The Factors that affect the use of computer in teaching and learning of mathematics at secondary level.
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for B.ED (1.5 Years).
FACULTY OF EDUCATION ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD
Faculty of Education
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad
The research project attached hereto, titled The Factors that affect the use of computer in teaching and learning of mathematics at secondary level.
Proposed and submitted by Mujahid Hussain Roll No. BJ656024
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of B.Ed. (1.5 year) is hereby accepted.
(Supervisor Name Here)
(Evaluator Name Here)
I Mujahid Hussain Son of Muhammad Nazir
Roll No. BJ656024 Registration # 16-PHD-01348
A student of B.Ed. (1.5/2.5 year) programme (mention here area of specialization) at Allama Iqbal Open University do hereby solemnly declare that the research project entitled
The Factors that affect the use of computer in teaching and learning of mathematics at secondary level.
Submitted by me in partial fulfillment of B.Ed. (1.5year) programme, is my original work, and has not been submitted or published earlier. I also solemnly declare that it shall not, in future, be submitted by me for obtaining any other degree from this or any other university or institution.
I also understand that if evidence of plagiarism is found in my thesis/dissertation at any stage, even after the award of a degree, the work may be cancelled and the degree revoked.
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Research Project entitled The Factors that affect the use of computer in teaching and learning of mathematics at secondary level.
Submitted by Nadeem Ahmad Roll No.BJ655672
Registration No. 16-PHD-01348 Programme B.ED(1.5Years)
Has been read by me and has been found to be satisfactory regarding its quality, content, language, format, citations, bibliographic style, and consistency, and thus fulfils the qualitative requirements of this study. It is ready for submission to Allama Iqbal Open University for evaluation.
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I would like to acknowledge my course supervisors, Nawaz Zafar for their professional advice towards the drafting and preparation of my Thesis. My father for his moral and financial support towards my work. May God bless you all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents ————————————————————————————-ii
List of Tables—————————————————————————————–iii
List of Figures—————————————————————————————–iv
Abbreviations and Acronyms————————————————————————v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study———————————————————————-1
1.2 Statement of the Problem———————————————————————-4
1.3 Purpose of the Study—————————————————————————5
1.4 Objectives of the Study ———————————————————————–5
1.5 Research Questions—————————————————————————6
1.6 Significance of the Study ——————————————————————–6
1.7 Scope of the Study—————————————————————————–8
1.8 Limitations of the Study———————————————————————-8
1.10 Theoretical Framework———————————————————————–8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction ————————————————————————————14
2.2 Computer use in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools————-14
2.3 Trends of using Computer in teaching and learning mathematics in other countries—–18
2.4 Computer Programs that Support the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics——–23
2.5 Potential Benefits of using Computer (CAI) in teaching and learning mathematics—24
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design—————————————————————————————-27
3.3 Study Variables—————————————————————————————–28
3.4 Study Location——————————————————————————————29
3.5 Target Population—————————————————————————————30
3.6 Sampling Techniques———————————————————————————–30
3.6.1 Sample Size————————————————————————————–30
3.7 Study Instruments————————————————————————————32
3.8 Pilot Study———————————————————————————————33
3.8.1 Validity ————————————————————————————-34
3.9 Data Collection—————————————————————————————34
3.10 Data Analysis —————————————————————————————-35
CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2 Background information of respondents——————————————————-37
4.2.1. Students’ background information—————————————————37
4.2.2 Teachers background information——————————————————-39
4.2.3 Principals background information—————————————————–42
4.3 To find out the current status of computer infrastructure and mathematics computer software resources————————————————————————————————44
4.3.1 Computer laboratory———————————————————————44
4.3.2 Mathematics software—————————————————————45
4.3.3 Computer printers————————————————————————46
4.4To establish the difficulties teachers face from using computers in teaching and learning mathematics———————————————————————————————46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of findings———————————————————————————-49
5.2.1 Summary of findings on background information————————————-50
5.2.2 Summary of findings on current status of computer models and Mathematics software—————————————————————————————————-52
5.2.3. Summary of findings on challenges students’ face when using computers——-54
5.2.4. Summary of findings on difficulties teachers’ face when using computers——-55
5.3Conclusions of the study————————————————————————————-56
5.5 Recommendations for further research———————————————————58
Appendix A—Principal’s Interview schedule—————————————————————–63
Appendix B—Mathematics Teacher’s Questionnaire———————————————————64
Appendix C— Student’s Questionnaire ———————————————————————65
Appendix D—Observation Schedule————————————————————————66
Appendix E—-Budget Proposal———————————————————————————-66
Appendix F—-Time Schedule / Work Plan———————————————————————-67
List of Tables
Table 3.1: Sampling Grid—————————————————————————–34
Table 4.1 Teachers’ Level of Education———————————————————-39
Table 4.2 Principals’ level of Education———————————————————-42
Table 4.3 Computer Laboratory Equipment——————————————————-44
Table 4.4 Computer Models Available————————————————————-45
Table 4.5 Computer Projector———————————————————————-46
Table 4.7 Frequency of computer use————————————————————–49
Table 4.8 We use computers for Mathematics activities—————————————53
Table 4.9 We have access to mathematics software——————————————–54
Table 4.10 Principals Response———————————————————————58
List of Figures
Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework———————————————————-10
Figure 3.4 Hafizabad Central District Base Maps———————————————-31
Figure 4.1 Students’ Gender———————————————————————–38
Figure4.2 Students’ Age—————————————————————————38
Figure 4.3 Teachers’ Gender———————————————————————–39
Figure 4.4 Teachers’ computer literacy———————————————————–40
Figure 4.5 Teachers’ Responsibilities————————————————————-40
Figure 4.6 Mathematics Teachers’ second subject———————————————-41
Figure 4.7 Principals’ Gender———————————————————————–42
Figure 4.8 Principals’ Computer Literacy——————————————————–43
Figure 4.9 Types of Schools————————————————————————-43
Figure 4.10 Computer Books————————————————————————-45
Figure4.11 Computer Furniture———————————————————————46
Figure4.12 Do you use computers to teach mathematics? ————————————–48
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
CAI Computer Assisted Instruction.
CAL Computer Assisted Learning.
CBIS Computer-Based Instructional System
CD-ROM Compact Disk-Read On Memory
CT Computer Technology.
FPE Free Primary Education
FSE Free Secondary Education
HOD Head of Department
IBM International Business Machines Corporation
ICT Information Communications and Technology.
PLATO Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching operations.
PTA Parents Teachers Association.
TSC Teachers Service Commission.
