Three other conditions are needed:
1. Religious beliefs
2. Religious rites
There must be the development of a set of religious beliefs; a set of religious rites and a church.
The religious beliefs are “the representations which express the nature of sacred things and the relations which they sustain, either with each other or with profane things.”
The religious rites are “the rules of conduct which prescribe how a man should comport (behave) himself in the presence of these sacred objects.”
A religion requires a church, or a single overarching moral community. The interrelationships among the sacred beliefs, rites and church led Durkheim to give the definition of religion.
Beliefs and rites or practices unite people in a social community by relating them to sacred things. This collective sharing of beliefs, rituals etc. is essential for the development of religion.
Religion is society transfigured. Transfiguration means society is given the shape of god or religion which we believe and start worshipping. Belief refers to a type of conviction, making the people to do or accept which otherwise they shall not do or shall not accept.
According to Durkheim, there are three types of ritual practices, following from specific sets of beliefs namely positive, negative and piacular (sinful) practices or rites and practices of expiation. Positive practices refer to those which people are obliged to follow. Negative practices are reverse to positive. It refers to those practices which people are obliged not to follow or practise. Piacular practices refer to the practice of awarding punishment to those who have deviated from the norms and dictates of established beliefs. It is otherwise known as punitive practice.
Religious beliefs proper are always shared by a definite group that professes them and that practices the corresponding rites. Not only are they individually accepted by all members of that group, but they also belong to the group and unify it. The individuals who comprise the group feel joined to one another by the fact of common faith. A society whose members are united because they imagine the sacred world and its relations with the profane world in the same way, and because they translate this common representation into identical practices, is what is called a Church. Durkheim has used the term church here in a symbolic sense. It does not refer to the place of worship. It is symbolic and does not contain its original beliefs. It is added to the concept of the sacred and to the system of beliefs in order to differentiate religion from magic which does not necessarily involve the consensus of the faithful in one church. Religion hence presupposes first the sacred; next the organisation of beliefs regarding the sacred into a group ; finally rites or practices which proceed in a more or less logical manner from the body of beliefs. In history we do not find religion without Church. Sometimes the Church is narrowly national; sometimes it extends beyond frontiers; sometimes it encompasses an entire people (Rome, Athens, the Hebrews); sometimes it encompasses only a fraction (Christian denominations since the coming of Protestantism); sometimes it is led by a body of priests; sometimes it is more or less without any official directing body. (9) But wherever we observe religious life, it has a definite group as its basis. Even so-called private cults, like the domestic cult or a corporate cult, satisfy this condition: They are always celebrated by a group, the family or the corporation. And, furthermore, even these private religions often are merely special forms of a broader religion that embraces the totality of life. (10) These small Churches are in reality only chapels in a larger Church and, because of this very scope, deserve all the more to be called by that name
Two fundamental categories in Durkheim’s theory of religion: Beliefs and Rites.
“Religious phenomena are naturally arranged into two fundamental categories: beliefs and rites…All known religious beliefs, whether simple or complex, present one common characteristic: they presuppose a classification of all the things, real and ideal, of which men think, into two classes or opposed groups, generally designated by two distinct terms which are translated well enough by the words profane and sacred.” HYPERLINK “https://churchwithoutboundaries.wordpress.com/Users/Steve/Documents/REL%20580-685%20-%20Theories%20of%20Religion/Emile%20Durkheim.docx” l “_ftn3” o “” 3Rites fall into three categories which help delineate the profane and the sacred: the negative cult, the positive cult, and piacular rituals.
“Since their function is to prevent undue mixings and to keep one of these two domains from encroaching upon the other, they are only able to impose abstentions or negative acts. Therefore, we propose to give the name negative cult to the system formed by these special rites…or as is commonly said by ethnographers, of taboos…There is no religion where there are no interdictions.” HYPERLINK “https://churchwithoutboundaries.wordpress.com/Users/Steve/Documents/REL%20580-685%20-%20Theories%20of%20Religion/Emile%20Durkheim.docx” l “_ftn4” o “” 4″The religious ceremonies…put the group into action; the groups assemble to celebrate them. So their first effect is to bring individuals together, to multiply the relations between them and to make them more intimate with one another…the rhythm which the religious life follows only expresses the rhythm of the social life, and results from it.” HYPERLINK “https://churchwithoutboundaries.wordpress.com/Users/Steve/Documents/REL%20580-685%20-%20Theories%20of%20Religion/Emile%20Durkheim.docx” l “_ftn5” o “” 5″The foundation of mourning is the impression of a loss which the group feels when it loses one of its members. But this very impression results in bringing individuals together, in putting them into closer relations with one another, in associating them all in the same mental state, and therefore in disengaging a sensation of comfort which compensates the original loss.” HYPERLINK “https://churchwithoutboundaries.wordpress.com/Users/Steve/Documents/REL%20580-685%20-%20Theories%20of%20Religion/Emile%20Durkheim.docx” l “_ftn6” o “” 6