THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
RESEARCH PROPORSAL FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES.
1. CANDIDATE’S NAME: MASSAWE, SEBASTIAN MATHIAS
2. SUPERVISOR: Dr. Evaristo A. Mtitu
3. FACULTY: EDUCATION
4. PROPOSED DEGREE: MASTER OF EDUCATION
5. TITLE: THE IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ MOTIVATION ON THE IMPROVEMENT OF TEACHING AND LEARNING IN COMMUNITY SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN HAI DISTRICT, KILIMANJARO
6. PHONE NUMBER: 0754747072
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The study will concerns with the impact of teachers motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district. The chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, significant of study, purpose of the study, study objectives, research questions, delimitation of the study, conceptual frame work, definition of key terms and the organization of the study.
1.1 Background of the study
Motivation and performance are very important factors in success of any school and students’ performance. Any school is necessary to adopt change of environment to motivate teachers. Motivation increases teacher confidence and performance the school goals can be achieved in effective way. Motivation stimulates, direct and sustain behavior. A teacher may be motivated by money, by a sense of having work, security, work environment and the like.
This study will intends to investigate the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools taking the case of Hai District. This may be intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is personal interest, enjoyment or pleasure. Extrinsic motivation is governed with influencing a personal behavior.
Teacher motivation can rise when teaching work satisfy basic needs like food, shelter and clothing (Bennel & Mukyamuzi, 2005). The effective motivated teacher utilizers well teaching methods and being good creative to bring students better performance.
The school administration and other education stakeholders need to be aware that, motivated teachers perform better than those who are not motivated. Positive feedback, good communication, and rewards foster motivation. Effective running of school is dependent on the head of school as a leader. Head of the school is responsible for everything which occur in their school. In the school environment heads of the school should motivate teachers to join the force in the school to reach the targeted goal. Blasé and Blasé (1994) pointed the effective use of government strategies teacher feel energized, participating management and motivated. Effective school management plan increase teachers morale at work and leads teachers to positive attitudes and interest in their work.
Mustafa and Othman (2010) pointed out that there is positive relationship between motivation and work performance of teachers. This shows that the greater level of motivation the high will be teacher’s performance. Motivation of teaching come from good payment. A good payment help teachers to meet their basic needs and concentrate in teaching activities, while low salary discourage teachers to perform their work effectively. There is lack of emphasis on teacher’s motivation such as promotions, salary adjustment, payment of leave and transfer allowance (Bernel & Mukyamuzi, 2005). This is among factors contributed to poor performance in community secondary school.
Secondary Education Development plan (SEDP)was introduced in 2004 the aim of SEDEP is to increase access to secondary school went together with improving quality, equity and management issues (URT, 2004). Increasing secondary school there is demand in increase in teachers and quality of education. Increasing salaries will show changing teacher attitudes and improving student learning, create non-monetary incentives such as increasing opportunity for professional development and environment of the school (Michaelowa, 2002).Advocate for higher teacher salaries UNESCO (2006) recommended a teacher salary of 3.5 times GDP Per capital. Encourage the community to contribute to teachers’ salaries and encourage community self-help project to construct house more available (Urwick, et al 2005).
Therefore teachers’ motivation that operate within the school system if not well attended could slow down their performance, cause stress, unhappiness and frustration all of which as a result reduce teacher’s performance. The government and stakeholders should be involved in one way or another to improve performance by creating motivation packages to teachers, heads of school should use different leadership styles to encourage them not to be discouraged at their working place.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Secondary education in Tanzania is accompanied with poor performance in secondary education examinations where most students get division IV or fail completely. The performance for selected secondary schools at Hai district is shown below.
School Ward Year Performance
div. I div. II div. III div. IV div. 0
Kyuu sec.school Masama West 2014 00 08 02 17 09
2015 00 02 04 26 25
2016 00 04 13 36 12
Lemira sec.school Masama Central 2014
01 01 07 20 23
2015 00 05 05 40 51
2016 00 07 06 41 25
Nkokashu sec. school Masama East 2014 01 01 06 19 09
2015 00 00 04 44 108
2016 00 03 07 35 45
Boma sec.school Masama East 2014 02 02 10 25 09
2015 01 05 10 56 59
2016 01 07 15 46 43
Rundugai Sec.school Masama South 2014 00 01 06 27 11
2015 02 05 10 67 43
2016 00 06 15 47 21
Lyasikika sec. school Machame 2014 00 03 05 23 15
2015 00 04 05 53 54
2016 01 07 13 36 32
Figure 1: CSEE results of three years, 2014, 2015 and 2016 Source: NECTA
Different studies have proved that motivation factors increase teacher`s efficiency. Expenditure of teachers per month is not equal to their salary. In Tanzania, teachers are earning less than what is required for their human needs. Studies pointed out that good performance of students is affected by their working conditions which include teachers low salaries, poor working environment, work load, teacher –student ratio (Aaronson et al, 2007).
Ministry of Education and Culture since 1995 have different sections which deal with services and working conditions of teachers which discussed the importance of motivation for teachers such as salary payments shortage of teaching and learning materials, lack of housing for teachers and individual welfare of teachers.
Efforts are taken towards improving teacher’s motivation but less attention is being paid on their welfare. The researcher is more interested in examining different motivation options provided to teachers so as to improve teaching and learning in community secondary school in Hai District.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study is guided by general objective and specific objectives as shown below.
1.3.1 The General Objective
The General objective of this study is to explore the impact of teachers’ motivation on the improving teaching and learning in Community Secondary Schools in Hai District.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
i) To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
ii) To examine the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process.
iii) To analyze challenges faced by Head of schools on teachers motivation.
iv)To determine strategies of improving motivation among community secondary schools.