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply Uninterruptible Power Source
The study investigated factors affecting the use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools of Hafizabad district. Previous empirical studies have underscored the important roles of instructional materials in the classroom setup. Studies the world over have also highlighted the roles of computer as an instructional material in the classroom particularly in regard to assisting in enriching the teaching learning experience of perceived difficult subjects such as Mathematics. It is therefore surprising that most schools in the country are yet to integrate its use in teaching and learning of such subjects even though the Government and its development partners have invested colossal amounts of scarce resource in stocking schools with computer hardware and software. A descriptive survey study was employed to obtain both qualitative and quantitative data on factors that affect the use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in the district. Stratified random sampling was used to 323 from three students and 32 Mathematics teachers. All the Principals of the participating schools were also requested to participate in the study. Data was collected using interview schedule for principals (Appendix A), questionnaires; one for mathematics teachers (Appendix B) and one for students (Appendix C). An Observation schedule was also used by the researcher (Appendix D). The instruments were piloted to enhance their validity and reliability. Data was analyzed by the use of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) to investigate factors affecting use of Computer in teaching and learning Mathematics. They were presented in, frequencies, means, percentages, pie charts and bar graphs. The study findings indicated that there was minimal use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics due to lack of Mathematics software, fewer computers per school, lack of computer skills by teachers and students, power blackouts and inadequate computer laboratory space to accommodate mathematics students. It is recommended that mathematics teachers be trained on computer skills; various stakeholders, school PTA, the government and sponsors put in place mechanisms that will ensure computers, power generator, mathematics software and computer laboratories are available in all secondary schools for computer integration in the teaching and learning of not only Mathematics but other subjects as well.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study:
Educational technology is an interdisciplinary field which is comprised of a diverse set of disciplines and knowledge domains (Bhagwan, 2005). It is mainly concerned with the use of various forms of instructional modes that aids in simplifying abstract concepts during the teaching and learning process. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) refers to the use of a computer as an instructional material in the teaching learning process. In the process, the teacher gives learners computer directions in a programming language, use the computer as a tool using in-built software such as word processors and spread sheets or as a tutor the learners take drills, practice, tutorial, use exploration tools or simulation, and at times test using the computer (Deepark ; Turner, 2006).
Audio-visual education a branch of education technology emerged as a discipline in the 1920s, when film technology was developing rapidly (Hughes, 1962). A visual instruction movement arose, which encouraged the use of visual materials to make abstract ideas more comprehensible to students. As sound technology improved, the movement became known as audio-visual instruction. Educators at that time viewed audio-visuals only as aids to teachers. Not until World War II, when the armed services used audio-visual materials to train large numbers of persons in short periods of time, did the potential of these devices as primary sources of instruction become apparent (Blomeyer and Martin (1991). In the 1950s and ’60s, developments in communications theory and systems concepts led to studies of the educational process, its elements, and their interrelationships (Hughes, 1962). Among these elements are the teacher, the teaching methods, the information conveyed, the materials used, the student, and the student’s responses. As a result of these studies, the field of audio-visuals shifted its emphasis from devices and materials to the examination of the teaching-learning process. The field was now known as audio-visual communications and educational technology, and audio-visual materials were viewed as an integral part of the educational system (Laswell, ; Dwight, 1948).
As the technology improved, educational capabilities increased correspondingly. According to Deepark and Turner (2006), the emergence of inexpensive computer technology and mass storage media, including optical videodiscs and compact disks, has given instructional technologists better tools with which to work. Compact disks (the CD-ROM and CD-I) are used to store large amounts of data, such as encyclopedias or motion pictures. In the new interactive delivery stations with computers and CD-ROM, CD-I, or videodiscs, a student who is interested in a particular topic can first scan an electronic encyclopedia, then view a film on the subject or look at related topics at the touch of a button (Garrison ; Anderson, 2003). These teaching stations combine the advantages of reference materials, still pictures, motion pictures, television, and computer-aided instruction.
1.2 Statement of the Problem:
Mathematics has been recognized worldwide over the ages of civilization as a vital tool for survival particularly in areas of science and technology. Mathematics education therefore has increasingly become science and technological oriented. The 21st century has witnessed an advanced development in information communication and technology (ICT) through the introduction of undersea fiber optic cables which link the whole world through the computer (internet), making the world a global village (Deepark and Turner, 2006). Further to these, there has been an increase in access to computers due to tremendous advancement witnessed in computer hardware and software engineering which has resulted in the lowering of the prices of desktop and laptop computers (Garrison and Anderson, 2003).
Due to the initiative of the Government of Pakistan through the Ministry of Education and other stakeholders, there has been massive rollout of computer hardware and software to learning institutions. This rollout, it was hoped would enable the learners in using the computers during their learning sessions be at par with the rest of the world. Education sector professionals were particularly keen to adopting the technology of using computers in teaching and learning particularly of Mathematics and Sciences due to insight on its benefits in educational media instructions.
However, information obtained from most learners and their teachers in secondary schools particularly in Hafizabad district indicate that most schools are yet to integrate the use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics. This study therefore sought to investigate the factors affecting use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in district Hafizabad to document the challenges that might still be prevailing in our learning institutions.
1.3 Purpose of study:
The aim of this study was to contribute to an improved Mathematics teaching and learning environment at secondary school level. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools.
1.4 Objectives of the study:
The overall objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools
The study was guided by the following specific objectives.
i. To find out the current status of computer models and mathematics computer software resources.
ii. To establish the difficulties teachers face when using computers in teaching and learning mathematics.
iii. To establish the challenges students face when using computers in learning mathematics.
iv. To give recommendations on using computers in teaching and learning mathematics.
1.5 Research Questions:
I. What models of computers and mathematics computer software are available for use in schools?
ii. What difficulties do teachers face when using computers in teaching and learning mathematics?
iii. What challenges do students face when using computers in learning mathematics?
iv. What recommendations may be given on the usage of computers in teaching and learning mathematics?
1.6 Significance of the Study:
The study will be useful and will make a major contribution in providing information on the factors that affect the use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools. First and foremost, as the implementers of all research inputs related to academic excellence in schools, Mathematics teachers will find much assistance in the findings. The findings will provide the teachers with appropriate information on using computers in teaching and learning Mathematics in secondary schools in order to enhance the performance of their students in the subject.
Secondly, students of Mathematics have a responsibility of responding to the learning activities and utilization of time for proper guidance. The findings will increase students’ awareness of the use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning mathematics which will lead to improved learning strategies with modern technology and achievement in mathematics.
1.7 Scope of the Study:
The study was limited to a sample of schools in district Hafizabad because it offered a variety of schools: district schools both mixed and single (boys and girls), private schools, provincial and National schools for the study to be carried. The study focused on Mathematics teachers, principals and Mathematics students. The researcher was also familiar with the locality.
1.8 Limitations of the Study:
The limitations of the study included the ever changing technology on computer hardware and software resources, inadequate literature addressing use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Pakistan and insufficient funds. The study only took place in district hafiz bad due to time and money constraints. Sample size was twenty schools to represent the whole district.
