TASK 1 (C)
Assess the potential implications of implementing the principles of the scientific school of management to managing your chosen organization. Your assessment should include reference to alternative schools of management thinking. (20 marks – 700 words)
Standardized tools and techniques are common within Perfumes Guyana’s operation where task assigned to staff are accomplished in a systematic and scientific approach. Managing and guiding employees according to the objectives is a great task hence this report seeks to analyze the implication of Fredrick Taylor School of management theories and the impact on the overall operation.
“Scientific management theory is the application of industrial engineering principles to create a system where waste is avoided, the process and method of production is improved, and goods are fairly distributed” initiated by the pioneer Fredrick (Taylor, 1911). These theories are broken down into four general principles:
According to (Jones, 2008) Taylor “develop a science for each element of a man’s work which replaces the old rule of-thumb method”. Processes involved in actively gathering, analyzing, and converting information to laws, rules, or even mathematical formulas for completing tasks (Grimsley, n.d.). This theory is alive and fully functional in Perfumes Guyana where tasks are accompanied by manuals. These systems are drafted and easily accessible in designated areas guiding staff through the process ensuring manifestation of consistency and eliminates error. Poor performance results from not adhering to internal procedures, hence staff are held accountable for their actions.
Employees are assessed based on capabilities to function in various capacity rather than assigning any task, weak areas are focused on and built through training (Erye, 2010). Staff are assigned task with enough time to complete and submit to management. With this, all staff are occupied and feels accomplished. The recruiting process is crucial when selecting candidates for a vacant post within the organization. This guides management through the interview process by short listing the most suitable candidate based on years of working experience in similar field and educational background.
Another theory that is fully practiced by the company is “Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they’re using the most efficient ways of working” (Taylor, 1911). Instructions are given from top- down channels, however, the roles and responsibilities tends to be specific and repetitive on a daily basis. Staff are guided by their superiors, thus ensuring job efficiency. With regular monitoring and performance appraisal, staff weak areas are highlighted and addressed with a one on one coaching session. Explained by (Taylor, 1911) money is a stimulator of interest and motivator for a social being. Due to repetitive task, a commission scheme was implemented to boost performance and create a driven work force (Calman, 2017). This resulted in the delivery of quality work because they were financially rewarded.
Lastly, “allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently” (Taylor, 1911). As mentioned earlier, a short hierarchical ladder exist from supervisors to drivers. Through experience and enthusiasm existing staff are given first preference to move up the promotional ladder. However, at each level, staff are designated with their own responsibilities with detailed instructions specific to their job title. Planning, organizing, implementing, controlling and devising strategic approaches are important to overcome deficiencies in the company’s operation (Forestor, 2017). Superiors provide training so that staff excel in their performance, also promote a culture of respect for persons in authority.
Human Relations theory was introduced by Professor Elton Mayo to address the problem that was faced by Taylors’ ‘scientific management theory’. Mayo argued that employees should not be treated like robotic machines, they are human and should be treated like human being. Perfumes Guyana staff would appreciate such endeavors. Working in such conditions opens room for innovation and creativity. Taylor belief that incentives motivated employees while Mayo argued that company’s performance is determined by the human relations at work. He believes that co-operation and healthy relationship motivates staff to work and deliver more than expected. Not all staff are motivated by money, others value little gestures, thank you, social gatherings, games day among others .Taylor’s theory tied employee to follow procedures while Mayo’s theory encourage employee to involve in the decision making. Staff contribution towards decision making, brain storming and engagement guarantees success. Taylor’s theory encourage working individually, where employees are allocated to do a particular task while Mayo’s theory encourage working as a group to build a good relationship within the workplace. The more the employee they motivated the increase of the production result will be expected as the organizational output Group work proves beneficial, staff supports each other in failure and success. Hence, scientific management theory and human relation theory are both important in accomplishing accomplish the overall objectives (Tirintetaake, 2017). (767 WORDS)