1.3.3 Research Questions
(i) What is the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance?
(ii) What influence does the head of school have on teaching and learning processes?
(iii) What are the challenges faced by Head of schools on motivation of teachers in their schools?
(iv)What strategies can be used to improve teacher’s motivation?
1.4 Significant of the Study
The study is significant because it may provide information on the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance, the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process, challenges faced by heads of school and the strategies of improving teacher’s motivation in teaching. Also the study may encourage other researchers to conduct a study related to the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools in Hai district.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study will be carried out in community secondary schools in Hai district, Kilimanjaro region. The selected area of the study will represent other areas in the country. The schools will be selected in order to examine the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning in community secondary schools.
Definition of Key Terms
Community Secondary Schools
Community secondary school is defined as school directly maintained by the Ministry or Local Authority (National Assembly, 1995). Sometimes addressed as government secondary schools owned and financed by the central government through local government authority. These are secondary schools that are built, financed and owned by both government and the community.
Teacher’s motivation is the situation of teachers by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors to greater effort, excellent performance or higher attainment. Highly motivated teachers have the will to perform, are actively engaged in teaching are open to new ideas and approaches produce positive results and are committed to students.
Impact is a situation, process or person means to affect them. Means increase pressure for higher wages and that in turn would impact on inflation and competition.(from Collins English dictionary com
Teaching and learning: teaching is what teachers do.
Learning is process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, value or preferences.
From smiths, B. O teaching is the process of carrying out those activities that experience has shown to be effective in getting students to learn
Improvement is the act or process of making something better. Change that makes something better or more valuable.
1.7 Organization of the Study
The study will comprises five chapters. Each chapter has sub- parts with short explanations. Chapter one introduces the background of the problem, research objective, research question, significant of research, limitation and delimitation of the study and definition of key terms. Chapter two covers the literature review which related to the study, conceptual frame work and research gap and chapter three deals with research methodology and research procedure. Chapter four covers the presentation, analysis and discussion of the results and chapter five present the summary, conclusions and recommendations of the study.
The preceding chapter discussed the background and the rationale of teacher’s motivation. This chapter is concerned with literature review of the study, the theoretical frame work, and the conceptual frame work about the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning process. It will provide more information on other studies and the investigation in community secondary schools to bridge the gap.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1 The relationship between motivation and work performance
Parijat, (2014) argues that motivation is the driving force behind all human efforts and is essential to all human achievements. As an aspect of management it occupies a very important place. Many theories on motivation in business management have emerged. Expectancy Theory as proposed by Victor Vroom is one of the process theories of motivation. It looks at the cognitive processes that effect motivation of people working in organizations. Expectancy Theory is useful in many respects. If an employee earns a reward, such as a financial bonus or promotion, they will increase their productivity to obtain the reward. The head of school can create a work environment, climate and culture that will increase the motivation levels of teachers by understanding the factors that motivate and demotivate individual employees.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s two factor theory and Vroom’s expectancy theory are used to show what motivates people. Money motivates employees which are in the first three steps of the pyramid of Maslow. Factors such as stimulating personal growth, giving more responsibilities and giving more recognition for their performance prove to be help better motivate employees. They should feel that they are capable of successfully completing a task and the reward should be valuable and in line with the performance.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows that motivation to work comes from certain needs an employee wants to fulfill. In the first three steps of the pyramid (psychological, safety and security, and love and belonging), money is seen as a tool to motivate people.
Herzberg’s two factor theory showed that there are motivating and hygiene factors which play a role in the motivation of employees. Hygiene factors do not motivate employees but should be present to prevent employees from becoming unmotivated. This includes working conditions, salary, and relationships among personnel, job security and quality of management. Motivating factors as well as good hygiene factors are capable of increasing the motivation and therefore performance of employees.
Vroom’s expectancy theory states three factors that play a role in the motivation of employees: effort-performance expectancy, instrumentality and valence. The effort performance expectancy deals with the expectancy an employee has about his own capabilities to complete a task. If the employee thinks he can do it, the motivation will be larger and vice versa. Instrumentality deals with the expectations of the employee about what reward he will receive for his performance. Valence deals with the expectation the employee has about how valuable the reward he can obtain is. If the employee sees the reward, such as money, as useful, then he will be motivated to perform well. Motivation stimulates personal growth. To motivate employees, an employer can give employees more responsibilities and more recognition for their performance
Therefore according to Herzberg, employees who are satisfied at work attribute their satisfaction to internal factors. Applying two factor theory of education in school improvement depends on the improvement of teaching practices. To increase teacher motivation, the capability of a teacher should be the main focus of authorities (Ololube 2006).Teachers work efficiently when they are motivated in different aspects. Due to this theory, there is a need for motivation to raise teachers’ performance.
2.2.2 Classical management theory
Classical management theories, sometimes known as scientific management theories, were developed by Fredric Taylor. These theories explain how to manage work in organizations efficiently. In 1909 in his book “the principle of scientific management,” the theory explains how work should be organized and simplified to improve our productivity. In addition, there is a need for cooperation amongst workers and employers to increase productivity. Employees are motivated by money, so if a worker works hard, they will be compensated with money accordingly. Taylor believes that decision based upon tradition and rule of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study on individual work. The theory argues that human beings, or workers in this case, by nature, are lazy and dislike work especially when working in groups. The head of school has power to influence teachers in teaching and learning processes.
