Screening test for GonorrhoeaGonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. In male it may be develop burning sensation with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain.
Women may have burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between periods, or pelvic pain. Untreated gonorrhea can spread to joints or heart valves. Gonorrhoea is transmitted through sexual activities and also spread from mother to achild during birth.
Gonorrhoea is easily detectable by gram stain and culture & by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing. These PCR-based tests require a sample of urine, urethral swabs, or cervical/vaginal swabs. Culture and gram-stain can also be used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae in all specimen types except urine. An online survey done by commissioners of sexual health services in the 152 upper-tier English Local Authorities (LAs) to measure screening test for Gonorrhoea. The proportion of English LAs using dual tests on samples collected by the NCSP; (2) The estimated number of gonorrhoea tests and false positives from samples collected by the NCSP, assuming the gonorrhoea prevalence to range between 0.1% and 1%, and test sensitivity and specificity of 99.
5%.64% (98/152) of LAs responded to this national survey; over half (53% (52/98)) reported currently using dual tests in community settings. There was no significant difference between LAs using and not using dual tests by chlamydia positivity, chlamydia diagnosis rate or population screening coverage. Although positive gonorrhoea results were confirmed with supplementary tests in 93% (38/41) of LAs, this occurred after patients were notified about the initial positive result in 63% (26/41). Approximately 450-4500 confirmed gonorrhoea diagnoses and 2300 false-positive screens might occur through use of dual tests on NCSP samples each year.
Under reasonable assumptions, the positive predictive value of the screening test is 17-67%.