Task 1: Types of organizational objectives and responsibilities leading to organizational success

1.1 Different organizations in the United Kingdom

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

1. Unilever
In the 1890s, William Hesketh Lever, founder of Lever Brothers, wrote down his ideas for Sunlight Soap – his revolutionary new product that helped popularize cleanliness and hygiene in Victorian England. (Unilever, 2018)
Unilever is a proud owner of over 400 brands all over the world, which includes food and beverages, home and personal care, Ice creams, billion-euro brands etc. Since Unilever manufactures many brands under each type of products as mentioned earlier, as a consumer purchases a product for his or her daily usage it if most likely to be a Unilever brand.
2. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Beginning in 1715 with the opening of an apothecary shop in London, our story has always focused on innovation. From a selection of individual entrepreneurs to a global company of around 100,000 employees, we’ve developed a variety of medicines and healthcare products that form the foundations of today’s GSK. (GSK, 2018)
GSK is a highly recommended leading pharmaceutical company in the United Kingdom and all over the globe over 160 countries. Their three global businesses are pharmaceuticals, Vaccines, and consumer healthcare.
3. Rolls-Royce
Rolls-Royce grew from the electrical and mechanical business established by Henry Royce in 1884. Royce built his first motor car in 1904 and in May of that year met Charles Rolls, whose company sold quality cars in London. An agreement was reached that Royce Limited would manufacture a range of cars to be exclusively sold by CS Rolls & Co – they were to bear the name Rolls-Royce. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)
Rolls-Royce is actually two companies, where most are familiar with the automobile division however, it also has an aerospace and defense division which in fact generates the higher revenue in the company. Rolls-Royce is the 2nd largest jet engine manufacturers in the world. Additionally they provide engines to ships and submarines as well. They provide to customers over 150 countries and operate in over 50 countries.
4. Imperial Tobacco
Founded in 1901, Imperial Tobacco has established itself as one of the world’s leading producers of high-quality tobacco products. Imperial Tobacco Limited is the UK’s No.1 tobacco company manufacturing and distributing brands such as Lambert & Butler, JPS, Player’s, Carlton, Golden Virginia and Rizla for the UK market. (Imperial Tobacco, 2016)
Imperial Tobacco is a part of the Imperial Group, the group currently has over 33,000 employees and is currently operating in over 44 countries and providing to customers in over 160 countries.

1.2 Vision, Mission and Values


Our vision
Unilever has a simple but clear purpose:
“To make sustainable living commonplace. We believe this is the best long-term way for our business to grow.” (Unilever, 2018)
This vision statement puts emphasis on sustainability, especially among consumers. The following components are notable in Unilever’s vision statement:
1. Commonplace sustainable living
2. Best long-term way
3. Business growth
Commonplace sustainable living is a core component in Unilever’s corporate vision statement. This component shows the company’s efforts in changing its products to suit current market conditions. For example, through sustainable design for home care and personal care products, Unilever helps consumers reach their goals to integrate sustainability in their lives. The corporate vision also states that commonplace sustainability is the best long-term way for the business. Unilever understands the importance of sustainability and other market trends shaping the industry. Moreover, the vision statement reflects the company’s view of sustainability as a way to maintain business growth. This vision statement aligns with Unilever’s corporate social responsibility strategy to address business stakeholders in the consumer goods industry. (Young, 2017)

Our mission
“Adding vitality to life. Meeting everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care. Helping people feel good, look good, and get more out of life.” (Young, 2017)
This mission statement underscores how the company satisfies customers in various aspects of their lives. The following are the significant components in Unilever’s mission statement:
1. Adding vitality to life
2. Meeting everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care
3. Helping people feel good, look good, and get more out of life
Adding vitality to life is a general indicator of business strategy in Unilever’s corporate mission statement. Such vitality is the value that consumers can expect from the company’s products. The corporate mission also specifies the aspects of life where such vitality is added. For example, Unilever’s food products address consumers’ vitality needs in terms of nutrition. Furthermore, through these products, the company attracts customers who want to feel good, look good, and get more out of life. The mission statement’s specification of the types of products provides a foundation for the product mix in Unilever’s marketing mix. (Young, 2017)