The scientific management theory explains that to improve the academic performance there must be cooperation between the head of school and teachers. This theory suggests that there will be improvement of productivity if the head of school utilizes principles, close cooperation, and known distribution of responsibilities.
2.3 Empirical Literature Review
2.3.1 The relationship between motivation and work performance
Barasa et al, (2015) conducted a study on the influence of teacher motivation and strategies on the students’ performance in day secondary schools of Trans –Nzoia west district, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya. The study sought to establish how staff development influences students’ performance in day secondary schools; to determine how staff recognition influences students’ performance in day secondary schools; to establish how teachers’ growth and advancement influences students’ performance in day secondary schools and to determine the influence of teachers’ incentives on the students’ performance in day secondary schools.
The results were that most teachers lacked motivation in their work and this accounts for the low performance in these schools. Motivation strategies such as recognition, training, development, incentives, and career advancement were minimal in the schools. Findings on teacher motivation in TransNzoia west district indicates widespread low or decreasing levels of motivation, resulting in low student performance. This agreed with the findings of Bennell and Akyeampong (2007) which state that large percentages of primary school teachers are poorly motivated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, the study is conducted in different context from one this study is targeted.
Moreover Ololube, (2006) argues that motivation is very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and ranks alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources, and strategies. The study assessed the similarities and differences between teachers’ job satisfaction, motivation and their teaching performance in Rivers State of Nigeria. The research revealed that teachers’ sources of job satisfaction have a greater impact on teaching performance, as teachers are also dissatisfied with the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits, material rewards and advancement.
According to HakiElimu, (2016) teachers’ level of motivation and job satisfaction in Tanzania is low due to several factors. These include poor working environments, delays in promotions, lack of support from authorities, inadequate support from parents and the community, inadequate teaching and learning materials, the low status of the teaching profession, low salaries and longstanding unpaid claims. Its findings will not be applicable direct to the current study on the impact of teacher’s motivation on improving teaching and learning process.
The demand of high wages and better working conditions such as housing allowances, sense of belonging, security acceptance, life status, and transport have been needed to be paid since the industrial revolution (Haugen,2007). The quality of education depends on motivation provided to teachers. Improvement of students’ performance is due to the effort teachers have in the classroom. Teachers are essential in promoting quality education (UNESCO, 2000). Efforts must be made to ensure that teachers are well educated, highly trained, professional, and are able to work with students. In sub-Sahara African, teachers’ motivation is low and has affected the quality of education and performance of their students (Fry 2003).
Motivation of teachers comes from good payment. A good salary helps teachers to meet their basic needs and concentrate on their work. The provision of motivation encourages teachers to be able to perform effectively in school activities. The deficient in motivation among teachers results in unwillingness to participate in school activities such as poor attendance, late coming, lack of interest, attitudes and resistance to contribute more than the required (Jackson, 1997).
Motivation is linked to how teachers perceive their own working and living environment. Motivated teachers have positive relationships between learning and performance of students. Teachers should be intrinsically and extrinsically motivated. The challenges facing implementation of motivation to teachers is perceived as an intellectual exercise. Teachers in community (Public) secondary school have a low perception of their school administration effectiveness. If the school administration is effective, teachers will be more motivated and focus on furthering their teaching career (Mkumbo, 2011).
Due to teachers’ payment being insufficient, teachers are forced to borrow some money to meet their basic needs. It also affects them psychologically because they are thinking about debts instead of how to teach effectively. Therefore, there is a need to increase teachers’ salaries and pay their allowances on time so that they may be more motivated to concentrate on teaching activities. This will result in improvement with teaching and learning processes.
2.3.2 Influence of heads of school on teaching and learning process
Musa, (2014) conducted a study on the effective strategies that heads of schools can use to motivate teachers. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from 120 teachers from 20 schools in Ilala district. The results of the findings have revealed that the most effective strategies for the heads of schools to use are provision of teaching and learning materials and resources, involving teachers in decision making, and awarding token prizes to teachers who produced better results. Personal factors that helped motivate teachers included interpersonal relationships (collegiality), sense of belonging, ability and interest in teaching and level of education.
Furthermore, the study found that school based factors leading to teacher motivation included a conducive environment (good working condition), parents’ involvement in school issues and learners’ discipline.
Adeyemi ,(2010) investigated the relationship between the leadership styles of principals and teacher’s job performance in secondary schools. His study determined that there is a direct relationship between leadership styles used by Principals and teachers job performance. Depending on the situation, different leadership styles have more success than others with teacher performance including autocratic and democratic styles. Therefore, a good leadership style is required for improvement of teaching and learning for good performance amongst the students.
Running a school effectively depends on the head of school. The head of school has different ways to motivate teachers. School management should develop a learning environment with good physical infrastructure, transparency with the teachers, respect of staff and their ideas, skill development, and adhere to education goals set by Ministry of Education and Vocational Training. Intrinsic motivation provides teacher self-actualization while extrinsic motivation plays part in societies to influence a personal behavior such as a teacher teaching effectively which raises the performance of the school (O’neil, 1995).
Therefore heads of schools should ensure the improvement of the school environment as well as support teachers’ motivation for effective performance.
2.3.3 Challenges heads of schools faced on teachers motivation.
Nthenya et al, (2012) conducted a study on challenges that are faced by head teachers in managing the teachers in their schools and the impact that these challenges have on teaching and learning processes. The objectives of the study were to find the issues that the head teachers encounter in recruitment, induction, development and motivation of teachers in their schools. The challenges affecting teachers were resistance to change as well as lack of commitment towards learning and training. Teachers and support staff had similar financial reward that lead to an average level of motivation. The coping strategies employed by head teachers were holding weekly briefs, open forums and dialogue, encouraging team work and self-drive for teachers in order to achieve targets. The head teacher should use alternative methods to motivate their staff when funds are inadequate and should avoid nepotism, employing unskilled personnel, sexual relations between students and teaching staff. There is a need to carry out similar study in order to come up with more relevant information to match with teachers at Hai district.
