Topic: EconomicsHousing

Last updated: February 24, 2019

The natural component of the human environment are factors of natural or natural anthropogenic origin, directly or indirectly affecting an individual or human communities (including humanity in general). To their number ?. F. Reimers relates the energy state of the medium (thermal and wave, including magnetic and gravitational fields); chemical and dynamic character of the atmosphere; water component (air humidity, terrestrial surface, chemical composition of waters, their physics, their very presence and correlation with the inhabited land); physical, chemical and mechanical character of the Earth’s surface (including geomorphological structures – flatness, hills, mountaininess, etc.); appearance and composition of the biological part of ecological systems (vegetation, animal and microbial populations) and their landscape combinations (including combinations of non-arable agricultural and forestry lands with natural ecosystems); the degree of balance and stationarity of the components that create climatic and landscape conditions and provide a certain rhythm of natural phenomena, including spontaneously destructive and other nature, considered as a disaster (earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, natural focal diseases, etc.

); population density and the interaction of people themselves as a biological factor; information component of all the mentioned processes and phenomena.The environment of the “second nature” (quasi-nature) is all elements of the natural environment, artificially transformed, modified by people; they, unlike the actual natural environment, are not able to self-sustain themselves systematically (ie they are destroyed without a constant regulatory influence on the part of a person). These include arable and other man-made lands (“cultural landscapes”); dirt roads; external space of populated areas with its natural physicochemical characteristics and internal structure (demarcation by fences, various buildings, changing the thermal and wind modes, green strips, ponds, etc.); green plantations (lawns, boulevards, gardens, landscape parks and forest parks, imitating the natural environment). P. F. Reimers refers to “the second nature” of also domestic animals,The “third nature” (artepriroda) Reimers calls the entire artificially created, man-made world, which has no analogues in natural nature and without constant maintenance and renewal by a person inevitably beginning to collapse.

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To her, in the opinion of ?. F. Reimers, may include asphalt and concrete of modern cities, the space of places of life and work, transport, service enterprises (physical and chemical characteristics, dimensionality, aesthetics of premises, etc.); technological equipment; transport facilities; furniture and other things (“real estate”); all objects consisting of artificially synthesized substances.

As one of the elements of the art-natural environment is also called the cultural and architectural environment. The modern man is surrounded mainly by the arte-natural environment.Finally, the fourth component of the human environment is society and a variety of social processes. The social environment is, in the opinion of ?. F which includes economic security in accordance with the standard (housing, food, clothes, other consumer goods) developed by society or a given ethnic group, civil liberties (conscience, will, movement, place of residence, equality before the law, etc.) , the degree of confidence in the future (absence or presence of fear of war, other severe social crisis, loss of work, hunger, imprisonment, bandit assault, theft, disease, family disintegration, its unplanned growth or reduction, etc.); moral norms of communication and behavior; freedom of self-expression, including labor activity (maximal return of strength and ability to people, society, receiving from them signs of attention); The possibility of free communication with people of one ethnic group and a similar cultural level, i.

e. creation and entry into a standard social group for a person (with a commonality of interests, life ideals, behavior and so-called); the opportunity to use cultural and material values (theaters, museums, libraries, goods, etc.) or the consciousness of the availability of such an opportunity; accessibility or awareness of the availability of universally recognized places of rest (resorts, etc.

). ) or seasonal change of the type of dwelling (for example, an apartment for a tourist tent); availability of socio-psychological spatial minimum, which allows to avoid the neuropsychic stress of overpopulation (optimal frequency of meetings with other people, including friends and relatives); availability of services (absence or availability of queues, quality of service, etc.).


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