1.9 Assumptions of the Study:
The study was based on the following assumptions.
i. All respondents were co-operative and provided reliable responses.
ii. All respondents were aware of the computers and computer software materials that were necessary in secondary schools.
iii. All respondents were computer literate.
1.10 Theoretical framework:
The conceptual framework (Figure 1) of the study was based on B.F. Skinner’s ‘black box’ theory and programmed instruction. B.F. Skinner’s viewpoint is based on a definition of learning as an observable change in behavior (Skinner, 1950). The potential of the computer as a teaching aid promises increasing design sophistication. Computers can be programmed to judge student input and to tailor lessons to each individual’s level of mastery. In a tutorial mode, computers can present instructional input and require mastery of each step in ways that were not possible with the early machines. The sensitivity of the instructional designer to alternative patterns of student learning is the necessary key to full use of a computer capacity. Simulation using the computer to model a real situation enables even greater sophistication, allowing realistic reactions to student input. Well-designed intellectual games and provide pertinent environments in which to practice important problem-solving skills. The relevance of this theory is that the learning process is based on the principle of reinforcement and that the stimulus-response schema is based on the operant conditioning whereby an entirely new behavior is learnt to a familiar stimulus that is, computer instruction is equated to the conditioning of a desired behavior. The classroom is equated to the ‘black box’, with the computer as the device to be clicked by the student to give desired behavior of positive results from the learning process. This means that computer assisted instruction (CAI), has to present a stimulus, give feedback to the student’s response (to the stimulus) and reinforces desired responses.
The behavior to be learnt has to be split up in small components (computer tasks) which are presented to the student. The desired behavior is reinforced through repetitions by the computer since it can go over and over a given concept several times based on the student’s responses.
This chapter looked at the research problem and highlighted on the background to the study. It also looked at the scope of the study and the significance of the study to the teachers, students, educational stakeholders and policy makers of this country. It also looked into B.F. Skinner’s programmed learning theory (1950). The conceptual framework demonstrates the independent, intervening and the dependent variables with possible outcomes. It was therefore necessary to ensure that a study was carried out to find out the factors that affect the use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Computer technology has been in use since 1990s and many countries have adopted this technology as a medium of instruction in primary schools, secondary schools, colleges and universities. In Pakistan many private and public schools have adopted this computer technology as a medium of instruction in computer science. However computer technology has not been integrated in the mathematics classrooms in secondary schools. For the purpose of this study, the literature was viewed under the factors affecting the use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools in Pakistan under the following sub-headings;
i. Computer use in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.
Trends of computer use in teaching and learning mathematics in other countries.
ii. Computer Programs that Support the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics.
iii. Potential benefits of using computer assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching and learning Mathematics.
2.2 Computer use in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools:
According to Dwyer and Margot (1975) in a report about ‘project solo’ – a project about people involved in computer learning carried out between 1970 and 1977, elaborate experimentation with various modes of using computers in high schools was carried out and computer-related curriculum modules for secondary schools developed. The project which was jointly supported by the National Science Foundation and the University of Pittsburgh focused upon computer-augmented learning in secondary schools, engineering and other fields. The primary objective of the project was to stimulate students to analyze, synthesize, Evaluate and apply Mathematics on their own by using algorithmic problem solving and student-controlled computing as catalysts (Scardamalia, 2004).The more than 100 computer-augmented, curriculum modules produced by the project are designed to help high school students use a computer as a tool in exploring concepts and principles from topics in high school Mathematics (Hung and Kline, 2006).
A computer resource book for algebra, which was authored by Dwyer, who was the director of project solo and Margot a researcher with the project, illustrates how the ideas for teaching and learning Mathematics emanating from project solo can be used in high schools in Pakistan that have access to computers (Hung and Khine, 2006). Many current students lack investigation and exploration skills (Oduor, 2009). The capabilities of computers to assist students discover and conjecture is obvious (Bhagwan, 2005). Computers provide instant calculations and rapidly generate graphics with which students can make and test conjectures. Many Mathematical software packages are open-ended tools, adaptable to a range of learning and teaching needs and objectives (Hung and Khine, 2006).
Software are available that can solve most of the exercises in today’s Mathematics textbooks (Bhagwan, 2005). The widespread availability and use of Mathematical manipulation software has resulted in significant changes in emphasis and paradigms used in school Mathematics. Bollinger (1986) concluded that 75% of all problems in high school algebra could be solved completely or partially by symbolic manipulation software. In his research findings, he asserts that students learn more Mathematics in less time with broader conceptual understanding using symbolic-manipulation software than from traditional instruction. Proper use of symbolic manipulation software with application problems would change the focus of instruction and assist students through a conceptual and applied understanding of real-world mathematics (Garrison and Anderson, 2003).
2.3 Trends of using Computer in teaching and learning mathematics in other countries.
Audio-Visuals (A-V) are aids that demand the use of touching, listening or sight. Results from empirical study show that people learn, 83% through sight, 11% through sound, 3.5% through smell, 1.5% through touch and 1% through taste (Mondoh, 2005). The use computers in Mathematics instruction therefore combines sight, sound and touch components totaling to 88% giving the learner an upper hand.
In the mid-1950s and early 1960s collaboration between educators at Stanford University in California and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) introduced CAI into select elementary schools in USA (Smith, Stanley, Sherwood and Bruce, 1976). Initially, CAI programs were a linear presentation of information with drill and practice sessions. The early CAI systems were limited by the expense and the difficulty of obtaining, maintaining, and using the computers that were available at that time. Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) system, another early CAI system initiated at the University of Illinois in the early 1960s and developed by Control Data Corporation, was used for higher learning (Sherwin, 1978). It consisted of a mainframe computer that supported up to 1000 terminals for use by individual students. According to Sherwin (1978), it was estimated that over 100 PLATO systems would be operating in the United States by 1985.
PLATO also introduced a communication system between students that was a forerunner of modern electronic mail (messages electronically passed from computer to computer). The Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT) system was a CAI project developed by Mitre Corporation and Brigham Young University in Utah (Smith et al, 1976). Based on personal computer and television technology, TICCIT was used in the early 1970s to teach freshman-level mathematics and English courses. With the advent of cheaper and more powerful personal computers in the 1980s, use of CAI increased dramatically. In 1980 only 5% of elementary school and 20% of secondary schools in the United States had computers for assisting instruction (Small, David ; Sandy, 1984). Three years later, both numbers had roughly quadrupled, and by the end of the decade, nearly all schools in the United States, and most industrialized countries, were equipped with teaching computers.
