Punctuation marks results of our Grade 8 students, the students had low performance in spelling. To assess whether their performance improved,they were included as the respondents in the present study. The Ninety three respondents, a factor that is considered in choosing them as respondent. Moreover, the number of students in the grade level was also considered in selecting there level wherein in the population of 108 and above served as the basis of selection.

Formula: N=N/(1+Ne)
Where: n = sample size

N = population

e = margin of error
Computation:
N=N/(1+Ne)
N=108/(1+108(0.05) ^2 )
N=108/(1+108(0.0025))
N=108/(1+0.27)
N=108/1.27
N=85.03/85

Table A. Distribution of the Respondents from Grade 8 students
of Oriental Mindoro Academy.
Section Number of Students Sample Taken
Lyra 37 37 29
Lacerta 39 35 28
Lynx36 36 28
Total 108 85

Sampling Technique
Proportional Stratified Random Sampling technique was used in the study. Three section with the population of 100 and above were used as the basis for its stratum.

Research Instrument
The study used a self-made questionnaire. It was composed of two pages. It included the determinants of using correct usage of Punctuation Marks in the ability of the Grade 8 students in terms of using correct Punctuation Marks.
Validation of the Instrument
The questionnaire was subjected to content validation by experts who were comprised of one English master teacher from school. His comments and suggestions were considered in the revision of the questionnaire.

Data Gathering Procedures
Prior to data gathering, a request letter duly noted by the English teacher of Grade 8 students. The letter was forwarded to the principal of Oriental Mindoro Academy to allow the researcher to administer the questionnaire to the respondents. After collecting the answer sheets, it was checked by the researcher. The data collected were tallied, tabulated and treated using appropriate statistical tools.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the interpretation of the data gathered from the respondents.
Extend of the Determinants of correct usage of Punctuation Marks in the ability of the Grade 8 students in Terms of:
Reading Habit

Title: Monoclonal antibody manufacturing through hybridoma processing
Introduction: Hybridoma innovation plays imperative role for the creation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody. Here, monoclonal antibody production are mentioned solely. Amid this strategy, a standard B-cell and a neoplastic cell are utilized. B-cell has antibody production capability and myeloma cell has eternality and high expansion rate. Created antibodies are particular in activity. So, Indistinguishable antibodies generation strategy is understood as hybridoma processing.
The method incorporates six stages.
1. Immunization :To begin with, mice is immunized. Then antibody is created against the immunization within the mice’s body. Once the number of antibody is optimum within the mice. It’s sacrificed and spleenocytes are taken out from it. Spleenocyte contains antibody manufacturing B-cell.
2. Fusion : Here, the spleenocyte is united with myeloma cell. Fifty percent of polyethylene glycol (PEG) is employed to join the cells. Joined cell is referred as hybridoma cell.
3. Selection: Selection is finished in hypoxanthine aminopterine thymidine (HAT) medium. Here, the main 3 kinds of cells are found.
*unfused B-cell: which can die within the medium in brief time because it has short life.
*unfused myeloma cell: which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*hybridoma cell: it’ll survive the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.
4. Screening :It is done by ELISA methodology. The chosen cells are transferred to ninety six plastic well plates. Every well contains one cell. Specific antigens are adsorbed at the underside of the plates. If the cells produce desired antibody, it’ll bind to that antigens. This antibody is then detected by immunoconjugate that contains 2 element. One element of the immunoconjugate is particular for epitope and antibody is immobilized by the courtesy of this component. Another component is catalyst that brings color to the well. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is measured by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : Once is done screening, cloning of the antibody will be tried in interleukin-6 media for additional growth and production of the antibodies.
6. Characterization and storage: After characterization the antibodies will be kept in liquid N2 media.

Title: Monoclonal antibody production by hybridoma technology
Introduction: Hybridoma technology plays vital role for the generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody. Here, monoclonal antibody production are mentioned solely. During this method, a standard B-cell and a neoplastic cell are used. B-cell has antibody production capability and myeloma cell has immortality and high proliferation rate. Created antibodies are specific in action. So, Identical antibodies production method is understood as hybridoma technology.
The process includes six stages.
1. Immunization :First, mice is immunized. Then antibody is created against the immunization within the mice’s body. Once the number of antibody is optimum within the mice. It’s sacrificed and spleenocytes are taken out from it. Spleenocyte contains antibody manufacturing B-cell.
2. Fusion : Here, the spleenocyte is united with myeloma cell. 50% polyethylene glycol (PEG) is employed to join the cells. Joined cell is referred as hybridoma cell.
3. Selection: Selection is finished in hypoxanthine aminopterine thymidine (HAT) medium. Here, the main 3 kinds of cells are found.
*unfused B-cell: which can die within the medium in brief time because it has short life.
*unfused myeloma cell: which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*hybridoma cell: it’ll survive the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.
4. Screening :It is done by ELISA method. The chosen cells are transferred to ninety six plastic well plates. Every well contains one cell. Specific antigens are adsorbed at the underside of the plates. If the cells produce desired antibody, it’ll bind to that antigens. This antibody is then detected by immunoconjugate that contains 2 element. One element of the immunoconjugate is particular for epitope and antibody is immobilized by the courtesy of this component. Another component is catalyst that brings color to the well. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is measured by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : Once is done screening, cloning of the antibody will be tried in interleukin-6 media for additional growth and production of the antibodies.
6. Characterization and storage: After characterization the antibodies will be kept in liquid N2 media.

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