The table shows that the moisture content of the formulated ointment is 0.63%. Moisture is a physical parameter that is related to the climatic conditions. Moisture content in ointments and creams is an important parameter because the presence of minor quantities of water may alter its microbial, physical, and chemical stability.
The moisture content of creams and ointments is an important factor contributing to its stability and shelf-life The maximum allowable limit of water in ointment preparations varies between 0.5 and 1.0%. (
The result shows that the formulated Takip kohol ointment’s moisture content is within the acceptable range that in can be use effectively as a wound healing drug.
`The measured pH value of the formulated ointment is 7.32 which shows that is generally neutral, therefore it cannot irritate the skin because its pH is almost equal to that of water. pH is a scale of measure from 1 to 14 that tells how acidic a product is. A neutral pH is 7. Anything lower than 7 is considered acidic while anything higher than 7 is considered alkaline or basic. The skin is actually naturally more on the acidic side with a pH of 5.5 to 6.2, and remains at this pH to defend itself from bad bacteria, which can multiply in more alkaline conditions.(
This feature makes creams and ointments very attractive for drug delivery and biomedical applications. pH-Responsive hydrogels show pH – dependent swelling and gelling characteristics in aqueous media. A polymer that exhibits such phase transition properties is very useful from the point of drug delivery. Methacrylic acids (e.g., carbomers) that contain many carboxylic acid groups exist as solution at lower pH conditions. When the pH is increased, they undergo a sol – to – gel transition. This is because of the increase in the degree of ionization of acidic carboxylic groups at higher pH conditions, which in turn results in electrostatic repulsions between chains and, increased hydrophilicity and swelling. pH of gel formulations should be formulated compatible with skin pH (Krishnaveni, 2016).
The skin is naturally protected by a thin layer made of ceramides, free fatty acids and lipids called the acid mantle. This mantle protects the skin from any possible irritants, bacteria and transepidermal water loss. It is important to keep this mantle balanced so that it can continue to fight off bad bacteria. When it is thrown off, it essentially leave the skin unprotected, which is why it’s important to keep the pH of skin formulations near to its pH value(Jyothi,, 2014).
The viscosity of Takip kohol ointment is 438 cP which is within the acceptable range for gels or creams. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow. The more viscous a liquid, the greater is the quantity of energy required to produce a desired state of flow/spreadability. In everyday terms, viscosity is thickness or internal friction. Generally gels/creams are 300 or 500 centipoises (cP) at room temperature ( Viscosity measurement is often the quickest, most accurate, reliable method to charactreize gels, creams and ointments. It gives an idea about the ease with which gels can be processed, handled, or used. Prepared compositions were assessed for spreadability because topical formulations are found to be effective if they have good spreadability. Thus a viscosity value of 438 cP means that the formulated ointment is easy to apply or spread on the area of incision/wound.
The analyzed specific gravity of the Takip kohol ointment is 0.91 which very close the specific gravity of coconut oil ( 0.925) which is the base oil in formulating the ointment since contains 81.82% weight by weight.
Specific gravity is used to define the weight or density of a liquid as compared to the density of an equal volume of water at a specified temperature. (
Topical therapy is an important treatment option due to its non-invasiveness, ease of use, no risk of systematic adverse effects or drug interactions and better patient compliance. Topical formulations therapeutic efficacy depends on the physicochemical properties of the product. Recently, many studies have highlighted the pharmaceutical importance of gels, which includes creams and ointments, for dermal variety of drugs. Gels are capable of swelling in biological fluids and retaining a large amount of fluids in the swollen state. Dermatological use of gels have several favorable features i.e., biocompatibility, adhesiveness, thixotropy, spreadability or simplicity of removal. Moreover, gels are characterized by ease of application and better percutaneous absorption than other semisolid preparations. They provide faster and more complete release of the drug to the skin and as the consequence, higher efficacy than other preparations (Sangeetha and Stella, 2012).
The formulated ointment is characterized by smooth, uniform consistency and ease of spreadability or technically referred to as rheological properties. Its pH value obtained is comparable to the skin and will not affect degradation because it is nearly neutral. Its percentage moisture content is within the acceptable range, ensuring that its microbial, physical and chemical stability.


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