A recent development with far ranging implications for CAI is the vast expansion of the Internet, a consortium of interlinked computers (Deepark and Turner, 2006). By connecting Millions of computers worldwide, these networks enable students to access huge stores of information, which greatly enhances their research capabilities (Bhagwan, 2005). Schools are also working to incorporate computers into classrooms. The need for computer literacy in the 21st century has put an additional strain on school budgets and local resources (Deepark and Turner, 2006). Schools have struggled to catch up by providing computer equipment and instruction and by making Internet connections available. Apple Computer, Inc. in the USA has provided computer equipment to help schools meet their students’ computer-education needs.
New York City school system in the USA initiated the first full-scale operational computer-system designed by Radio Corporation of America (RCA) to teach large numbers of pupils on a simultaneous and individual basis (NCTM, 2000). The computer-based instructional system (CBIS) is capable of teaching and reading Mathematics at elementary school level. Using the system, as many as 192 students may proceed with their computer lessons simultaneously. In the initial stages, approximately 6,000 children in 16 schools were involved in the project. Located within each school is a communications unit that connects with an RCA Spectra 70-45 computer situated in Manhattan, USA. The student identifies himself to the computer by typing his name on the terminal keyboard. He then receives anywhere from 5 to 20 minutes of instruction (Carrington, 1993; NCTM, 2000). The computer acts as a private tutor, giving immediate reinforcement of correct responses and rejecting all mistakes. Statistics regarding each student’s progress are compiled on a battery of magnetic tapes that are automatically updated to include the latest student-computer interchange. The teacher may then ask the computer for reports on his students.
A survey of ICT and education in Africa, Farrell (2007) found that there was a great deal of variance in ICT policies for education among the 53 African countries surveyed. South Africa clearly is unique in terms of being able to move its ICT agenda forward. Those countries that are steadily moving to sustainable economies (Mauritius, Ghana and Botswana for example) constitute another group making remarkable progress (Karanja, 2011).
Mutula (2003) identified the ICT constraints as high cost of access to telecommunications, government policy towards ICT, underutilization of existing technologies, limited indigenous base and digital illiteracy. Checkpoint (2008) pointed out that Kenya has become the third African country to launch E-learning facilities in secondary schools after South Africa and Nigeria. In its article, Checkpoint states that the program aims to replace the blackboard with touch screen and students to send their work to teachers through wireless connectivity. However rolling of this program may not be effective in rural areas since they lack the basic infrastructure to enhance this type of learning
2.4 Computer Programs that Support the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics.
A computer is an easy aid to use and one does not need to possess any technical expertise to use it (Ball, 1986). Computers have inbuilt well written programs that supports the user by providing information on what options are available and helps should the user go astray. Sherwin (1978) asserted that there are computer programs that can be used in connection with exposition by the teacher in the teaching and learning of Mathematics including; COUNTER-is a program which exploits one very simple idea; it counts on the computer’s screen. When it starts, COUNTER is ready to begin counting in the usual way 1, 2, 3, 4, …….and it displays each number on the screen using large characters. It has an option of listening to counting as well as watching it. AIRTEMP – is a program which is used to draw by giving a simple illustration of what the computer has to offer in terms of visual aid that can be used by a teacher to explain bar graphs and line graphs. LOCUS – is a program that draws loci and geometrical constructions.
SINCOS –Is a program providing a model that helps explain the meaning of the sines and cosines of all angles, positive and negative. When the program starts, a circle with horizontal radius is displayed. If the user enters and angle say 450, the radius rotates slowly until it reaches 450 (Wilson & Krapfl, 1994).
Programs that offer games or pose problems include; BLOCKS – is a program about arithmetic whereby the computer simulates the throwing of three dice, and the numbers shown on the dice are displayed at the bottom of the screen; others include MATHLAP and MATHEMATICA. Programs that support mathematical investigation include; DIAGONAL –Is a program that concerned with exploration of the diagonals of rectangles (Zammit, 1992).
Programs that draw pictures according to (Howe and Ross, 1981), include; BUILD – Enables the user to draw a picture composed of cubes, CALDRAW – Draws all geometrical objects.
The chief minister of Punjab Main Muhammad Shahbaz Shareef handed over graphic calculators, science probe kits and PC tablets from Hewlett-Packard (HP) catalyst initiative Project, to hafizabad High and pindi bhattian school mathematics and science teachers as a step to ensure use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in Pakistan.
2.5 Potential Benefits of using Computer (CAI) in teaching and learning mathematics.
According to Deepark and Turner (2006), Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) can be adapted to the Mathematical abilities and preferences of the individual student and increase the amount of personalized instruction a student receives. Many students are said to benefit from the immediate responsiveness of computer interactions and appreciate the self-paced and private Mathematical learning environment (Crook, 2005). Moreover, computer-learning experiences often engage interest of students, motivating them to learn Mathematics and increasing independence and personal responsibility for education. Although it is difficult to assess the effectiveness of any educational system, researchers such as Hazewinkel & Michiel (2001), have reported that CAI is successful in raising examination scores, improving student attitudes, and lowering the amount of time required to master certain material. While study results vary greatly, there is substantial evidence that CAI can enhance learning of Mathematics at all educational levels.
Hazewinkel & Michiel (2001) further asserts that ‘The guided drill’ is a computer program that poses mathematical questions to students, returns feedback, and selects additional questions based on the students’ responses. Computers also can help students visualize objects that are difficult or impossible to view. For example, computers can be used to display three dimensional objects/ models, graphical presentation, histograms, pie charts and bar graphs more conceptually (Arnold, 2007). Computers can also be used in problem solving, which involves visualizing, imagining and manipulating, analyzing, abstracting and associating ideas (Siddiqui, 2004). Problem solving often requires skill in reading as well as computing and ability to state associations (Orton, 1994). The main step in problem solving is in the use of the computer as a search model to solve the problem, such as performing computations involved in completing the deductive proof, finding the solution set for the equations or inequalities, checking answers to see whether the results satisfy the conditions given and stating the complete answer to the problem (Weiss, 2006).
This chapter has discussed the use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools, trends of computer use in other countries, computer programs that support the teaching and learning of Mathematics and the potential benefits of computer use in teaching and learning mathematics. It can be observed that the USA and Western Europe have built a strong base for the use of computers in education. This largely has been attributed to developed infrastructure and large investment in computer technology. Despite the notable progress in readiness in Asia, there still exists a large digital divide between the developing and the developed countries. In Pakistan, the government’s prioritization of using computers in teaching and learning mathematics is very low and there is need for a paradigm shift in matters pertaining leadership in computer technology so that the country can leap the benefits of computer technology in education.
The study aimed at investigating the factors affecting the use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics. The Pakistan government recognizes the role of computer technology in helping to attain the education goals of vision 2030, which are to provide globally competitive education, training and research for development. Among the implementation strategies specified by the government is to establish a computer supply program that will equip students with modern ICT skills (Karanja, (2011). There however exists a gap in knowledge today as pertains to the factors affecting the use of computers in teaching and learning of mathematics. This study therefore aimed to fill this gap by describing the factors affecting use of computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the processes that were undertaken to achieve the objectives of the study by considering the design and the methods used in the study. The main sections include target population, sample and sampling techniques, research instruments and their validity and reliability, piloting and data collection, and analysis.
