THE IMPACT OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
UNIT CODE: COM10009
NAME: HABARADUWA KANDAMBIGE SAKURA CHATHURI
STUDENT ID: 102396015
LECTURER: MRS. RUWANTHIKA WELARATHNA
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 3
2.0 Discussion 4
2.1 Article 1: From flexibility human resource management to employee engagement and perceived job performance across the lifespan: A multisample study 4
2.2 Article 2: Work-Family Conflict in Sri Lanka: Negotiations of Exchange Relationships in Family and at Work 5
2.3 Article 3. Combining Motherhood and Employment in Sri Lanka: Preferences, Structures and Moral Rationalities 6
2.4 Article 4. The Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employee Performance: With Reference to Telecommunication Industry of Sri Lanka 7
Appendix 1 12
Appendix 2 13
Work-life balance (WLB) is described as the amount of time allocated to occupational compared to the amount of time allocated to family and personal roles. The need to adopt work-life balance is attributed to many things. Firstly, the constant changes to which the labor world is subject have led to an increase in the levels of competence and demands within organizations. This situation can generate high levels of pressure among its members to become part of the daily work of these professionals and thus promote the emergence of pathologies such as stress, depression, insomnia or work addiction (Kazmi & Singh, 2015, p. 1245). Disorders in which the emotional or psychological factor plays a decisive role, since this circumstance, in the long term, can create what has been termed as Burnout Syndrome or professional burnout: chronic fatigue or inefficiency. The consequences of this type of affections are negative both physiological and cognitive, affecting many aspects of the life cycle of any adult. Most of these situations are caused by the current rhythm of life, which causes a state of constant activation, the anxiety that results from this or the non-fulfillment of labor aspirations and long-term objectives.
Companies must have knowledge of the level of satisfaction of their employees and assess their working conditions (Haider, Jabeen & Ahmad, 2018, p.31). Promoting cooperation, flexibility and well-being in general should be common practices of organizations (Orkibi & Brandt 2015); If the worker feels comfortable and carried out psychologically, the quality of their work will increase and the company will increase their productivity. Generating a healthy work environment will therefore be beneficial for both parties: the worker will improve in quality of life and the company in professional performance (Malhotra, Wong & Thind, 2018, p.9). The paper is designed to review the findings of different studies on the relationship between work-life balance and the performance of employees. It entails annotation of four studies.
2.1 Article 1: From flexibility human resource management to employee engagement and perceived job performance across the lifespan: A multi sample study
In this article, the authors wanted to determine whether allowing employees to freedom for their working lives influence job performance. The article was based on the fact that most organization apply the concept of work-life balance to achieve employee motivation and performance. The article focuses on younger generations and older workers. They utilized theories such as the Lifespan theory of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (Bal, & De Lange, 2015, p. 127).
Online surveys were administered to 5189 employees from nine large organizations in the United States and only 2,210 responded (Bal, & De Lange, 2015, p. 128). Follow-up comprised of 1139 respondents. The availability of flexible practices was measured by asking employees whether they had access to a range of options. Appendix 1 in the appendices summarizes the questions asked.
The findings revealed that when human resource management offers flexible work schedules, the level of engagement of employees increases. Compared to other factors, it was found that age was responsible for moderating the relationships (Bal, & De Lange, 2015).
The researchers concluded that employees working in organizations with of flexibility HRM feel that they are cared for and are more likely to perform optimally (Bal, & De Lange, 2015). This is evidence by assertion:
“First, we found that availability of flexibility HRM served as a strong indicator of the organization’s caring for employees, as it positively related to employee engagement and job performance” (Bal, & De Lange, 2015 p. 146).
The study is reliable because of many things. Firstly, the purpose of the study matches the research topic. Secondly, the researchers adopted appropriate models and methodology. Thirdly, the study was conducted in 2015 meaning that it captures the current situation. The authority of researchers further reinforces the reliability. Consequently, the findings from the study can applied in current topic.
2.2 Article 2: Work-Family Conflict in Sri Lanka: Negotiations of Exchange Relationships in Family and at Work
The goal of the article is to how married workers negotiate their work and life chores. The study was based on the fact that conflict and balance between family and occupation is one of the issues facing most of the couples (Kailasapath & Metz, 2012, p. 791).
To meet the goal of the study, researchers collected the data by surveying a large sample of dual-earner hetero-sexual couples. Only individuals with a working spouse were selected. A total of 226 survey packets were completed and returned. Interviewing methods was also used to collect additional data (Kailasapath & Metz, 2012, p. 797). A total of 25 Sri Lankans were interviewed. The qualitative data obtained in process was analyzed using an inductive approach and thematic analysis. The themes and codes were data driven. Some of the responses are shown in appendix 2.
The findings concluded that most of the individuals interviewed negotiate formally or informally at home and at work as a way to address and solve family or work-derived conflict. It also shows that the need to negotiate depends on experience. This is evidenced by the assertion:
“For example, one interviewee explained that when she got married, she was too young to know about discussing the sharing of household work with her husband, but now she does after realizing the benefits of discussing such matters with her husband to sort them out” (Kailasapath & Metz, 2012, p. 799).
