STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
Types of Structural Elements
A necessary component of geotechnical evaluation and graph is the use of a structural guide to stabilize a rock or soil mass. Structures of arbitrary geometry and properties and their interplay with a rock or soil mass can be modeled with FLAC3D. This part describes the types of structural-support individuals (beams, cables, piles, shells, geogrids, and liners), or structural elements, accessible in FLAC3D, as properly as the numerical formula that helps the structural-element logic.

The structural factors can both be impartial of or coupled to, the grid representing the stable continuum. The structural-element good judgment is carried out with the equal explicit, Lagrangian solution process as the relaxation of the code (as adversarial to an implicit, matrix-inversion procedure): the full dynamic equations of motion are solved, even for modeling strategies that are really static. Large displacements, including geometric nonlinearity, can be accommodated via specifying a large-strain answer mode; and the full dynamic response of the machine in the time area can also be got with the dynamic-analysis option. Six forms of structural-support members can be specified.

Beam Structural Elements
Beam structural factors are two noded, straight, finite elements with six ranges of freedom per node: three translational components, and three rotational components. A physical beam (i.e., an arbitrarily curved, beam structure of the isotropic fabric and symmetrical can be modeled as a series of beam SELs.

Each beamSEL behaves as a linearly elastic cloth with no failure limit; however, it is viable to introduce a limiting plastic moment, or even a plastic hinge (across which discontinuity in the rotation may additionally develop), between beamSELs. BeamSELs can also be rigidly related to the grid such that forces and bending moments advance within the beam as the grid deforms, and they may be loaded through factor or disbursed loads. BeamSELs are used to mannequin structural-support individuals in which bending resistance and restrained bending moments occur, together with support struts in an open-cut excavation and everyday framed structures loaded through factor or allotted loads.

Cable Structural Elements
Cable structural elements are two noded, straight, finite elements with one axially oriented translational degree-of-freedom per node. A physical cable (i.e., an arbitrarily curved, cable shape of isotropic material) can be modeled as a collection of cable SELs.

Each beamSEL behaves as a linearly elastic cloth with no failure limit; however, it is feasible to introduce a limiting plastic moment or even a plastic hinge between beam SELs. Beam SELs may be rigidly linked to the grid such that forces and bending moments increase within the beam as the grid deforms, and they may additionally be loaded via factor or disbursed loads.

Beam SELs are used to mannequin structural-support individuals in which bending resistance and confined bending moments occur, such as aid struts in an open-cut excavation and customary framed structures loaded by way of a factor or allotted loads.

Cable Structural Elements
Cable structural factors are two noded, straight, finite factors with one axially oriented translational degree-of-freedom per node. A bodily cable can be modeled as a collection of cableSELs. Each cable SEL can yield in tension or compression, but cannot resist a bending moment. A shear-directed frictional interaction occurs between the cable and the grid.

A cable might also be anchored at a unique factor in the grid, or grouted so that pressure develops alongside its length in response to relative action between the cable and the grid. Cables might also additionally be point-loaded or pretension. CableS ELs are used to mannequin a vast variety of structural-support members for which tensile ability is important, together with cable bolts and tiebacks.

Pile Structural Elements
Pile structural factors are two-noded, straight, finite elements with six ranges of freedom per node. A physical pile can be modeled as a series of pile SELs. The stiffness matrix of a pile SEL is equal to that of a beam SEL, however, in addition to offering the structural conduct of a beam, both a normal-directed and a shear-directed frictional interaction happens between the pile and the grid.

In this sense, piles offer the mixed facets of beams and cables. In addition to skin-friction effects, end-bearing outcomes can additionally be modeled. Piles may additionally be loaded with the aid of factor or distributed loads. Pile SELs are used to mannequin structural-support members, such as foundation piles, for which each normal- and shear-directed frictional interplay with the rock or soil mass occurs. 
A special cloth model is additionally on hand as an extension to the pile elementto simulate the conduct of rock bolt reinforcement. This mannequin includes the capacity to account for adjustments in confining stress around the reinforcement, strain-softening behavior of the material between the structural thing and the grid, and tensile rupture of the element.

Shell Structural Elements
Shell structural factors are three noded, flat finite elements. Five finite-element types are available. A physical shell can be modeled as a faceted floor composed of a series of shell SELs.

The structural response of the shell is managed by means of the finite element type. Each shell SEL behaves as an isotropic or orthotropic, linearly elastic fabric with no failure limit; however, one can introduce a plastic-hinge line alongside the edges between shell SELs, the usage of the identical double-node procedure as is applied to beams.

Shell SELs may additionally be rigidly related to the grid such that stresses strengthen inside the shell as the grid deforms, and they can also be loaded by means of point masses or floor pressures. Shell SELs have used to mannequin the structural help supplied through any thin-shell shape in which the displacements triggered with the aid of transverse-shearing deformations can be neglected.
Geogrid Structural Elements
Geogrid structural factors are three-noded, flat, finite elements that are assigned a finite-element kind that resists membrane, however, does not withstand bending loading. A physical membrane can be modeled as a series of geogrid SELs. The geogrid SEL behaves as an isotropic or orthotropic, linearly elastic material with no failure limit.

A shear-directed frictional interaction occurs between the geogrid and the FLAC3D grid, and the geogrid slaves to the grid action in the everyday direction. A geogrid can be anchored at a particular point in the FLAC3D grid, or attached so that stress develops along its floor in response to relative movement between the geogrid and the FLAC3D grid. The geogrid can be thought of as the two-dimensional analog of a one-dimensional cable. Geogrid SELs are used to mannequin bendy membranes whose shear interplay with the soil are important, such as geotextiles and geogrids.

Liner Structural Elements
Liner structural factors are three noded, flat finite elements that can be assigned any of the five finite-element sorts handy for shellSELs. A physical liner can be modeled as a collection of liner SELs that are attached to the surface of the FLAC3D grid. In addition to imparting the structural behavior of a shell, a shear-directed frictional interplay takes place between the liner and the FLAC3D grid. Also, in the everyday direction, both compressive and tensile forces can be carried, and the liner may smash free from the grid.

Liner SELs are used to mannequin skinny liners for which both normal-directed compressive/tensile interaction and shear-directed frictional interplay with the host medium occurs, such as shotcrete-lined tunnels or protecting walls. An option that allows interplay with the FLAC3D grid on both facets of the liner is offered with the liner element.