The Egyptian pyramids are one of the most mysterious and unusual structures ever created by man. The name “pyramid” is usually attributed to all Egyptian buildings that have a shape resembling a pyramid. But only some of them can be called pyramids from the geometric point of view. To them, in particular, are the great pyramids in Giza.
These structures have an ideal pyramidal shape. The largest of them is the world famous pyramid of Cheops . She is one of the Seven Wonders of the World. But the pyramids are located not only in Giza, but also in other parts of Egypt. A large number of pyramids are located in Saqqara, Dahshur, Meidum, Abusir. Egyptian pyramids attract many scientists, archeologists and historians, and some facts about them do not fit into the traditional history of the development of civilizations.
Interesting facts about the Egyptian pyramids:
The Pyramid of Cheops
The largest Egyptian pyramid is the pyramid of Cheops in Giza. Its height is about 139 meters. Initially, its height was almost 10 meters more, but after the destruction of the cladding, it decreased. Its base is a square with a side of 230 meters. The construction of this pyramid took more than 2.5 million blocks . On average, each of the blocks weighs about 2-3 tons. It is the tomb of the great pharaoh Cheops (Khufu).
Age of the pyramids
The age of the most ancient pyramids many scientists date from 2650-2600 BC . One of the very first is the pyramid of Djoser. But some scientists believe that the age of the pyramids is much larger. Using the new achievements of science, they assume that the age of some pyramids is more than 10,000 years old. Thus, if you take this age into account, it turns out that the first pyramids were built at a time when the planet was still inhabited by mammoths.
Dynasties and pyramids
Almost all the dynasties of the Egyptian kings left their mark in history in the form of pyramids. At present no pyramids belonging to the first and second dynasties have been found. The predecessors of the pyramids are mastabas . These are ancient Egyptian trapezoidal structures, which are tombs of kings. The construction of the pyramids begins with the third dynasty. The most famous and large pyramids in Giza belong to the fourth dynasty.
Arrangement of pyramids
Most pyramids are almost monolithic construction, with long corridors and small rooms. So, in each pyramid there is a main entrance. He leads to the main corridor, which forks into two: one goes up, the other down. The lower leads to the underground chambers lying much deeper than the pyramid basement. The upper one in turn expands and passes into a spacious gallery leading to the tomb of the king.
Builders of the pyramids
It used to be that thousands of slaves were used in building the pyramids. They were driven to a great construction site from all corners of the kingdom. But in the vicinity of the pyramids there were not found mass graves, which confirm a large number of slaves on the construction site of slaves. Recently, archaeologists have found many economic and residential buildings that refute slave labor on the construction of the pyramids. So the builders had granaries, dormitories, places for healing, canteens and even a brewery. This suggests that the builders of the pyramids had a fairly high standard of living at that time.
Imhotep and pyramid of Djoser
Before the appearance of the great pyramids in Giza, the tombs of the kings had a different appearance. The pyramids of the third dynasty were several voluminous trapezoids placed on top of each other. At the base lay the biggest trapezoid to the top they decreased. The first of these pyramids is the pyramid of Djoser, built by Imhotep. It is he who owns the invention of this form for the tombs. Imhotep also developed a special way of laying of hewn stones. This method was later widely used in the construction of pyramids.
Inscriptions in the pyramids
The walls of galleries and tombs inside the pyramids are painted with different hieroglyphs and images. Moreover, every hieroglyph and image is not chosen by chance and carries a religious meaning. They are usually depicted lifetime accomplishments of the deceased, a kind of instruction for the transition to the afterlife and other. Also in one of the pyramids images were found, similar to a tank, a helicopter and a flying machine.
The Legend of the Curse of the Pyramids
In various films and stories, a legend often occurs about the curse of the pyramids. It says that everyone who entered the tomb and broke the peace of the Pharaohs will be cursed and will die soon. The basis for this opinion was an article in the 1920s in a newspaper, which stated that all participants in the excavation of the tomb of Tutankhamun were killed under mysterious circumstances.
In fact, many of the scientists were people in old age, which can explain their deaths for several years after participating in the excavations. Some participants lived after the expedition for several decades.
The broken pyramid
One of the pyramids in Dahshur has a broken form. From the bottom to the middle, the angle of inclination of the sides is about 54 degrees, and from the middle to the top about 43 degrees. Some researchers believe that Pharaoh Snoffr, for whom it was built, died prematurely and in order to speed up the construction, the angle of inclination was changed. Another version – facing on other pyramids with the same angle fell off and the angle was changed in order to avoid this.
Purpose of the pyramids
The pyramids are the tombs of the kings of Egypt. It is thought that it becomes home to the pharaoh after his death and, therefore, it placed all that he will come in handy in the afterlife. Also, together with Pharaoh, his wives, concubines and slaves were buried. According to another version, the pyramids are intended for transition to another world. For this, archaeologists believe, a vertical shaft was made in the tomb.
The Pink Pyramid
The pink pyramid is in Dahshur. It is the largest of the Egyptian pyramids not counting the great pyramids of Giza. This pyramid got its name because of the material from which it was made. This limestone gives it a pinkish shade in the rays of the setting sun