The instrument norm is designed for a group of test takers as a reference for evaluation, interpretation, and context placement of their individual test scores” (Cohen, Swerdlik & Sturman, 2018, I-26). In this study, the norm-referenced test establishes a baseline to examine cognitive functions through methods of score comparisons and performance statistics to measure its influence on test anxiety. For example, data may include poor test preparation, students’ traits of freezing on a test, and heightened self-confidence. Also, if previously established reliability measurements are utilized, it provides a method to compare similar constructs to other tests.
A tool for reliability measurement is ‘situation-specific’ which focuses on two main factors of test anxiety; emotional and cognitive measurements (Cohen, Swerdlik ; Sturman, 2018). This would emphasize study habits, skillsets, test perceptions, emotional factors and possibly, cognitive scale measurements for consistency over time (Cohen, Swerdlik ; Sturman, 2018).