Our Corporate Purpose states that to succeed requires “the highest standards of corporate behavior towards everyone we work with, the communities we touch, and the environment on which we have an impact.”
Our values define how we do business and interact with our colleagues, partners, customers and consumers. Our four core values are integrity, responsibility, respect and pioneering. As we expand into new markets, recruit new talent and face new challenges, these guide our people in the decisions and actions they take every day. (Unilever, 2017)

1.3 Stakeholders and stakeholders’ objectives

Stakeholders are the individuals, groups or organizations that possess an interest or concern towards the organization, and can affect or be affected through the activities or objectives of the organization.
Simply customers, investors, pressure groups, suppliers, government, investors/ shareholders, local communities, managers, owners, employees can be identified as the stakeholders of an organization.
These Stakeholders can be separately identified as follows:

Stakeholders can be internal or external, the internal stakeholders are the parties which are directly involved in the activities of the organization, like owners, employees, investors and managers. Similarly, the external stakeholders are the parties which do not directly be involved with the activities of the organization however are affected in some way by the activities of the organization, such as the government, local communities, lenders, suppliers, customers and pressure groups.
However, it may be difficult to satisfy all interests of the stakeholders since the interest of one stakeholder may oppose with the interest of another stakeholder. In example, the Shareholders aim to increase their wealth through making investments whereas, the managers aim to reduce the costs and this may deprive the interests of the shareholders.

Internal Stakeholders
1. Owners/ Shareholders – Owners or the shareholders have the similar objective over the organization in return for the investments they make on the organization i.e., to increase their wealth.
As mentioned in the figure 1.2 the outlook for the 2018 of the Rolls-Royce Company is pretty successful. Additionally, the increase in the profits mean that the wealth of the owners/ shareholders would also eventually result in an increase.

2. Employees and Managers – Employees and managers too basically possess the same interest over the organization where they are employed at i.e., to salary increments and promotions. Currently, Rolls- Royce employ a staff over 22,300 employees. Rolls-Royce accounts for 1 in every 250 jobs in the UK. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)
They also train over 600 apprentices in their UK schemes. Additionally they have invested over £ 32 million on learning during the year 2016. Although we know it’s not all you look for, we offer all employees competitive base salaries and access to bonus plans. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)
External Stakeholders
1. Customers – A customer’s main and prime interest on a particular organization would be to fulfill their needs and wants. Further, the main customer segment of the Rolls-Royce organization are the young adults of the age 30s and the adults of the age 45s. Rolls-Royce is a luxury brand vehicle which mostly targets the customers with the ability the purchase their vehicles who are mostly of the higher social class. Accordingly, our deep design knowledge and in-service experience ensures that we are best placed to help our customers to optimize product performance and availability. Our service agreements drive reliability improvements to reduce the frequency of maintenance intervals. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)

2. Suppliers – Suppliers interest over an organization would be the continuation of the contracts and due payments. According to Rolls-Royce “Supplier Code of Conduct”, we recognize the importance of paying suppliers on time for the goods and services they provide. As part of this commitment we have produced guidance materials for suppliers to help ensure they are paid on time. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)

3. Government – Government’s interest over the organization would be the obtain taxes on time and to oblige by the laws set by them. Therefore Rolls-Royce, We are committed to undertaking any lobbying activities in compliance with all applicable laws, and to behave ethically in all our interactions with governments, their agencies and representatives. Rolls-Royce is registered in the EU’s Transparency register. Rolls-Royce North America is registered under the federal Lobbying Disclosure Act. Certain employees have qualified as “lobbyists” under the Act and are consequently listed as such on the company’s registration. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)