Work and living environments for many teachers are poor which tends to lower self-esteem and is generally de-motivating teachers. Housing is a major issue for nearly all teachers (Bennell, 2004). There are inadequate staff houses to accommodate all teachers which affects the preparation for the teachers’ lessons. In addition, low salary affects teachers, especially those that are new to the career. Teacher salary schedules, with their annual incremental increases, have traditionally been tied to classroom experience and to coursework and degrees completed. Competitive salaries, with opportunities for growth, are key to recruit and retain the most qualified teachers.
In Tanzania the implementation of Structural Adjustment Progammes (SAP) of early 1990s by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank forced the government to cut down expenditure on education and other services (Otunga, et al 2008). Teachers’ salaries were poor and their purchasing power fell dramatically. This resulted in teachers taking an extra job in order to survive. This has affected their teaching morale.
In addition to that teachers were exposed to political harassment, difficult working conditions which include large class size, low salary, shortage of teaching and learning facilities and work load. Political leaders put pressure on the head of schools to maintain and performing things which are not possible due to the situation (Otunga et al 2008). Other problems were personal to teachers and were beyond the heads of school control. For instance, some teachers took loan from bank and others from SACCOS took so long to pay and that interfered with their daily activities.
The challenges heads of school face exist due to the difficulty of education instructions (Armstrong, 2004). The supervision of teachers is difficult due to the situation under which many teachers live and work. There is need to develop motivation strategies such as update their competence by giving them in service training, commitment and capability so as to cope with curriculum changes and reform.
Otunga et al, (2008) pointed that there is lack of enough teachers to handle the various subjects, increasing working hours, large class size, and changing curriculum are things that does not motivate teachers. Other teaches were forced to teach subjects they were not trained.
According to Nyirenda (2013) the challenges facing the education sector in Tanzania are: teachers’ content and pedagogy competence; Lack of teachers’ motivation due to little resources allocated by the government; Lack of accountability among teachers; Lack of teaching and learning materials; inadequate infrastructure; Lack of proper supervision at school level; Monitoring and evaluation, and control of school quality; Lack of effective and efficiency resource utilization; Poor community participation; and knowledge; and Curriculum preparation processes. These are among challenges facing heads of schools which hinder motivation of teachers and these reduce teachers performance.
Many teachers travel considerable distance to be paid their salary others are assigned to school very far from their home this situation contribute to teacher absence and reduce teacher’s performance.
2.3.4 Strategies of improving teacher’s motivation
In order to improve the performance of teachers, factors that can motivate the teachers should be looked at. This could include the government providing good conditions for teaching and living as well as other benefits.
Matthew, (2014) examined the strategies for motivating teachers in order to improve performance which included allowing teachers to participate in decision making, recognizing, praising and rewarding outstanding performance, assigning responsibilities, providing incentives, improving school environment, providing instructional materials, regular promotions, sponsoring conferences, seminars, and workshops, as well as prompt payment of salaries and allowances.
Additionally Bohlander et al (2001) shows that compensation packages are very important for administrators and managers of education institutions in motivating teachers.
In The United States of America, the problem of low performance of students decreases due to teachers using different motivation strategies and devoting time with students (Ehrenberg et al, 2001).
In Tanzania, teacher’s motivation is low and it has had a negative impact on the quality of education (Hakielimu, 2004). The minimum salary is low and teachers are earning less than what is required for human survival. The ministry has introduced a bank system where by teachers have to receive their salaries through the bank and pay house rent from their pockets. The classroom environment is not attractive and does not support teachers to be successful due to large number of students, poor classes, shortage of desks and teaching materials, poor housing, poor payment packages, and lack of training (Mkumbo, 2011).
Alam, (2011) recommended that an increase in teachers’ salaries should be according to their qualification and provided to acknowledge their efforts and good performance. This would bring awareness in the community and they would start to recognize the status of teachers for quality education.
Madura (2006) showed that some workers can achieve confidence when they are promoted or receive special recognition. Studies show that people who feel appreciated are more positive and can boost performance of students. Teachers expect to be recognized by their supervisors for their professional competence (Okumbe, 2002). Teachers will feel motivated and like part of the school if the head of school involves them in decision making and shares responsibilities with them (Osibwoga ,2007).
Therefore the good leadership style, pay, promotion, collaboration and environment of a school are very important and promote good performance for teachers which bring effective results to the students.
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Conceptual framework describes an abstract of basic concepts and constructs that are expected to interact on real settings and experiences that form a foundation of good research. The conceptual framework of this research explains the impact of teacher’s motivation in relation to improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools a case study of Hai district. The teacher’s motivation has a direct relationship with the performance of teachers in their work. Whereas, teacher’s motivation is the independent variable and teachers performance is the dependent variable. This is to say, there is direct relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. Also the availability of intermediate variables may have an effect on teachers’ performance. Therefore, the role of motivation in the teacher’s performance will depend on the interplay of independent variable and intermediate variables. This conceptual framework is summarized in figure 2..
Improvement of teachers’ performance
Improvement of teachers’ performance
Head of school
Teaching and learning materials
Head of school
Teaching and learning materials
Source: modified from Sanyay and Brandley (2008).
