The simplest definition of pollution is the introduction of new pollutants into the environment or the occurrence of new pollutants or the excess of the natural average annual level of these pollutants.
From an environmental point of view, pollution is not just the introduction of components that are alien to it, but bringing them into the ecosystem. Many of them are chemically active and are able to interact with molecules that make up the tissues of living organisms or actively oxidize in air. Such substances are poisons to all living things.
Physical contamination includes thermal (thermal), light, noise, vibration, electromagnetic, ionizing pollution.
Thermal pollution is a change in the temperature of the environment due to the release of heated or cooled gases, air, water into the environment.
Light pollution is disturbance in the rhythms of activity of living organisms. Increasing the turbidity of water in water bodies reduces the flow of sunlight to the depth and photosynthesis of aquatic vegetation.
Noise pollution . Noise – all sorts of sounds that interfere with the perception of useful sounds or disturb the silence. The sound frequency range, which perceives the human ear – is from 16 to 20,000 Hz. Sound waves with a frequency below 20 Hz are called infrasound waves, above 20,000 -ultrasonic waves.
Vibration pollution is associated with acoustic vibrations of different frequencies and infrasonic vibrations. Sources of infrasonic oscillations, and associated vibration are compressor, pumping stations, fans, vibroplatforms, air conditioners, cooling towers, turbines of diesel power plants.
Electromagnetic pollution . The development of energy, electronics and radio engineering caused environmental pollution by electromagnetic fields.
Ionizing radiation is a radiation whose interaction with the medium leads to the formation of ions (positively or negatively charged particles) in it from neutral atoms or molecules. The several types of ionizing radiation are Gamma radiation, Beta radiation and Alpha radiation
Chemical pollution is the most dangerous, its negative effect on living organisms is fixed at the genetic level, polluting substances cause a global effect.
Among the chemical pollutants are mineral and organic. Both are supplied with a variety of domestic and industrial wastes: with products of combustion of fossil fuels and products of internal combustion of vehicles, with wastes of metallurgy, chemical industries, food industry and livestock, with mine dumps and waste heaps, with oil production and oil refining products, with pesticides and fertilizers, emergency discharges in the water area, with domestic sewage and garbage, and other
Biological pollution is very diverse and includes:
bringing into the ecosystem of alien living organisms (animals, plants, microorganisms);
supply of nutrients;
the introduction of organisms that cause a disturbance in the balance of populations;
anthropogenic disturbance of the initial state of living organisms inherent in the ecosystem (for example, mass multiplication of microorganisms or a negative change in their properties).


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