ST PAUL`S UNIVERSITY
MODE OF STUDY: MODULAR
ADMISSION NUMBER: BATSLMR106118
COURSE CODE: UCC 102
TITLE: SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF EDUCATION.
NAME OF LECTURER:
This paper shows the types of education and also shows how education is important/ significant to Kenyans. Education is a way of acquiring knowledge by way of instructions or some other practical procedure. There are different types of education according to the mode of delivery. There is formal education, informal education and non-formal education. There is a number of significances of education to citizens of a country. Education is beyond just learning in classrooms. The brain of a child develops through what he or she is learning. Education can take place anywhere. At home, school, church and other places that a child socializes with other people. Education is a process that goes on throughout the life of an individual. An individual goes through learning for a specific reason. These reasons are the ones that the importance of education is derived from.
Key words: Types of education, formal education, informal education, non-formal education and significance of education.
A famous philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz once said, “Make me the master of education, and I will undertake to change the world.” Nelson Mandela the late president of South Africa said, “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world.” From these quotes we can say that the main purpose of education is to bring change. Education is the backbone of changing the world. You cannot change the world without education. Scientist, scholars and other people depend on what they learn so as to invent the things they invent This paper will look at the different types of education according to the mode of delivery and will also look at the various significance of education with reference to Quotes from different scholars, philosophers and scientist. I will also look at civil education delivered to Kenyans.?
1. Types of education
There are different types of education depending on the mode of delivery and they are as follows.
1.1 Formal education
This is the type of education undertaken in classrooms. This type of education is undertaken by students who are taught by trained teachers. The learners are placed in different classes according to age or level of understanding.
In formal education there is usually an exam to test if an individual has qualified to move to the next level. An i8ndividual learns one thing after the other. Like in arithmetic, a student is usually taught how to do addition of sums before he is taught multiplication. What this means is that one learns a simple task before learning a hard task.
According to James R Sheffield (1973) formal education in Kenya has developed through three broad and overlapping phases: traditional, missionary, and governmental phase. According to him this development has been influenced by the country’s geography, climate, population growth, economy, and striving for independence. In Kenya, there is the 8-4-4 system of education which replaced the 7–4–2–3 (in 1985), which consisted of 7 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education, 2 years of high school and 3–5 years of university education. In the 8-4-4 system of education there is 8 years of primary school education, 4 years of secondary school education and there is 4 years of university education. The final exam in primary school that is done in class eight is called Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE). The final exam for secondary education is called Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). Both exams are done so as to ensure evaluate the students who are qualified to join the next level. The 8-4-4 system is being replaced by 2-6-3-3-3 system of Education. This constitutes of 2 years of kindergarten education, 6 years of primary education, 3 years of junior secondary, 3 years of senior secondary where students specialize in different areas before joining universities for higher education. This will take 3 years.
1.2 Informal education
Informal education is a type of education that does not have a structured curriculum. It doesn’t follow any specific guidelines. This type of education is through life experience and exploration. It comes through socializing with other people. It doesn’t follow a specific structure but it goes with the change of situations i.e. it takes place naturally. This type of learning goes on in every day life of a human being. It is also not limited to time or place
Informal education has been there for as long as human beings lived. Informal education starts before formal education. A child learns different things like brushing teeth, bathing, combing hair and other activities that are essential for his development. This learning is done so that he may adapt to the environment in which he is born.
Unlike formal education, informal learning usually has no exams to test if one has qualified. An individual has all the time he wants to learn and is not supposed to have learnt in a particular period of time. Also, informal learning is lifelong. It doesn’t stop when an individual joins formal learning institution.
1.3 Non-formal education
According to Act No. 14 of 2013, L.N. 126/2013, Act No. 17 of 2017. “non-formal education” means any organized educational activity taking place outside the framework of the formal education system and targets specific groups/categories of persons with life skills, values and attitudes for personal and community development.
Rogers (2005: 78) defined non-formal education as “any organized educational activity outside the established formal system – whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity – that is intended to serve identified learning clienteles and learning objectives”.
Non-formal education is a structured educational activity that is usually not in a school curriculum that has an aim of improving skills. The objectives of non-formal education is to improve skills.
According to UNESCO (2010), non-formal education helps to ensures equal access to education, eradicate illiteracy among women and improve women’s access to vocational training, science, technology and continuing education
2. Significance of the three types of education.
2.1 Significance of formal education in Kenya
The main significance of formal education is to get a job so as to earn a living.
Formal education helps in developing the minds of students so that they can innovate new ideas and also invent new things. Learners usually stand on other people’s shoulders so that they may get to invent new gadgets. Many people depend on what they have learned in schools so as to bring their new ideas.
The late former president of south Africa said that Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. What an individual learns is usually what he uses to bring change. Education in general helps to eradicate poverty, ignorance and also diseases (a doctor learns how to treat through an education process).
Through education, most of the countries were able to fight political colonialism and also education is trying to eradicate economical colonialism.
2.2 Significance of informal education in Kenya
Jiddu Krishnamurti a famous philosopher once said “There is no end to education. It is not that you read a book, pass an examination, and finish with education. The whole of life, from the moment you are born to the moment you die, is a process of learning.”
I had stated earlier that informal education is a lifelong process that does not end.
Informal education helps every individual to adapt to the situation in the present world.
2.3 Significance of non-formal education in Kenya
3. Civil education.
This is a way of giving awareness and information to the citizens of a democratic state about their government. The main purpose of civic education is to equip citizens so that they may participate and engage in the democratic process of their country. It informs citizens of a country of their rights an example is the right to vote and right to expression. Civic education may be carried out through different mediums schools, mass media (Magazine, newspapers, audio and audio-visual mediums.), public awareness and other relevant mediums that can reach the people.
Civic education may be carried out because of various reason. It may be carried out so as to inform citizens of their right, inform citizens how to fight diseases like HIV/Aids, inform citizens how to help the government to curb corruption,
3.1 Significance of civic education
Civic education has different significance to citizens of a state.
It helps the citizen understand their government and know how the government functions. It is a way of exercising democracy. The citizens get to participate in the functions of the government.
Civic education is also meant to promote equity among people of a state. This equality strengthens the women, youth and those people who may be oppressed in the society.
It also emphasizes youth to become agents of change. (Arnot & Swartz, (2012)
In areas where there is conflict, civic education may help in bringing peace. An example is the K-12 curriculum established in Colombia a decade ago which had a main aim of conflict management and human rights (Jaramillo, 2005). This is an example of civic education that can help bring peace.
• GOK 2013 Act No. 14 of 2013, L.N. 126/2013, Act No. 17 of 2017.
• The Importance of Formal and Informal Education. (2016, Jun 18). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/the-importance-of-formal-and-informal-education-essay
• Carretero, Mario & Haste, Helen & Bermudez, Angela. (2015). Civic education. Handbook of Educational Psychology: Third Edition. 295-308.
• Oduro, G. Y., Swartz, S. & Arnot, M. (2012). Gender-based violence: young women’s experiences in the slums and streets of three sub-Saharan African cities. Theory and Research in Education. Vol. 10 (3): 275 -294