For positive school results there must be a mutual relationship between the head of school and teachers (Ehren;Visscher, 2006). Teachers must be committed towards their work with the help of the head of school. The head of school should be competent and knowledgeable in all areas of motivation. Feedback and quality of leadership style should make the teachers value their work and improve students’ performance.
2.6 literature gap
The gap in the literature refers to the shortage of empirical data related to the study because more investigation on the topic is required. Different literature has been reviewed in this study and describes a variety of issues linked with the impact of teachers motivation on the improvement of teachers performance in teaching and learning in community secondary schools .The researchers revealed that there are many studies that have been written about ways of improving performance such as good leadership, availability of teaching and learning resources, school supervision and in service training. Thus this has made the research to have a deep investigation on the impact of motivation for improvement of performance options practiced in community secondary schools.CHAPTER THREE:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 Introduction
This chapter will present the research methodology and research procedures by showing the research strategies, methods, study areas, population sample, sample size, sampling procedure, research instruments, data collection, data analysis, ethical consideration of the study, time frame work, and budget estimate.
3.2 Description of Study Area
The study was conducted at Hai district, one of the districts in Kilimanjaro region in Tanzania. A researcher has selected six schools purposely, because it is easy to visit them during data collection. The following schools were included Lemira secondary school Masama central ward, Nkokashu secondary school Masama Romu ward, Kyuu secondary school Masama West ward, Rundugai secondary school Masama South ward, Lyasikika secondary school Machame East ward, and Boma secondary school Masama East. Also Hai District selected to be an area of study for this title due to the fact that no study done on the impact of teachers motivation on improvement on teaching and learning in community secondary schools.
3.3 Research Design
The research design used in this study was case study. The case study is chosen because it allow using the variety of data collection techniques; it offers in depth and breadth analysis of variables to be studied. It is also flexible method in data collection and it can be used in combination with other design. Case study design is usually associated with a specific place, community or organization in order to shade light on a phenomenon (Bryman, 2001).
3.4 Study Population
Population refers to an entire group of individuals’ events or objects having common observable characteristics. Is a full set of cases from which a sample is taken (Kothari, 2004) the population of the study has involved sixty subject teachers, six heads of schools, one districts educational officer, and six ward educational officers.
3.5 Sample and sampling Techniques
Sample is a portion of elements taken from a population which is considered to be a representative to the population, Kothari (1990). The purpose of selection of a sample is to obtain respondents who reflect the quality and characteristics of general population.
According to Creswell (2003) sampling is a process by which the researcher attempts to select respondents who will participate in the research.
In this study the selection of respondents was done purposively and systematic random sampling where a total of 73 respondents were selected which includes sixty subject teachers, six Heads of selected secondary schools, one District Secondary Educational Officer of Hai district, six Wards Educational Officer.
3.5.1 Simple Random Sampling
Simple random technique used because of its advantage that each element in the population provides an equal chance or opportunity of being selected (Kothari, 1990). The researcher use this technique to select secondary schools teachers, whereby ten teachers were selected in each school.
3.5.2 Purposive sampling
This technique was used in order to obtain specific information about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning from the studied area.
The six heads of schools, six ward education officers and one District Education officer was chosen purposively to be interviewed due to the reason that they are the ones with data and information needed by the researcher.
3.6 Data Collection
In this study, a combination of two methods of data collection was used. Data collection was done using both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
3.6.1 Source of Data
Both primary and secondary source of data was used. The primary source of data was from the community secondary school teachers, while secondary source of data was obtained from published and unpublished documents within the heads of schools offices and other related educational center (offices) within and outside Tanzania.
3.6.3 Data collection techniques
Personal interviews were used mainly for sensitive questions as per research objectives. Both semi- structured and unstructured questions were used. Questions provided to respondents who participated in this study (Appendix 11)
Questionnaires were used in this study to elicit response about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning on community secondary schools in Hai district. Questionnaires were used to find the specific objectives on the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning on community secondary school in Hai district.
Review of documents both (published and unpublished documents) from the heads of schools offices and other related educational center (offices) within and outside Tanzania.
3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instruments
3.7.1 Validity of Instruments
According to Bernard (2006), validity is the effectiveness of an instrument to measure what is intended to measure. A researcher was checked all the instruments used to collect data to provide the intended data which were expected to be collected
3.7.2 Reliability of Instruments
Reliability refers to the ability to measure instrument to confer accurate and consistency result (Bernard, 2006). A researcher was used questionnaire, observation and documentary methods to get the data and information required. This study insure that the reliability of the instruments by administering the questionnaire to the respondents twice over the period of two weeks before the time of data collection.
3.8 Data Analysis and Interpretation Techniques
Kothari (2004) define data analysis as a process that implies editing, coding classifying and tabulation of collected data.
In this study editing activities on the collected raw data was conducted after the field work. Computer statistical package for social Science (SPSS) and descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data and coded qualitative data using statistical parameters. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis
3.9 Research Ethics Consideration Mouton (2006) ethics of science is what is wrong and what is right in the conduct of research and that in the search for truth, the researcher conduct must conform to general accepted norms and values. The researcher adhere ethical issues such as respect for anonymity and confidentiality, storage of information, consent and respect for privacy. The researcher asked for research clearance for conducting the research from vice chancellor of Open University of Tanzania. The clearance helped the researcher to obtain permission from reginal administrative secretary (RAS) in Kilimanjaro region and District executive Director of Hai district. The researcher worked with District Secondary Education Officer (DSEO), Ward education officers, heads of schools and teachers of the six selected community secondary schools all provided permission to collected data in specific schools.
