There’s different types of victimless crimes. Victimless crimes can vary from being a gambler, illegal drug sales and use, prostitution. The illegal possession of drugs can include marijuana, heroin, cocaine, opium, and amphetamines. Victimization is a crime as it affects one individual person of a household. For personal crimes, the number of victimizations is equal to the number of victims involved. The number of victimization may be greater than the number of incidents because more than one person may be victimized during an incident. Each crime against a household is assumed to involve a single victim, in the household.
Criminologists state that there’s a term called routine activities theory which means, they see crime arise in times and places where there’s suitable victims and no guardians around to prevent criminal acts (McWhorter).
Not everyone has an equal chance of becoming a victim. Research shows if you get victimized in the current year you’ll be victimized by a crime in the following year (Xia). Members of targeted groups are more likely than others. Victimization doesn’t happen randomly, it just happens by chance when people aren’t expecting it. A person can be exposed to it by their lifestyle or routines they normally follow. As an example if you go to a nightclub every weekend and leave on foot then you’ll most likely be a victim of crime. The other lifestyle exposures that can make you a victim is your race, gender, income, housing, age, marital status, education, and occupation. (Xia). The young and poor often face a greater exposure amount to street crime.
The rate of violent crime victimization for caucasians is 17.4 per 1,000 people, compared to 22.6 per 1,000 for African Americans. Hispanics have a rate of violent victimization that is actually lower than caucasians at 16.8 per 1,000 (Tillyer). Many white Americans are fearful of being victimized by African Americans; however, most violent crime is intraracial. Eighty to 90 percent of victims are of the same race as their attacker. The victim and attacker are usually the same race because African Americans and whites often live in separate neighborhoods.
African Americans are much more likely to be those experiencing what scholars call “high levels of socioeconomic disadvantage” with respect to unemployment, poverty, and population loss (Freedman). These factors are often associated with other levels of street crime, although, other types of crime, such as occupational crime and computer crime, appear mostly in other kinds of settings. These same factors of race are also associated with property crime. Most victims are and offenders are of the same race and social class. The street crimes that people fear most occur among people who are in proximity to each other.
Income is closely linked to exposure to violent crime, the lower the income, the more likely people are to be victims of crime. Economic factors largely determined where people live, work, and seek recreation. For low-income people, these choices are limited. Some must live in crime -prone areas, cannot afford security devices to protect their homes, cannot avoid contact with people who are prone to crime, or cannot spend leisure time in safe areas. Poor people and minorities face a greater risk of being victimized because they are likely to live in inner-city zones with high rates of street crime. People with higher incomes have more lifestyle-exposure choices open to them and can avoid risky situations (Freedman).
Living in the city is a key factor for victimization. Violent crime occurs mainly in large cities, where the violent-crime victimization rate is 22.7 per 1,000 people for those living in urban areas, compared with 17.3 per 1,000 in suburbs and 14.0 in rural areas (Pridemore). Urban areas are also more prone to property victimization, with victimization rate nearly 50 percent higher than those in suburbs. In the inner cities, where drug dealing and drug use have been significant visible problems, murder rates have risen the most. Like their killers, many if the victims tend to be young African Americans. The national homicide rate in 2014 among African American men aged 10 to 24 was 48.2 for every 100,000 of the same group, compared to 9.6 per 100,000 for Hispanic men and 2.6 per 100,000 for white men (Pridemore).
However this is different for other states and cities, the gap between African Americans and whites are even greater. Furthermore, we cannot conclude that crimes rates will be equally high is all poor urban areas or that increases in poverty will necessarily result in increases in crime (Freedman). There is more crime in some poor areas than in others. May factors besides poverty such as home ownership rates, the physical condition of the neighborhood, the residents’ attitudes toward society and the law, the extent of the opportunities for crime, and social control by families and government may affect the crime rate of a given area (Tillyer).
The frightening image of crime in the minds of many Americans is the familiar scene played out in countless movies and television shows. In which a dangerous stranger grabs a victim on a dark street or breaks into a home at night. Many crimes are committed by strangers against people whom they have never seen before; however most Americans do not realize the extent to which violent crimes occur among acquaintances, friends, and even relatives. In 2015, for example, female victims of violent crimes were targeted by strangers in 31 percent of those crimes and were attacked by intimates or acquaintances in 60 percent of cases. Male victims of violent crime, however, were preyed upon by strangers in 44 percent of cases, with only 36 percent of violent crimes against men being committed by intimates or acquaintances (Eva Krulichová).