3.2 Research Design:
The main purpose of this study was to find out the factors affecting the use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in district hafizabad. A descriptive survey design was adapted for this study. A survey study gathers data at a particular point in time with the intention of describing the nature of the existing conditions, identifying the standards against which existing conditions can be compared as well as determining the relationship between specific events. The survey is the most frequently used method for collecting information about peoples’ attitudes, opinions, habits or the factors affecting use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools and any of the variety of education or social issues. This type of design usually seeks to find answers to questions generated from the statement of the problem.
Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in data collection. Quantitative method had the advantage of getting responses of the same questions from a large number of people.
Their responses were quantified and conclusions drawn from them. It employs methods such as observation, interview and collection of documents, photography and video recording. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedules.
3.3 Study Variables:
In research, variables are either independent or dependent. In this study therefore, the independent variables were;
i. Computer models and computer Infrastructure in school.
ii. Mathematics Curriculum/ syllabus
iii. Modes of Mathematics Teaching, Whole class (Mass) or Individualized
Dependent variables included;
i. Good performance in mathematics
ii. Good mathematical computations.
iii. Computer skill development
iv. Good analytical skill development
i. Frequency of computer use
ii. Teachers’ computer knowledge
iii. Learners’ interest in computers, age and gender.
iv. Reinforcement, expectations, beliefs, self-perception, thoughts and preferences.
3.4 Study Location.
Figure 3.4 hafizabad District Base Maps.
Figure 3.4 shows where research was carried out. The research was carried out in district Hafizabad Pakistan because it offered a variety of schools; district schools both mixed and single, private schools, provincial and National schools for the study to be carried out, which were a representative sample of the whole country. The suitability of the County was due to the fact that schools with computers were found within a convenient proximity where movement between them was easy and less costly to the researcher. This in turn increased efficiency in the administration of the research instruments.
3.5 Target Population:
Target population comprised of twenty (20) secondary schools in Hafizabad district with computers, 1600 form three students, 40 teachers of mathematics and 20 principals. This study involved nineteen (19) secondary schools out of twenty secondary schools in Hafizabad district with computers because one school was used for pilot study. They were of two categories, public and private with the following types, Girls Boarding schools, Boys Boarding schools, Mixed Boarding schools, and Mixed Day schools.
3.6 Sampling Techniques:
A sample is any number of cases less than the total number of cases in the population from which it is drawn (Ingule ; Gatumu, 1996). Sampling saves time and expenses of studying an entire population (Robson, 2002). Form three students from purposively selected public and private secondary schools were considered for this study. This is due to the fact that having had a longer period of exposure to the Mathematics curriculum they were better placed to provide more concrete information required for this study.
3.6.1 Sample Size:
Schools with computers were stratified into two main categories public and private with the following types, boarding schools, mixed boarding schools, mixed day schools. After stratification of the categories, purposive sampling was employed in selecting, nineteen public (19) schools of the following types, two government schools; a Girl’s government school and a Boy’s National school, four provincial schools; two boy’s provincial schools and two girl’s provincial schools, four provincial (Mixed Boarding) schools; two provincial (mixed day) schools, four district (Mixed Day) schools, and three private schools.
The Principals’ from the sampled secondary schools were included in the study. Sixteen of the nineteen sampled representing 80% of the Principals in the schools with computers in the district honored the interview request. Thirty two teachers of Mathematics from the forty sampled representing 80% of the teachers from the schools with computers in the district answered the questionnaires. Each sampled school provided two randomly selected Mathematics teachers.
Further, stratified random sampling was used to sample seventeen (17) form three students from each of the sampled secondary schools giving a total sample size of three hundred and twenty three (323) form three students representing 20.2% of the form three students in district hafizabad who were believed to have a longer experience in learning mathematics in terms of time and content coverage. They were more mature in opinion and attitude than form ones and twos. The form four students were busy preparing for the National Examinations by the time the research was conducted. The figures were sourced from the DEO’S office, hafizabad District.
3.1 Sampling grid.
Category Type Of School Target Population Sample Size
Of Schools Students Teachers Principals Students Teachers Principals
National Boys 80 2 1 17 1 0
Girls 80 2 1 17 1 1
Mixed Boarding – – – – – –
Mixed Day – – – – – –
Mixed Day ;
Boarding – – – – – –
Provincial Boys 160 4 2 34 4 1
Girls 160 4 2 34 4 2
Mixed Boarding 160 4 2 34 3 2
Mixed Day 160 4 2 34 4 2
Mixed Day ;
Boarding – – – – – –
District Boys – – – – – –
Girls – – – – – –
Mixed Boarding 160 4 2 34 3 2
Mixed Day 240 6 3 34 5 2
Mixed Day ;
Boarding 160 4 2 34 3 2
Private Boys – – – – – –
Girls 80 2 1 17 2 1
Mixed Boarding 80 2 1 17 1 1
Mixed Day – – – – – –
Mixed Day ;
Boarding 80 2 1 17 1 0
Total 1600 40 20 323 32 16
3.7 Study Instruments
The major tools for the study were Interview schedule for principals’, questionnaires for both mathematics teachers and form three students and an observation schedule. Questionnaires were used for data collection because, as Orodho (2005) observes, they have a major advantage including efficient use of time, anonymity is possible and questions are standardized and everyone gets the same question. Researcher also used an observation schedule to observe the computer models and computer infrastructure in secondary schools.
i. Principals’ interview schedule. (Appendix A).
The researcher used it to collect data from the principals. Being in charge of the school management the interview schedule tried to find out the factors considered in purchasing of computers and computer software. Difficulties facing teachers and students from using computers in teaching and learning mathematics.
ii. Mathematics Teachers Questionnaire (MTQ).( Appendix B)
The purpose of this questionnaire was to establish the use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning mathematics by mathematics teachers in district hafizabad It consists two parts; teachers background knowledge on computers, that is professional and technological background as well as about the school and secondly the difficulties they face in using computers to teach and learn mathematics which was the main part of the study.
iii. Mathematics Students Questionnaire (MSQ). (Appendix C)
The purpose of this questionnaire was to establish the use of computers as a medium of teaching and learning mathematics by form three students in district hafizabad. It was used because of its objectivity and its potential in providing a lot of information from respondents even in the absence of the researcher. It consists two parts:
students’ background knowledge on computers such as technological background as well as about the school and secondly the challenges students face from using computers in learning mathematics which was the main part of the study.
Iv. Observation Schedule. (Appendix D).