3.9 Proposed Research Budget and Research Time Frame: 2017 & 2018
CORE ACTIVITIES UNITS/ITEM Cost
1. Consolidation of literature, Designing and Writing concept note of the research proposal (i) Library search
(ii)Typing and buying voucher for communication 150,000
2. Data Collection (field Work) (i) Travel and substance cost for a researcher 550,000
3. Data processing, Analysis and Report writing (i) Data processing and analysis cost for a researcher 300,000
4. Purchase and Contingence costs Contingence costs 600,000
GRAND TOTAL 1,500,000
B: Time frame work
Activity Year 2017
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Writing research proposal and model formulation YEAR 2018
J F M A M J J A S O N D
Writing research proposal and mode formulation Data collection Model analysis and numerical simulations Writing manuscript for the first paper Writing manuscript for the second paper Dissertation preparation Putting chapters together Production and submission of research report REFERENCES
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FINDINGS AND DISCUSSON
This chapter presents findings, which have been found through questionnaire,
Interview, observations and documentary review. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers, and interview were distributed to ward Education officers and head of schools and District Secondary Education officer. Teachers filled and returned them to the researcher. Head of schools, ward education officers and district secondary education officer were interviewed and they energetically participated in the interview session with the researcher. The researcher also made some observation and documentary reviews in the schools he visited during data collection process.
The findings are presented using tables, pie charts, graphs and narrations with regard to the research questions, interview, observations and documentary reviews.
4.2 Demographic Profile of Teachers
This section presents the demographic profile of teacher participants. Demographic profile includes the education level, length of working experience, gender, number of years at work.
4.2.1 Educational Attainment
Educational attainment as presented in Table 4.1 showed that71.7% of the teacher participants were bachelor degree holders while 25 % have diploma in education while small percentages (3.3%) of the participants have master in education.
4.2.2 Length of Teaching Experience
Based on the data presented in Table 4.1, results implied that majority of the teacher participants have teaching experienced. 36.7% of them have been teaching for 6 to 10 years, 25% were teaching for more than 11 years. 38.3% of the teachers had teaching experience below 5 years.
It is evident in gender category in table 4.1, which shows that out of 60 teacher
Participants, about forty two percent (41.7%) were female and fifty eight (58.3%) were males teachers. The findings of this study are evident that male teachers outnumbered female teachers.
Table 4.1: Demographic Profile of Teachers Educational level Frequency
Education level frequency Percentage (%) Cumulative
Master in education 02 3.3 3.3
Degree in education 43 71.7 75
Diploma in education 15 25 100
Sub total 60 100 Working experience 23 38.3 38.3
Below 5 years 23 38.3 38.3
6 – 10 years 22 36.7 75
11 and above 15 25 100
Sub total 60 100 Gender Male 35 58.3 58.3
Female 25 41.7 100
Sub total 60 100 Age 35 58.3 58.3
18 -35 35 58.3 58.3
36 -45 20 33.3 91.6
46 -55 04 6.7 98.3
55 ++ 01 1.7 100
60 100 Table 4.1 source researcher data 2018
4.2.4 Heads of schools
Among the six schools where the researcher has made data collection, it was
Observed that there is a little bias in terms of maintaining gender balance in
Leadership. Four schools were led by the headmasters and two schools lead by the headmistress.
4.2.5 Ward education officers
These were among the target group from which the researcher has collected
Information. The population was a mixture of officers from every ward, for which they were purposive selected. In this study Instruments for data collection that was used to collect data included interview and observation. Findings were presented according to themes in the instruments.
The researcher was able to supply questionnaire papers to the teachers, and interviews to ward education officers and head of schools. Therefore presents the findings of the facts obtained from the field, which is guided by four research objectives. The objectives were:
(i) To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
(ii) To examine the influence of heads of schools on teaching and learning process.
(iii) To analyze challenges faced by Head of schools on teachers motivation.
(iv) To determine strategies of improving motivation among community secondary schools.
4.3 To assess the relationship between motivation and teacher’s work performance.
Research indicates that teachers who are motivated are performing better than those who are less motivated. One of the most stable and consistently observed incidents in the field was the impact of teacher’s motivation in improving teaching and learning in community secondary school. The researcher wanted to find out how does teachers motivation influenced teachers’ performance. To understand some of the things that had the influence teacher’s performance. The researcher distributed questionnaires. In each school in the sampled schools questionnaire were provided to teachers of the selected schools
Findings made it was revealed that Teachers have identified to the researcher that they replied complaining that their schools are not provided with enough teaching and learning materials. One teacher confessed that students do not have good background Concerning performance they said, it is low because they were not provided with enough exercises and do not have books of their own for self-practice. They said that some teachers attend classes very late and the lost sessions are not compensated. No School libraries for the selected schools where student can learn and borrowing books. They get supplement materials from bookshops for those who are able to buy.
From heads of school a lot of information had been found. Such information was as follows:
(i) Concerning the availability of teaching staff and the number of teachers
Teaching at the schools; they said that the number of available teaching staff does not match with the demand of teaching staff. They said that teachers are overloaded as they are to teach all classes and help individual student. Some teachers have teaching periods up to 33 per week. They said that students fail as some of the topics taught are above level for the student to understand.
(iii) Views on the influence of heads of school on teaching and learning process. They said that some of the heads of school lack competence to influence teachers as required and encourage them to perform their daily activities as required.
(iv)The challenges facing heads of schools to motivate teachers. Head of schools said heads of school are posted to their school are not having any capacity building, and any seminar from ministry concerned or appointment authority, This lead to incompetent to heads of schools.