Based on the methodology, currency, authority of the researchers and the purpose, it is clear that the article is a reliable source of information for the current study. The researchers had a similar goal to the current study. They acknowledged the fact that conflict and balance between family and occupation is one of the issues facing most of the couples. The study offers ideas on variables that should be considered when studying the impact of worklife balance on employee performance.
2.3 Article 3. Combining Motherhood and Employment in Sri Lanka: Preferences, Structures, and Moral Rationalities
The article starts by acknowledging the fact that women are the most affected group when it comes to work life balance. The article noted that most women have joined the job market, their status and work chores continue to be defined around caring work, especially for children. Mothers, according to the article, are expected to be committed to their careers and employment and at the same time be emotionally involved in caring for their children. The process of balancing these chores, according to the article, is bound to result in more severe work-family conflict. This is because motherhood may be a big limiting factor.
In order to determine the condition of work-life balance in Sri Lanka, the researchers selected successful, professional and managerial mothers. They then interviewed the selected participants on how they balance their professional and marital roles. The interview targeted their feelings and understandings towards the job and home chores. Grounded theory was used to analyze the interview material. Different codes and themes were generated.
The finding shows that although mothers are joining industrial chores, their obligations and responsibilities for motherhood roles remain unconditional. Most mothers can do anything to ensure that their children needs are met ignoring tiredness and her own needs. This is evidenced by the response by one of the participants who says:
“Although vast changes have occurred in our society, still mothers do more caring work, they like to do it and they are more confident and skillful in bringing up their children on their own” (Kodagoda & Duncan, 2010, p. 496).
The findings also revealed that bank professional have a different version of emotionalized motherhood practices compared to mothers working in the nursing profession.
The article is a crucial source as far as our current study is concerned. First, it focuses on the study conducted in Sri Lanka. Second, the authors are affiliated to recognized universities and hence they have the authority necessary to conduct a reliable study. Although they adopted a qualitative study design, the researchers used appropriate methodology to analyze data and hence the data generated and the findings can be relied upon.
2.4 Article 4. The Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employee Performance: With Reference to Telecommunication Industry of Sri Lanka
The article intended to establish the association between work-life balance and the performance of employees working in the telecommunication industry in Sri Lanka. The authors started by acknowledging the fact that work-life balance is one of the current emerging issues and that achieving work-life balance is considered as of strategic importance to both companies and employees(Mendis and Weerakkody, 2014). The researchers selected Sri Lanka as the setting of the study because the service sector in the country is the leading contributor to gross domestic product(Mendis and Weerakkody, 2014, p.113).
Cluster sampling technique was used in selecting the team from two major telecommunication companies, Dialog Axiata PLC and Sri Lankan Telecom (Mendis and Weerakkody, 2014, p. 117). The sample size included 100 members and questionnaires were used to gather the necessary data for the formulation of hypothesis through univariate and bivariate statistical methods. SPSS 20.0 software was used to analyze the data to determine the relationship between the variables.
Findings indicated that there is a positive correlation between WLB and employee performance. They established that poor work-life balance is likely to result in tardiness, bad performance, lack of motivation, errors, and high job turnover. Hence, the study indicates positive significance which gives evidence that engaging frameworks which support better work-life balance for employees within organizational setup add up to enhanced employee performance level thereby boosting growth and development. The authors concluded by asserting:
“Based on the empirical investigation of the research the researcher canconclude that there is a strong relationship between work-life balance and employee performance”(Mendis and Weerakkody, 2014, p.111).
The article is a reliable source for the current study because it focusses on the issue of work-life balance and satisfaction. Although it reflects a study conducted in 2011, it covers several insights that can be used in the current study. From the article, we get to know variables related to poor work-life balance such as tardiness, bad performance, lack of motivation, errors, and high job turnover.
Evidently, the different sources reviewed clearly reveal that the work-life balance influences the employee performance positively. Based on the four articles, it is clear that employees are satisfied if they have the perception that human resource management would be flexible to allow them to do their other roles because they will develop a feeling that the work environment is not restrictive. Satisfaction, motivation and job performance is achieved when employees can balance their occupational, personal, marital and parental roles and when there is satisfaction, the performance is likely to improve. It is recognized that flexible policies with family and supervisory styles consistent with work-family balance have a high incidence of satisfaction, as well as in the reduction of conflicts caused by both roles.
Based on the findings, one of the recommendations is that companies should offer facilities for parents. It can be deduced that parents, whether mothers or fathers, value belonging to a company in which they are allowed to have a life-work balance in which they can enjoy time with their children and be actively present in their lives. This means that a key factor in this balance is to achieve a successful professional life without neglecting the lives of their children. Some of the ways in which company can foster work-life balance are by offering options such as special permits to attend school commitments, birthdays of the children, daycare within the facilities, lactation rooms conditioned,etc.
The other recommendation is that companies should be flexible in giving permission. Based on the analysis it is apparent that it is of the utmost importance that the company offers flexibility to its employees for unforeseen times such as hospitalizations, family emergencies, courses or educational degrees, paperwork,etc. Taking care that the employee who follows a process and has a valid justification feels free to ask for permits when required.
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Source: (Bal, & De Lange, 2015).
Source: (Kailasapath & Metz, 2012).