4. Local Communities – Local communities are interested in an organization in order to obtain employment opportunities, to improve living standards, etc. Following that Rolls-Royce is engaged in several projects to enhance the standards of local communities through, Muskaan, it is a STEM learning initiative conceived by Rolls-Royce and supported by Charities Aids Foundation India to increase interest and encourage learning amongst students taking Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) subjects.
CRISP scholarship is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Rolls-Royce for mid-career top level people in the field of science and innovation – with links to public policy – in India ; Sri Lanka.
Tamana is a non-profit voluntary organisation that helps the cause of mentally challenged, multiply disabled and autistic.
NFBM is a social organisation that strives for equality of opportunity for the blind in their education, training and employment. The organisation has started a school for blind girls.
Agastya is a charitable education trust that runs the world’s largest mobile hands-on science education programme for economically disadvantaged children and teachers. (Rolls-Royce, 2018)

1.4 Organizational responsibilities

During the earlier days the organizations were more focused on the shareholder concept where only the shareholders were benefited by the activities of the organization, however after several years the idea of benefiting the stakeholders was put forward which is the stakeholder concept. Therefore many organizations have diverted their attention towards the performing activities of the organization which would create benefits to the entire society in addition to its shareholders.
Organizational responsibilities is the way of giving back to the society, this encourages organizations to care about the society. These responsibilities are referred in several other terms like, corporate social responsibilities, business social responsibilities, corporate social performance, etc. The social responsibility is an obligation that goes beyond the organizational rules and it is a voluntary obligation. There is no universally accepted definition for business social responsibilities, however after taking all definitions provided by several organizations and scholars a common definition can be built as follows:
“Business social responsibility is the obligation of an organization’s management towards the welfare and interest of society in which operates”
According to the present view social responsibilities of an organization can be discussed under four categories:

Further, there are several benefits an organization obtains through engaging in business social responsibilities. Such as,
1. Ability to attract potential investors.
2. Organization gets support from the society to carryout organizational activities.
3. It improves the image and reputation of the business.
4. Less control of government due to satisfying the social responsibilities.
5. Can use as a tool to face the competition in the market.


“We believe business growth should not be at the expense of people and the planet. That’s why we’ve changed the way we do business, and why we want to change the way business is done. Our business model drives growth that is consistent, profitable, competitive – and responsible.” (Unilever, 2018)
Unilever has come up with a particular plan called The Unilever Sustainable Living Plan (USLP) implemented in the year 2010, which ensures to meet all the interests of their stakeholders while growing as an organization and to preserve the environment giving a positive social impact.
Unilever has implemented three big goals in order to maintain the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan. “Our Plan sets stretching targets, including how we source raw materials and how consumers use our brands. It has three big goals, supported by commitments and targets grouped across nine pillars which span our social, economic and environmental performance across the value chain.” (Unilever, 2018)
The Three goals and the nine pillars are as follows:
1. Improving health and well-being for more than 1 billion
By 2020 we will help more than a billion people take action to improve their health and well-being. 538 million people has already been achieved.

a. Health and Hygiene
i. Reduce diarrheal and respiratory diseases through hand washing – Not on track
ii. Provide safe drinking water – On track to achieve
iii. Improve access to sanitation – On track to achieve
iv. Improve oral health – Achieved
v. Improve self-esteem – On track to achieve

b. Improving nutrition – 35% of our portfolio by volume met highest nutritional standards in 2016.
i. Reduce salt levels – On track to achieve
ii. Reduce saturated fat – 92% achieved
iii. Increase essential fatty acids – 92% achieved
iv. Reduce saturated fat in more products – On track to achieve
v. Remove trans-fat – Achieved
vi. Remove sugar – On track to achieve
vii. Reduce calories in children’s ice creams – Achieved
viii. Reduce calories in more ice cream products – Achieved
ix. Provide healthy eating information – 86% achieved