Source: Field data (2018)
Table 4.3: Teachers’ Responses on …………………………………………………… N Percent (%) Cumulative
Source: Field Data (2018)
4.4: Relationship between Teacher motivation and Teachers performance relationship N Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Good 4 25. 25.0 Very good 6 37.5 62.5 Average 4 25 87.5 Poor 1 6.3 93.8 Very poor 1 6.3 100.0 Total 16 100.0 Source: Field Data (2018) 4.5 Teacher – Students’ Relationship and Performance in the field it was found that 37.5% of students attending subject in all sampled schools have similar favorable perceptions on their relationships with the teachers as they confirm that the relationship was good. They said that it is an individual teacher or student that has an effect on student’s perceptions of those relationships for which sometimes create negative look on the teacher by other students when they become aware. Also they said that the relationship becomes bad when a teacher make high use of corporal punishment while teaching in classrooms. Quantitative analysis revealed a greater number of significant correlations between student performances. This result can be also presented in Figure 4.2. Figure 4.2: Teachers’ Relationship with Students Source: Field Data (2015) From the figure 4.2 shows that teachers and students in Hai district have good relationship. It means the students’ performance cannot be affected by such a Good, Very good, Average, Poor, Very poor relationship. Based on the data presented in the above pie chart, there is no significant relationship between students’ performance and the relationship between teachers and their students. The findings only indicated that it is difficult for some students to consult their teachers in case of difficulties in their learning. In focus group discussions students said that sometimes their teachers are harsh though not all the time but that discourages them. Students appreciated when their teachers actively listened and encouraged them, as well as provided a fun and supportive, however challenging environment where the entire class could learn.
4.6 The Nature of School Environment in Hai District Teachers and school administrators were provided with questionnaires to fill in on the nature of school environment where teaching and learning was practiced. Observation was also done on the nature of school environments and its quality to performance of students All eight schools visited in the field had teachers. books for self study and self practice. On making observations the researcher noticed the shortage of teaching materials, which was parallel to no use of available teaching resources.no school library and students are not interested in learning after class hours students are interested in playing and staying in groups discussing unknown not doing homework and other thing s related to education matters..
4.7 The Influence of head of school on improvement of teachers Performance
The head of school found that in the researched schools there was a good relationship between teachers and their students. It shows how there is a firm system of leadership in Hai district schools. Head of schools said that there is a minimum level of conflict in their schools. The study results revealed that school cultural factors, specifically, school management style and characteristics had high influence on teacher’s performance. It was possible to conclude that there is a democratic style of school management teaching activity in school was supervised by academic masters and head of schools. Furthermore high indicator of factors that hinder the teaching process as there was skipping classes and missing of periods during teaching hours which have really affected performance. School management supported teaching and learning by providing books, chalks, rehabilitation of infrastructures and other teaching aids. But when they were asked in what ratio they said that still resources are very insufficient. Would like to have at least two to three students to share a book something which was not there.
In some schools there were rooms set as a librar
In actual practice as the research found from the field, teachers are still teaches students from the starts of the session and leave students with an exercise to attempt. Few questions are posted on the chalkboard as students’ homework. Teachers complains the shortage of teaching and learning materials such as books for which students were to make self practice. The researcher realized that students performance was not much affected by teacher students’ relationship but with factors other than that. Teachers said there is no enmity among them and their heads of the school. School management has contributed enough in performance by effectively supervision on teaching activity. In schools the researcher had observed and seen that practical subjects especialy science had not been applied. For example subject clubs could include students from both levels from form one to form four not conducted for both schools.
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations based on the result of this study. The impact of teachers motivation on improvement of teaching and learning in community secondary schools. The study was done in Hai district involving six secondary schools as the sample of study among 49 schools in the district. Hai district was selected to represent other districts in Tanzania. The participants of the study were teachers; head of schools as administrators and ward education officers. Specifically, the study sought to:
(i) To assess the relationship between teachers motivation and performance in community secondary schools.
(ii) To examine the influence of heads of school in improvement teaching and learning process.
(iii) To analyze challenges facing heads of schools on teachers motivation.
(iv)To determine strategies for improving motivation among community schools. The study was done in Hai district. The research involved six secondary schools among 49 secondary schools. The respondents of the study consisted of six heads of schools, subject teachers who were chosen through simple random sampling, six heads of schools who were purposively selected. The other respondents were DSEO and ward education officer who were purposive selected. Questionnaires were used in determining teachers’ motivation in relation to performance of teachers. Was found to be …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. motivated teachers make more involvement and giving more exercises and feedback in time. Results of the study also revealed that there was a significant difference between Teachers who are motivated by attending workshops and seminars, and those who are not motivated in bringing changes in students’ performance The researcher found that if each student could have close supervision with teachers and other supplementary learning materials and practically learning they could perform better
Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that:
(i) Majority of the teachers in selected secondary schools in Hai
district mostly were female. As to educational attainment and length of teaching experience, highest educational attainments of majority of the teachers were bachelor degrees with a very good experienced in teacher
(v) There was a significant relationship between the teachers’ motivation and performance. For example,teachers …………………………….
(vi) Teacher motivation makes them attending classes as there is absence of hostility. Also it motivates students to like the subject as they don’t have negative attitude toward their teacher.
Based on the results of the study, the following recommendations were made:
5.3.1 Teachers The researcher recommends teachers to consider students cultural and learning backgrounds in choosing instructional strategies. It is suggested that theyalign teaching methods with the assessed learning needs and capabilities of students. Teachers may attempt to find a balance of teaching strategies rather than teaching student hence few understand the subject and at last many fail the subject. They may be able to realize the importance of recognizing learning styles, identify students’ differences, and adjust the teaching methods accordingly. By doing that, teachers would be able to deliver content clearly, making every student understand , motivate students leading better performance in subject.
