The value of constant C is taken as150,000 kg/m3s1 in the current model 15. A constant value of contact angle ? of 90° has been considered based on the study reported in 19-21. It was reported that the effect of dynamic contact angle on the droplet spreading becomes less important for droplet in actual thermal spray conditions where We?Re^(1/2) 22The latent heat associated with phase change is incorporated in source term Sh 9,23 of energy equation that is related to liquid fraction of cell. The methodology to calculate the liquid fraction is given in section 2.5. Thermal contact resistance is taken in the range of 10?6 ?? 10?8 m2 K/W 24-26.In equilibrium solidification liquid fraction (f_l) are calculated using enthalpy porosity method. It is an iterative method described belowIn the present work, an iterative updating scheme to update latent heat content, as detailed in 16, is implemented. It is given as.In Eq. (10), a_p^0=?? V?? tand a_p is the coefficient of the nodal temperatureT_P in the discretization equation of the energy equation. G-1 for solidification of pure substance is given as 16The value of relaxation factor (? ~ 0.3–0.7) is taken in order to get converged and stable solutions.

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