2. Reducing environmental impact by ½
By 2030 our goal is to halve the environmental footprint of the making and the use of our products as we grow our business. Our products’ lifecycle, halve the greenhouse gas impact of our products across the lifecycle by 2030. Our greenhouse gas impact per consumer use has increased by around 8% since 2010. Our manufacturing, by 2020 CO2 emission from energy from our factories will be at or below 2008 levels despite significantly higher volumes.

a. Greenhouse gas – Our greenhouse gas impact per consumer use has increased by around 8% since 2010. 43% reduction in CO2 from energy per ton of production since 2008
Become carbon positive in manufacturing:
i. Source all energy renewably – On track to achieve
ii. Source grid electricity renewably – On track to achieve
iii. Eliminate coal from energy mix – On track to achieve
iv. Make surplus energy available to communities – On track to achieve
v. New factories – On track to achieve
Reduce greenhouse gas from washing clothes:
vi. Reformulation – Achieved
vii. Reduce GHG from transport – On track to achieve

Task 1 (P1)
Which part of a cell controls all the activities that happen in the cell? What does it contain that enables it to carry out its function?
The nucleus is the control centre of the cell. A cell’s nucleus is able to control the other activities in a cell by expressing certain segments of its DNA, which creates proteins that perform specific activities. Proteins can vary from enzymes to structural components, but they are needed for almost all processes in a cell and the human body.

The nucleus directs all cellular activities by controlling the synthesis of proteins. The nucleus contains encoded instructions for the synthesis of proteins in a helical molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The cell’s DNA is packaged within the nucleus in a structural form called chromatin. Chromatin consists of DNA wound tightly around spherical proteins called histones. When the cell prepares to divide, the DNA unwinds from the histones and assumes the shape of chromosomes, the X-shaped structures visible within the nucleus prior to cell division. Chromatin packaging of DNA allows all of the cell’s DNA to fit into the combined space of the nucleus. If DNA was not packaged into chromatin, it would spill out over a space about 100 times as large as the cell itself.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

The first step in protein synthesis begins in the nucleus. Within the nucleus, DNA is translated into a molecule called messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). mRNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores. Once in the cytoplasm, mRNA attaches to ribosomes (either bound to endoplasmic reticulum or free in the cytoplasm) and initiates protein synthesis. Proteins made for export from the cell function as enzymes that participate in all the body’s chemical reactions. Because enzymes are essential for all the body’s chemical processes-from cellular respiration to digestion-direction of the synthesis of these enzymes in essence controls all the activities of the body. Therefore, the nucleus, which contains the instructions for the synthesis of these proteins, directs all cellular activities and thus all body processes.

Draw a flow diagram below that shows the relationship between a cell, the nucleus, chromosomes, genes and DNA.

(a) Write a description of what you understand by the term “gene”.
Include any appropriate diagrammatic illustration to support your text
(maximum 100 words).

A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein. So, for example, one gene will code for the protein insulin, which is important role in helping your body to control the amount of sugar in your blood.Genes are the basic unit of genetics. Human beings have 20,000 to 25,000 genes. These genes account for only about 3 per cent of our DNA. The function of the remaining 97 per cent is still not clear, although scientists think it may have something to do with controlling the genes.

(b) Research how wheat has changed since the 1950s.
What was the name of the man who enabled today’s wheat to be grown successfully?
What did he do to enable wheat to be grown around the
world and save 100 million people from starvation?
Dr. Norman Borlaug Studies :- Borlaug studied plant biology and forestry at the University of Minnesota and earned a Ph.D. in plant pathology there in 1941. From 1944 to 1960 he served as a research scientist at the Rockefeller Foundation’s Cooperative Mexican Agricultural Program in Mexico. Borlaug’s work was founded on earlier discoveries of ways to induce genetic mutations in plants. These methods led to modern plant breeding, with momentous results that included the tailoring of crop varieties for regions of climatic extremes. At a research station at Campo Atizapan he developed strains of grain that dramatically increased crop yields. Borlaug ultimately developed short-stemmed (“dwarf”) wheat, a key element in the Green Revolution in developing countries.