3.8 Pilot Study:
A research observation schedule was used to provide information on computer models, computer software as well as the general physical and material resources in the school.
Before the actual data collection, piloting of instruments was done in one secondary school based on convenience sampling involving one principal, two mathematics teachers and 30 students. The school did not participate in the final study. Piloting enabled the researcher to test the reliability of the instruments. The questionnaires were distributed to the two (2) mathematics teachers and thirty (30) form three students in the school at the same time of study. The researcher personally interviewed the principal of the school at his convenient time and an observation schedule was administered the same day.
It was concerned with establishing whether the questionnaire content was measuring what it was supposed to measure. Construct validity was enhanced by giving operational definitions of key words used in the study. No questions or words were ambiguous during piloting hence instruments were valid.
3.9 Data Collection:
The schools were visited to notify the authorities as well as distribute the questionnaires. They were collected in the course of the same term. The questionnaires were distributed to the thirty two (32) sampled mathematics teachers and three hundred and twenty three (323) form three students in the district at the same time of study in each of the sampled school. The researcher interviewed 16 principals at their convenient time and an observation schedule was administered the same day with students’ questionnaires in each of the sampled school.
3.10 Data Analysis:
Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of information collected (Mugenda ; Mugenda, 1999). In this study qualitative data was derived from open-ended questions in the questionnaires and the interview schedule, and was meant to supplement quantitative data availed by the questionnaire. The data from the study was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using percentages, means, frequency distribution with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Qualitative data was presented in a narrative form paying particular attention to the respondents’ comments. To facilitate quantitative analysis, questionnaire items were pre-coded. A code book was prepared. This enabled the data to be entered into the computer for the SPSS programmed to analyze.
This chapter described the rationale of the design and methods that were adopted for the study. It looked at the research instruments used and how they enhanced the acquisition of information on factors affecting use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools in district Hafizabad.
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
The chapter presents an analysis of the data collected from a sample of 323 from three students, 32 Mathematics teachers and 16 principals of selected secondary schools of Hafizabad district with computers. Data analysis and report of findings was done using descriptive statistics in the form of tables, frequencies and percentages. The findings of the study were discussed under the following research objectives:
i. To find out the current status of computer models and mathematics computer software resources.
ii. To establish the difficulties teachers face when using computers in teaching and learning mathematics.
iii. To establish the challenges students face when using computers in learning mathematics.
4.2 Background information of respondents:
Respondents to the items used in this analysis included form 3 students, Mathematics teachers and school principals. A number of items that includes gender, age, and educational background were used to provide information on their background characteristics.
4.2.1 Students’ background information
Students were required to indicate their gender and age as a source of information of their background information. The results of their responses were tabulated and represented in Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2 respectively.
Figure 4.1 which contains a summary of students’ responses to items on their background information shows that 164 (50.8%) of the respondents were females, and 159(49.2%) were males depicting a near gender parity for sampled population of the respondents.
Figure 4.2 which contains a summary of students’ responses to items on their background information shows that in terms of age, 31(9.6%) of the respondents were below 15yrs, 209 (64.7%) were 15-16 yrs old, 76 (23.5%) were 17-18 yrs old while only 7(2.2%) were over 18yrs old. This shows that generally, majority of the students were of the general approved age 15 and 17 years for form three students.
4.2.2. Teachers background information:
Teachers were required to indicate their gender, level of education and computer literacy among other issues as a source of information on their background information. A summary of their responses is represented in Figure 4.3, Table 4.1, Figure 4.4, Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.6 respectively.
Results of the analysis on teachers’ background information in Figure 4.3 shows that 10 (31.2 %) of the teachers were females, and 22(68.8%) were males indicating that most mathematics teachers were males.
Table 4.1 Teachers’ Level of Education
Level of Education Responses
Diploma in education 9 28.1
B. Ed. Education 19 59.4
M.Ed. Education 4 12.5
Total 32 100
Table 4.1 shows the teachers’ level of education, 9(28.1%) indicated that they had diploma in
Education qualification, 19(59.4%) scored for bachelor’s degree, while 4(12.5%) said they had a master’s degree showing that all of the teachers sampled were trained professionals able to discharge their duties effectively.
The results in Figure 4.4 further shows that most of the teachers were computer literate with 29(90.6%) of them indicating that they were computer literate while only 3(9.4%) lacked computer literacy skills implying that teachers have the skill of using computers but were not using them.
Results of the analysis on teachers’ background information on responsibilities in Figure 4.5 shows that, 18(56.2%) of the respondents were class masters, 13(40.6%) indicated they were head of department (HOD) while only 1(3.1%) indicated boarding master as an additional responsibility. This could imply that each of the teachers had an additional responsibility which could affect his/her effective teaching of mathematics using computers which require an additional time for preparation.
Finally Figure 4.6 shows the results of the analysis on teachers’ background information on their second teaching subject, 9(28.1%) indicated that they taught science based subjects (Biology, Chemistry or Physics), 9(28.1%) scored for arts based subjects (Geography), 11(34.4%) indicated applied subjects such as Business studies, Electricity or Computer studies while 3(9.4%) did not respond to the item.
4.2.3 Principals background information
The principals were required to indicate their gender, level of education, computer literacy and the type of school they were heading as a source of information for their background information. A summary of their responses is contained in Figure 4.7, Table 4.2, Figure 4.8 and Figure 4.9 respectively.
Information as obtained from the selected schools, principals’ represented in Figure 4.7 shows that 6(37.5%) of them were females while 10(62.5%) were males.
Table 4.2 Principals’ level of Education.
Level of Education Responses
Diploma in education 1 6.2
B. Ed. Education 10 62.5
M.Ed. Education 5 31.3
Total 16 100
Table 4.2 shows principals’ level of education, 1(6.2%) indicated that he/she had diploma level of education, 10(62.5%) indicated they had a bachelor’s degree and 5(31.3%) indicated they had master’s degree indicating that they were adequately professionally empowered to discharge their duties.
Figure 4.8 shows that, 12(75%) of the principals indicated that they were computer literate while 4(25%) said they lacked computer literacy skills.
Figure 4.9 Types of Schools, n = 16
Figure 4.9 shows that in terms of types of schools, 5(31.2%) indicated they headed girls boarding schools, 4(25.0%) said they were heads of boys boarding schools, 2(12.5%) pairs indicated heading mixed boarding and mixed day schools respectively, 1(6.2%) mixed day and boarding and 2(10.0%) indicated they were principals of private schools. This shows that data for analysis was fairly spread across each category of school though those from single sex schools (boys only school or girls’ only schools) had a higher representation than the other categories.
4.3 To find out the current status of computer models and mathematics computer:
This item required the researcher to identify the types and quantities of computers and computer software available in school for student’s use during the normal teaching and learning process particularly as regards other subjects apart from computer studies. Information obtained from the observation schedules were as is summarized in Table 4.3, Table 4.4, Figure 4.10, Table 4.5, and Figure 4.11 respectively.
