The wide rang researches have been done on the effects of Aptamers on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, some of which are as follows: Fan et al. (20, 21) tested various Aptamers for binding to the membrane proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37RV) and found that NK2 aptamer has a high affinity and high specificity for binding to the H37RV proteins. Following this connection, Aptamer leads to an increase in the secretion rate of IFN-? from CD4 + T cells. Moreover, the results of this study showed that the majority of infected rats by H37RV, survived after treatment with Aptamer (NK2). Also, the number of bacteria in the spleen of the treated rats with Aptamer was significantly reduced.
The results of similar studies also indicated that NK2 Aptamer has inhibitory effects on tuberculosis and hope that after complementary studies it can be used as an effective agent for treatment and identification of disease.In another study by Bekmurzayeva and et al (22), Aptamer was used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One of the common and available methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection is analyzes of secreted proteins by bacteria such as Mpt64. The Mpt64 has two or more binding sites for Aptamers. The identification of this was that the presence of thrombin in the serum of the patients leads to the formation of sandwich structures of the nanoparticles (primary aptamer) and secondary aptamers as a result of the fluorescent biomarkers emitted at 1.06nm, when these attached to the secondary aptamer, this event due to detect of Mpt64.The results of study by Qin et al(63) showed that protein complex sandwich assay scheme has a high specificity (83.
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6%) and sensitivity (88.5%) to detect Mpt64 protein.Toxin produced by vibrio cholera causes cholera disease, which ultimately leads to the death of many infected people. Both the O1 and O139 serotypes of vibrio cholera produce a protein which is called oligomeric and is known as chicken pox(49).
Bruno and colleagues could use DNA aptamers against cholera. Method for aptamer producing was SELEX. They found that aptamers were able to detect cholines from 10 to 40 ng. They used the PCR method to reproduce DNA Aptamers(64).