How is this connected to genes?
University of Minnesota alumnus Norman Borlaug left an indelible mark on the world. The late agronomist’s work in developing new varieties of wheat starting in the 1940s spawned the “Green Revolution,” and is credited with saving at least a billion lives.

For his unparalleled contributions in using science to feed the world, Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1977), the Public Welfare Medal (2002) by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Medal of Science (2005), and the Congressional Gold Medal (2007). In 2014 a statue of him was placed in the National Statuary Hall of the United States Congress; he is the sole scientist represented there.

Borlaug also received more than 50 honorary degrees, was inducted into the collegiate National Wrestling Hall of Fame, and helped introduce Little League baseball in Mexico. And just last month, at the “9 Billion and Counting” conference on campus, he was lauded as being “the single greatest graduate of a land-grant institution.”
Beyond all the accolades, Borlaug was a plant pathologist/breeder, a teacher of scientists, a scientific collaborator, and a team builder. His unique teaching and training methods for young scientists became part
If you complete the above correctly then you will achieve AC. P1
Task 2 (M1)
An example of Natural Selection – The case of the English peppered Moth
The English peppered moth rests on tree trunks during the day. Its speckled grey colouring provides a good camouflage on the lichen-covered trunks of the trees. In about 1850, a black English peppered moth was discovered in Manchester.
It was not an advantage for these moths to be black as they stood out against the white lichen and were therefore easily seen by predators.

With the spread of the Industrial Revolution and the expanding use of steam power, pollution became a problem in large cities. The trees once covered in lichen turned black. The number of black moths increased dramatically and by 1895 they made up about 98% of the population of English peppered moths. How did the moths get to be black?
Natural selection!
Two different varieties of the peppered moth. The distribution of peppered moths in
They are on a tree that is covered in lichen. the 1950s. The black variety is in
Industrial areas and the light variety is
in rural farm areas
Using the information given above, and some of your own research, answer the following questions:
What changes occurred in the genes of the peppered moth, and how did the changes occur, that led to the creation of the black moth? (Max 100 words).

The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during the Industrial Revolution. The frequency of dark-coloured moths increased at that time, an example of industrial melanism.

Explain why the population of black moths was so low in the 1850s. (Max 100 words).

Industrialisation and domestic coal fires had caused sooty air pollution which had killed off lichens and blackened urban tree trunks and walls. So now it was the pale form of the moth that was more obvious to predators, while the melanic form was better camouflaged and more likely to survive and produce offspring.

Explain why the population of black moths increased to 98% of the whole population by 1895. (Max 100 words).
The evolution of the peppered moth is an evolutionary instance of directional colour change in the moth population as a consequence of air pollution during theIndustrial Revolution. The frequency of dark-coloured moths increased at that time, an example of industrial melanism.

What happened to the numbers of light moths between 1850 and 1895? Look at the map that shows the distribution of moths between 1895 and 1950? Explain the pattern shown. (Max 150 words).

The melanic phenotype is due to underlying homozygous (BB) and heterozygous (Bb) dominant genotypesIn the mid 1950’s, air pollution controls were introduced in BritainWhen smoke pollution decreased in Britain, natural selection acted very quickly to favor survival of the wild type peppered morphs as bird predation eliminated melanic forms in progressively less polluted forestsThe frequency of the melanic form has declined ever since
If you complete the above correctly then you will achieve AC. M1
Task 3 (D1)
Explain how a genetic code leads to the formation (synthesis) of a protein.

You need to explain in detail the sequence of events involved in protein synthesis. Draw a diagram to represent this.

Transcription • Information transcribed from DNA into RNA – mRNA carries information for protein structure, but other RNA molecules formed in same way • RNA polymerase binds to promoter nucleotide sequence at point near gene to be expressed • DNA helix unwinds • RNA nucleotides assemble along one DNA strand (sense strand) in complementary sequence to order of bases on DNA beginning at start codon (AUG – methionine) • Transcription of DNA sense strand ends at terminator nucleotide sequence • mRNA moves to ribosome • DNA helix rewinds From: Tortora, GJ & Grabowski SR (2000) Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (9th Ed). New York: John Wiley & Sons. P88.