4.3.1 Computer Laboratory.
Results obtained from analyzed data from observation schedules shows that all the 19 schools had a computer laboratory.
Computer Equipment Responses
Adequately equipped 5 26.3
Not adequately equipped
Total 19 100
Table 4.3 Computer Laboratory Equipment
Table 4.4 shows that of the 19 schools, 5(26.3%) were adequately equipped with computers,
While 14(73.7%) were inadequately equipped indicating lack of equipment in schools.
Table 4.4 Computer Models Available
Computer models Frequency
Table 4.4 shows that the most common models of computers in the sampled schools were HP with 16 out of the 19 sampled schools stocking a total of 618 desktops of the brand, Compaq brand were found in 6 schools totaling to 54 desktops, Dell in 5 schools totaling to 19 desktops, acer in 1 school totaling to 4 and Acer in 2 schools totaling to 22desktops.
Figure 4.10 shows computer books in all the schools; however the books were found to be adequate in only 2(10.5%) schools with the rest of the schools 17(89.5%) having inadequate stock.
4.3.2 Mathematics Software
Mathematics software was also found to be inadequate in all the 19 schools sampled.
Figure 4.11 shows that for computer furniture, 12 (63.2%) of the sampled schools were well furnished with the remaining 7(36.8%) schools being poorly furnished.
Table 4.5 Computer Projector
Computer projector Responses
Available 18 94.7
Not available 1 5.3
Total 19 100
Table 4.5 shows that each of the sampled schools 18(94.7%) had a projector each while 1(5.3%) did not have a projector.
4.3.3 Computer Printers.
All the 19schools had a printer each located in the computer laboratory. The general picture was therefore of schools having computer laboratories equipped to handle minimal number of students unlike the large populations of students taking mathematics – a compulsory subject in every school. Since most of the schools were found to have large population of students per stream in each class with each class having more than one stream, it is highly probable that the computer hardware and software were inadequate for their use. This research finding agrees with that of Evidence reported from scores of studies. Designed to examine the effectiveness of computer-augmented teaching and learning which indicated that computers can be used very effectively to enhance the teaching and learning of mathematics.
4.4 To establish the difficulties teachers face from using computers in teaching and
This item was intended to determine the difficulties Mathematics teachers faced in teaching mathematics using computers. The findings were as is summarized in Table 4.6.
Frequency(f); percentage f % f % f % f % f %
Computer laboratory 2 6.2 9 28.1 21 65.6 – – 32 100
Computer furniture 1 3.1 5 15.6 12 37.5 14 43.8 32 100
Computers – – 14 43.8 11 34.4 7.0 21.9 32 100
Mathematics software 8 25.0 19 59.4 3 9.7 2 6.2 32 100
Electricity – – – – 17 53.1 15 46.9 32 100
Computer books 3 9.4 13 40.6 13 40.6 3 9.4 32 100
Computer accessories 2 6.2 15 46.9 15 46.9 – – 32 100
Table 4.6 Contains summaries of data obtained from 32 Mathematics teachers about the
Difficulties they faced in teaching the subject using Computers. In response to question about computer laboratory, 2(6.2%) indicated that they were highly inadequate, 9(28.1%) respondents indicated that they were inadequate whereas 21(65.6%) respondents said their schools had adequate computer laboratories. As regards computer furniture, 1(3.1%) respondent said they were highly inadequate, 5(15.6%) said they were inadequate, 12(37.5%).scored for adequate furniture in their schools while 14(43.8%) said they were highly adequate. Computers on the other hand were said to be inadequate in their schools by 14(43.8%) respondents, adequate by 11(34.4%) respondents and highly adequate by 7(21.9%). Mathematics computer-software were said to be highly inadequate in 8(25.0%) schools, inadequate in 19(59.4%) schools, adequate in 3(9.7%) schools and highly adequate in 2(6.2%) schools. Electricity as a source of power was adequate in 17(53.1%) schools and highly adequate in 15(46.9%) schools. Computer books on the one hand were said to be highly inadequate in 3(9.4%) schools, inadequate in 13(40.6%) schools, adequate in 13(40.6%) schools and highly adequate in 3(9.4%) schools. Computer accessories on the other hand were said to be highly inadequate in 2(6.2%) schools, inadequate in 15(46.9%) schools and adequate in 15(46.9%) schools. On budgeting for computer hardware and software, 6(18.8%) of the teachers said they were involved while 26(81.2%) of the teachers said they were not involved in budgeting. This means that by the teachers’ own admission, there are inadequate computer and computer software in almost all the sampled schools. This means inadequate facilities could therefore be one of the major problem that the Mathematics teachers face in implementation of computer based Mathematics curriculum in their schools.
Figure 4.12 shows that only 5(15.6%) of the teachers said they used computers to teach
Mathematics while a majority; 27(84.4%) of the teachers did not use computers to teach Mathematics. This was attributed to lack of enough computers and Mathematics software.
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents a summary of the findings gathered from the analysis of the data. Conclusions have been drawn from the study and recommendations put forward that may help to understand factors affecting the use of computers in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools district Hafizabad.
5.2 Summary of findings:
The study sought to find out factors affecting the use of computers in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools. The sample consisted of 323 form three students, 32 Mathematics teachers and 16 principals from purposively sampled schools with computers in schools district Hafizabad. The study found out that:
5.2.1 Summary of findings on background information.
The respondent students’ background information shows a condition of near gender parity for sampled population in terms of enrolment. A majority of the sampled teachers on the one hand were found to be males indicating effects of gender stereotypes. With regard to training background, all of the teachers sampled were found to be trained professionals with most being computer literate. Most of the teachers were found to have as a second subject which was either a science or arts based subject and indicated being overloaded with lessons, making it difficult to use computers in teaching and learning mathematics. A Majority of the principals sampled were males. With regard to training background most principals sampled were found to be trained professionals with most being computer literate.
5.2.2 Summary of findings on current status of computer models and mathematics software.
On Computer models and infrastructure the findings shows that of the secondary schools in district Hafizabad sampled in the study, 14(73.7%) schools had inadequately equipped computer laboratories and lacked Mathematics computer software for effective use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics. The computer laboratories were not accessible to all students especially those who were not taking computer studies subject, making it difficult to use computers to learn mathematics. Further, the most common models of computers in the sampled schools were HP with 16 out of the 19 sampled schools stocking a total of 618 desktops of the brand due to its durability, Compaq brand were found in 6 schools totaling to 54 desktops, Dell in 5 schools totaling to 19 desktops This enabled students and teachers to select variety of models to use.