Lastly, it is also suggested for the teachers to learn to formulate their way of teaching especially if their school do not have available facilities to support their teaching activity. They may learn to develop their profession and innovativeness in teaching in order to maximize the use of available resourceof the school to improve students’ performance.
The study highly suggest that students take in hand their perception and feedback towards their teachers’ teaching methods in order for improve their performance.
5.3.3 School Administrators For school administrators, it is recommended to ensure availability of the instructional materials and facilities for the execution of different teaching methods that are aligned with the teaching methods and students’ learning in classrooms. Effective teaching and learning cannot be achieved in the absence of those instructional materials.It is also highly recommended that school leaders provide more in-service seminars, trainings and workshops for the teachers focusing more on how the teachers would enable them to align their instructional strategies they prefer and use to the learning preferences and capacities of the students. Furthermore, teachers should also been courage by the head of schools to pursue post graduate studies in order to upgrade their instructional competencies even if they have degrees in teaching profession. They must be provided with all guides and
5.3.4 Future Research
The researcher is recommending research to be done in future on identifying student individual factors that makes them fail. The research must also be
Conducted on individual teacher factors that affect their teaching practice to the extent students are poorly performing. This is highly suggested in order to widen the scope of the current study and initiate the process of creating evidenced based teaching strategies that will enhance the quality of instruction and learning to enhance students’ performance.
Appendix I: Questionnaire for Teachers
I am a student in the Faculty of Education at The Open University
Of Tanzania (OUT) Kilimanjaro Centre. I am taking MASTER OF EDUCATION IN ADMINISTRATION, PLANNING AND POLICY STUDIES (MED.APPS). I am interested on The Impact of Teacher’s Motivation on the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community Secondary Schools. The enclosed questionnaire was designed to obtain information about the impact of teacher’s motivation on improvement of teaching and learning process. Your response will be anonymous and the information gathered will help to improve the teacher’s performance and also help our students to perform better. I would appreciate your completion of the questionnaire.
. Thank you in advance for your participation
SECTION A: PERSONAL PARTICULARS
Education level; (Tick in the respective brackets)
Master in Education ( ) Degree in education ( ) Diploma in education ( )
Below 5yrs ( ) 6-10yrs ( ) 11yrs and above ( )
Age in years 18-35 ( ), 36-45 ( ), 46-55 ( ), 55+ ( )
Gender; Male ( ) Female ( )
A. Please tick the correct one to you
1. (i) Is there a relationship between motivation and teachers work performance at your school?
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons ………….…………………………………………………..….
(ii) Does motivation increase teacher’s confidence in teaching and learning?
yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons …………………………………………………………………
(iii) If teachers are motivated, school goals will be achieved in effective way.
(a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )
Give reasons ……………………………………………………………….
2. What is the influence of heads of school in teaching and learning process………………………………………………………
(i).How is the classroom environment/condition where teaching takes place at your school?
(a) Very good ( ) (b) Good ( ) (c) Average ( ) (d) Bad ( )
(ii). Mention applied teaching aids used in teaching at your school.
(iii). How does school management system support teaching and learning in
Your school? ………………………………………………………………….
3. What are the challenges faced by head of schools on teacher’s motivation?
4. (a) Mention three (3) ways to improve teachers motivation in your secondary
In the following motivational factors, which do you think it has effects to teachers’ Performance? (Tick Yes or No)
Factors Yes No
1. Since your employment have you attend in-service training. 2. School provide meals and accommodation is available. 3. Have you been timely promoted from one grade to another? 4. Teachers who perform well get rewards 5. I receive salary on time and is satisfactory for my basic needs. 6. Does your employer give you arrears such as unpaid salaries, transfer and hardship allowance? 7.Teaching aids/resources are enough 8. Teachers makes enough preparation before classes begin. 9. Cooperation between teachers and head of school is satisfactory. 10. Do you think motivation is done fairly to all employees 11. Teachers are given leave on holiday. 12. There is good relationship between teachers and students. 13. Provision of motivation affect the students’ performance. 14. Classroom environment support learning and teaching process. C. For teachers to be good in teaching and learning process, Heads of schools should support them in the following aspects. (Put Yes or No in the space provided)
Aspects Yes No
1. Be able to provide support in solving problems 2. Consider the interest of teachers and academic abilities 3. Provision of instructional resources for teaching and learning physical facilities such as desks and chairs for students 4. Involvement of teachers in decision making Thank you very much for you response
Appendix I1: Interview Questions for District Educational Officer, ward Education officers and Heads of school on The Impact of Teacher’s Motivation on the Improvement of Teaching and Learning in Community Secondary Schools.
1. What do you understand by the term teacher’s motivation?
2. What is the relationship between motivation and teachers work performance?
3. What is the role of motivation in improving teacher’s performance?
4. Mention any teacher’s motivation do you know
5. What is the influence of heads of school in teaching and learning process?
6. Mention applied teaching aids used in teaching at your school.
7. How do you support teaching and learning process?
8. What are the challenges faced by head of schools on teacher’s motivation? 10. How do you motivate teachers at you school?
11. What is your opinion on how to improve teacher’s motivation?
12. How does teacher’s motivation contribute to teacher’s performance?
Thank you very much for participating in this work
Many teachers travel considerable distance to be paid their salary others are assigned to school very far from their home this situation contribute to teacher absence and reduce teacher’s performance.