11. Transcriptional control • Each cell nucleus contains all genes for that organism but genes only expressed as needed • Transcription regulated by transcription factors – Proteins produced by their own genes • If transcription factors promote transcription – activators • If transcription factors inhibit transcription – repressors • General transcription factors interact with RNA polymerase to activate transcription of mRNA – Numerous transcription factors required to initiate transcription – General transcription factors set base rate of transcription – Specific transcription factors interact with general transcription factors to modulate rate of transcription • Some hormones also cause effects by modulating rate of gene transcription
12. Protein synthesis occurs in ribosomes
13. Protein synthesis occurs in ribosomes

Explain why proteins are important in the functioning of organisms? Give examples of at least three specific proteins and their functions.
Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body. They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs. … Antibodies bind to specific foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to help protect the body.

Strengthens bones, ligaments, and tendons (a fibrous protein)
Provides stretch in skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue (a fibrous protein)
Forms structure of hair and nails and water proofs the skin (a fibrous protein)
DystrophinReinforces parts of muscle cells (a fibrous protein)
Forms blood clots (a fibrous protein)
Actin and Myosin
Are involved in contraction of muscle cells, division in all cells, and transport of substances within cells (a fibrous protein)
Explain how proteins influence the physical attributes of individuals within a species (i.e. variation).

Relationship Between DNA Bases Genes, Proteins and Traits
By John Brennan; Updated April 26, 2018
Although you might have heard people talk about a gene for red hair, green eyes or other characteristics, it’s important to remember that genes code for proteins, not traits. While your genetic makeup does indeed determine physical traits like eye color, hair color and so forth, your genes affect these traits indirectly by way of the proteins created via DNA.

DNA Sequence
Your DNA carries information in the sequence of base pairs of its nucleotides. These biological molecules, the building blocks of DNA, are often abbreviated with the first letter of their names: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

The types and sequence of nucleotides in DNA determine the types and sequence of nucleotides in RNA. This in turn determines the types and order of amino acids included in proteins. Specific three-letter groups of RNA nucleotides code for specific amino acids. The combination TTT, for example, codes for the amino acid phenylalanine. Regulatory regions of the gene also contribute to protein synthesis by determining when the gene will be switched on or off.

In active genes, genetic information determines which proteins are synthesized and when synthesis is turned on or off. These proteins fold into complicated three-dimensional structures, somewhat like molecular origami.

Because each amino acid has specific chemical characteristics, the sequence of amino acids determine the structure and shape of a protein. For example, some amino acids attract water, and others are repelled by it. Some amino acids can form weak bonds to each other, but others cannot. Different combinations and sequences of these chemical characteristics determine the unique three-dimensional folded shape of each protein
Structure & Function
The structure of a protein determines its function. Proteins that catalyze (accelerate) chemical reactions, for example, have “pockets,” which can bind specific chemicals and make it easier for a particular reaction to occur.

Variations in the DNA code of a gene can change either the structure of a protein or when and where it is produced. If these variations change the protein structure, they could also change its function. For example, a single, specific mutation in hemoglobin — the oxygen-carrying protein abundant in your red blood cells — affects oxygen transport and is enough to cause sickle-cell anemia.

Variations in a gene can affect traits in several ways. Variations in proteins involved in growth and development, for example, can give rise to differences in physical features like height. Pigments of skin and hair color are produced by enzymes, proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Variations in both the structure and quantity of the proteins produced give rise to different amounts of skin and hair pigment and therefore different colors of hair and skin.

If you complete the above correctly then you will achieve AC. D1
P1: Describe how the functioning or organisms relates to the genes in their cells
M1: Describe how variation within a species brings about evolutionary change
D1: Explain how genes control variation within a species using a simple coded message


I'm Piter!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out