An individual’s odds of being victimized depend in part on the people with whom they associate. An element of the lifestyle-exposure includes consideration of the places that people frequent and the people with whom they interact. Some individuals increase their vulnerability to victimization by spending time with people who steal property and commit acts of violence. In the case of female victims, who suffer over 20 percent of their violent victimizations from intimate partners, they may mean that hey misjudged their partners or that they could not anticipate how marital conflicts and other interpersonal stress would affect interactions and behavior. This does not mean that these victims have necessarily chosen to place themselves at risk. Our legal system, at least theoretically, does not blame victims for the harms they suffer. Individuals who commit crimes, including domestic violence, are responsible for their own behavior.
There are other contexts in which people’s risk of victimization is high because of the people with whom they associate, yet they cannot prevent several situations because they want to fit in. For example, people who live in neighborhoods with active drug trafficking may be acquainted with neighbors, former schoolmates, and even relatives who rob and steal because they have become dependent on illegal drugs and they need money to support their drug habits. When these acquaintances commit crimes, people who live nearby may find it difficult to avoid victimization. They cannot stop walking down the streets or avoid leaving their homes unoccupied and vulnerable to burglary when they go to work or school. Moreover, they may be reluctant to report some crimes because they fear that the offenders will take revenge. People may also be reluctant to report theft committed by a relative with a drug habit. They may be upset about losing their valuables, but they do not want to see their son, daughter, or cousin arrested and sent to prison. If the perpetrators of such crimes know that their relatives will not report them, they may feel encourage to victimized these people further in order to support a drug habit. Prior relationships among people may facilitate some crimes and keep victims from seeking police assistance. In effect, life circumstances that are separate from lifestyle choices can greatly increase and individual’s risk of victimization (Fox).
For recurring victimization the understanding of crime victimization is complicated by the fact that victims do not experience crime in the same way. Obviously, victims are affected differently depending on the particular crime for which they were targeted. Someone shot in a robbery does not have the same experience crime victimization. In effect, a small portion of the population experiences a disproportionate share of crime through repeat victimization. Thus researchers are interested in this subject with the idea that the prevention of repeat victimization on these targeted individuals and locations may have significant benefits for overall crime prevention (Fox).
There’s a distinguish between repetitive victimization and revictimization. Repetitive victimization or repeat victimization refers to individuals who are victimized by crime more than once during a relatively brief period of time, such as within a year or less. An individual may be assaulted more than once or may experience property thefts within a short time after experiencing an assault or other crime. Some houses are burglarized repeatedly after burglars conclude that these properties are vulnerable targets. Repetitive victimization has implications for understanding the extent of harm suffered by some victims as well as raising question about how individuals or locations come to be targeted. The neighborhood of residence and lifestyle can be repetitive victimization.
Revictimization refers to repeat offenses directed at an individual over a long period of time, such as domestic violence incidents directed at spouse repeatedly but spread over a number of years (Howell). Much like cases of spousal violence, some instances of revictimization are attributable to violent crimes committed by family, friends, and acquaintances of the victim. Such situations create risks that observers will blame the victims for maintaining relationships or contact with those who have victimized them previously. Yet there are many complex reasons that victims may be unable to avoid family members, especially if the victims are young or financially dependent on others. Adults may maintain personal relationships due to fear of increased abuse if they attempt to leave, or they may stay in an optimistic effort to improve the situation.
Victim precipitation or the role of victims in fostering the context or triggering the action that led to their victimization in a crime. For example, when people leave their keys in a car or those who left their house unlocked. However, with domestic violence and sexual assault there are grave concerns that a victim-precipitation approach can reinforce stereotypes that blame women for their own victimization (El Sayed). The police must be aware of stereotypes about traditional gender roles as well as the difficult circumstances of individual personalities and relationships.
In conclusion young residents of lower-income communities are among those most likely to be victimized by crime. The connection between race and social status in the cause in the United States, African Americans are more frequently victimized by crime than whites. A significant percentage of crimes, especially those against women, are committed by acquaintances and relatives of the victims. Also recurring victimization is a serious problem that imposes a disproportionate share of crime’s harm on a small portion of the population.