5.2.3. Summary of findings on challenges students’ face when using computers:
The students, 293 (90.7%) though seemingly enthusiastic about using computers for learning mathematics, they were faced with several challenges which included frequent power blackouts, lack of computer skills and inadequate mathematics software among others made some of them to opt for alternative instruments for learning mathematics such as the use of scientific calculators, mathematical tables and geometrical set instead of using the computer.
5.2.4. Summary of findings on difficulties teachers’ face when using computers:
Mathematics teachers about the difficulties they faced in teaching the subject using Computers; though they rated their computer literacy skills highly, 29(90.6%) reported lack of Mathematics computer software, inadequately equipped computer laboratory, lack of computer skills, extra responsibilities and more work from their second teaching subject as the main hindrance to effective use of computers to teach mathematics. Hence, they suggested that Mathematics be allocated time to use computers in the laboratory, all Mathematics teachers to be in-serviced on ICT-skills, improvement of computer infrastructure in schools, purchase Mathematics computer software and revision of the current syllabus to integrate use of computers in teaching and learning of Mathematics among other remedial actions.
Principals’ challenges in management of computers, 15(93.8%) listed the following as the major source of challenge; lack of funding, power blackouts, frequent computer breakdown, high maintenance costs, fewer computers, most mathematics teachers lack computer skills, and computer viruses making it difficult for mathematics teachers to use computers in their teaching. Hence they recommended installation of power backup-generator, employment of computer technician, installation of anti-virus in all computers, regular servicing of computers and training mathematics teachers in computer technology for them to be able to use computers in their teaching.
5.3 Conclusions of the study:
Conclusions of the study findings were made based on the relationships that were established for each of the different objectives. From the foregoing summary of findings, it can be concluded that:
i. Secondary schools in district Hafizabad sampled in the study lacked enough computers, power generator and lacked adequately equipped computer laboratories to ensure use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics. The computer laboratories are not big enough in size to accommodate all students, indicating that the average number of students per computer is very high for effective use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics. This was attributed to lack of funding by both the parents and the Government on computers.
ii. Lack of mathematics computer software prevented teachers’ and students from using computers in teaching and learning mathematics.
iii. The most common models of computers in the sampled schools were HP with 16 out of the 19 sampled schools stocking a total of 618 desktops of the brand.
Iv.Very few mathematics teachers have acquired the requisite skills and training on computer technology to enhance effective usage of computers in teaching mathematics. Integration courses organized by MOE through SMASSE on ICT are not accessible to all mathematics teachers, making it difficult for them to use computers in teaching mathematics.
From the foregoing summary, it can be concluded that computer use in teaching and learning of Mathematics in district Hafizabad is still in its early phase. Integration of computer in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in the district suffer from inadequate computer infrastructure in schools, ill equipped and overburdened teaching force and overstretched school budgets incapable of sorting out the financial challenges that the schools face relative to computer integration in the teaching and learning process. There is need to address those Factors affecting computer use in teaching and learning of Mathematics in order to integrate its use in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in schools.
Education stakeholders in the country should finance provision of computers, power generator, mathematics computer software, and expand computer laboratories in all secondary schools. This will enhance the use of computers in the teaching and learning of mathematics.
i. Due to varied types of computer models, it is recommended that schools should use HP models due to their durability.
ii. All mathematics teachers should be trained on using computers to teach mathematics due to lack of computer skills.
iii. The government should make curricular re-design of the Mathematics syllabus to accommodate the use of computer in the teaching and learning of Mathematics.
iv. The PTA, educational stakeholders and the government who finance free secondary education should increase its allocation on tuition fees and encourage schools to have a specific vote head for computers so as to ensure reliable funding of computers by schools.
5.5 Recommendations for further research.
i..A study to establish the impact of computer use in the teaching and learning of mathematics in secondary schools may be undertaken.
ii. A study to be carried out on the effects of on-line (internet use) teaching and learning of mathematics on the performance of mathematics.
iv. Finally a similar study should be carried out in a different location to find out whether similar results will be obtained.
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Principals’ interview schedule:
This research is meant for academic purpose only. Its purpose is to establish the factors inhibiting use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools. Responses for the questions will be treated confidentially and will be used for the study.
1.YOUR SEX: MALE FEMALE
COMPUTER LITERATE: YES NO
3. Total number of years as principal ——————————————-
Period spent in the present position in this particular school————years.
Total number of years since started teaching——————————————
4. TYPE OF SCHOOL:
Mixed day and boarding
1. Assess the adequacy of the following in your school.
Facility Highly Adequate Inadequate Highly inadequate
Mathematics- Computer software
1. Who in the school do you make budgets with for acquisition of physical (Hardware-computers) and Material (software) resources.
2. How many students are taking computer science in your schools?
Mathematics Teachers’ Questionnaire:
This research is meant for academic purpose only. Its purpose is to establish the use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools. You are kindly requested to provide honest and precise responses. Responses for the questions will be treated confidentially and will be used for the study. Please tick (?) where applicable or fill in the required information in the spaces provided.
1.YOUR SEX: MALE FEMALE
COMPUTER LITERATE: YES NO
3. Number of years you have worked as a teacher——————-years
Number of years you have worked in this station—————–year.
Teaching subjects, Mathematics
Specify any other——————————————————–
Facility Highly Adequate Inadequate Highly
Mathematics- Computer software
This research is meant for academic purpose only. Its purpose is to establish the factors inhibiting use of computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools. You are kindly requested to provide honest and precise responses. Responses for the questions will be treated confidentially and will be used for the study. Please tick (?) where applicable or fill in the required information in the spaces provided.
1. Your sex: Male
2. Your age (in years) Between 13-14
3. Your class : Form three
1. Does your school have a computer room————————?
If yes, how many students can sit in the computer room in one shift———–?
2.Do you perform mathematical activities/ tasks/ exercises using computers——-?
Researcher’s Observation Schedule.
This research is meant for academic purpose only. Its purpose is to establish the factors inhibiting using computers in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools. You are kindly requested to provide honest and precise responses. Responses for the questions will be treated confidentially and will be used for the study. Responses for the questions will be treated confidentially.
1. Computer laboratory.
(i) Availability : Available Not available
(ii) Computers: Adequately equipped Not adequately equipped
(iii) Computer models (makes):
Model HP IBM COMPAQ DELL TOSHIBA OTHERS. TOTAL
Item Cost (Rupees)
Per month. Duration Total
Stationary 400 400
Photocopying and Binding 2000 2000
Travel and subsistence 1000 1000
Computer data analysis. 400 400
Time schedule / work plan
Proposal writing and presentation Friday, 20th MARCH 2018
Proposal corrections MARCH 2018
Obtaining research permit APRIL, 2018
Pilot study APRIL, 2018
Adjustment of the questionnaires APRIL, 2018
Data collection APRIL, 2018
Data analysis and report writing MAY 2018
Submission of the report 13 JUNE 2018