Running head: ROBOTICS IN HEALTHCARE 1

The Implications of Robotics in Healthcare
Michelle C. D’Amato
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Abstract
With technology constantly evolving, healthcare professionals must look at advantages available to aid in the needs of the population at hand. In this paper, we will discuss important factors surrounding healthcare today, including the advantages and disadvantages of robots in the healthcare setting; specifically, the elderly. We will look at two journal articles and one website posting that will focus on robots to assist in a healthcare or home setting, whether it be telemedicine, in aid of caregiving staff, or robots to assist with activities of daily living.
The Implications of Robotics in Healthcare
Introduction
It is no secret that the majority of healthcare is focused on the needs of the elderly. As the baby boomers continue to age, we as a healthcare system are forced to create techniques to keep this aging population as independent as possible. One study indicates that “in most societies negative consequences of aging both mentally and physically can make everyday tasks more challenging. Because of this, elderly individuals will seek care from others in their social environment, or by public or private institutions” (Bedaf et al., 2014, P.445). This puts the use of robots to assist elderly with a real and tangible possibility. However, just because we have the technology available, does it make it safe for the aging individual to remain at home without the assistance of a caregiver? We will explore both advantages and disadvantages of robotic use to assist elderly patients.
The Advantages of Robots in Healthcare
In a website Article published by The Medical Futurist (2016) “In situations where patients are in remote areas or need help right away, telemedicine makes it possible to have high-quality consultations at home to determine and assist in immediate action” (Para. 5). This is especially helpful to the aging population as they can keep their appointments without having to drive or arrange a ride. As these patients remain at home “assistive robots can be used for monitoring, fall prevention and emergency calls while reducing stress and burden of a full-time caregiver” (Grimard ; Lehoux, 2018, p.333). In the study completed by Bedaf et al. (2014) “Both caregivers and elderly had positive feedback and fifty percent of home care recipients would prefer the availability of a robot with one of the major advantages being their availability to be there all day long” (p. 331).
Where Robots Cannot Help with Healthcare Needs
Although advanced “robots have a lack of emotion and inability to provide kinship” (Grimard ; Lehoux, 2014, p. 334). Emotional needs can be just as important as physical needs, and this is a large factor to consider when obtaining a robot for full-time care. Other members in the same study by Grimard and Lehoux (2014) “were worried about their cognitive ability since they would have everything done for them” (p.334). In another study by Bedaf et al. (2014) “bathing and showering requires physical exertion, and force; therefore, assistive robots might not be suitable in a person who needs dependent care of those tasks” (p.451).
Conclusion
After review of both studies and research on assistive robots, we can deduce that robots improve the opportunity to provide high-quality competent care to our elderly population through telemedicine and assisting in activities of daily living. More more research will need to be completed to see how much strength and movement different assistive robots can support as well as the long-term effects of emotional health on patients that are homebound. By doing this, we will be able to construct better data on how robots can assist alone and in conjunction with caregivers. This will then increase external validity to a larger, more well-rounded population when completed.

References
Bedaf, S., Gelderblom, G. J., Syrdal, D. S., Lehmann, H., Michel, H., Hewson, D., . . . Witte, L. D. (2014). Which activities threaten independent living of elderly when becoming problematic: Inspiration for meaningful service robot functionality. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology,9(6), 445-452. doi:10.3109/17483107.2013.840861
Lehoux, P., ; Grimard, D. (2018). When robots care: Public deliberations on how technology and humans may support independent living for older adults. Social Science ; Medicine,211, 330-337. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.038
Robotics in Healthcare – Get Ready! (2018, August 13). Retrieved September 09, 2018, from https://medicalfuturist.com/robotics-healthcare

Running head: HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMMENT
Running a Training and Development DepartmentQuentin R. Gebhardt
Management 4317-Human Capital Development
University of Houston-VictoriaProfessor: Colin Wooldridge
April 27, 2018

In this paper, I will be discussing how I would run a training and development department in a large organization. For purposes of this paper, I will assume I am employed as a training and development manager at Goodwill Industries International in Rockville, Maryland.

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The Goodwill mission statement is the following: “Goodwill works to enhance the dignity and quality of life of individuals and families by strengthening communities, eliminating barriers to opportunity, and helping people in need reach their full potential through learning and the power of work.”
Goodwill Industries was founded in 1902 by Reverend Edgar J. Helms in Boston, Massachusetts. Reverend Helms was a Methodist pastor and “social innovator.” (http://www.goodwill.org/about-us/, n.d.). Originally Goodwill served as a storehouse for donated goods (typically household items and clothing from affluent neighborhoods in and around Boston). The donated items were either resold at a nominal cost or given to disadvantaged individuals and families. The Goodwill model worked well and the organization’s motto of “No Charity, but a Chance” began.

Today there are numerous products and services offered. Despite this, the original Goodwill model remains. Donated items are resold, and the public may benefit from goods and services sold in neighborhood stores. The profits from the stores then provide funding for programs for the disabled and disadvantaged. Although programming differs at each Goodwill location, programs generally include job placement and training for disadvantaged, disabled, seniors, veterans, and those with criminal backgrounds.
Goodwill’s mission statement is the following: “Goodwill works to enhance the dignity and quality of life of individuals and families by strengthening communities, eliminating barriers to opportunity, and helping people in need reach their full potential through learning and the power of work.”. (http://www.goodwill.org/about-us/, n.d.). This mission statement is the same in the 162 branches in the U.S. and Canada. Goodwill’s strategic goals are:
1: Implement a holistic and integrated service delivery model driven by the needs of people served. We will… Create universal access to our services addressing various employment barriers, while expanding services to employers.
2: Implement innovative green initiatives that address community needs. We will… Continue to expand our recycling efforts and position Goodwill as a “Green Innovator” by creating new stores and facilities that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly.
3: Implement innovative human service programs. We will… Expand services to populations of emerging and unmet need and become a resource to other Workforce Development organizations.
4: Enhance organizational capacity to support innovation and create a culture of continuous improvement. We will… Take actions to improve awareness of our programs, educate policy makers regarding workforce development needs, enhance loyalty programs and measurement systems, and improve the quality of employment at Goodwill.
5: Continue to enhance financial sustainability by managing our risk profile. We will… Grow our retail operations, expand our fundraising efforts, enhance our risk management and safety program, create new revenue generating social enterprises, and explore partnership opportunities.

At present Goodwill Industries is facing the dilemma of multiple vacant positions (15%-20%). The amount of vacant positions is due to multiple factors: 1.) high turnover and the inability to retain qualified employees. This is due to excessive work demands, long hours and below market salaries, 2.) difficulty in recruiting qualified candidates, and 3.) budgetary constraints which impede full staffing.
As the training and development director, I identified gaps in the competencies of the workforce by utilizing a SWOT analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities, threats.). According to Noe (2013): “A SWOT analysis consists of an internal analysis of strengths and weaknesses and an external analysis of opportunities and threats to the company that currently exist or are anticipated. External analysis involves examining the operating environment to identify opportunities and threats. The business challenges identified in Chapter One can represent opportunities (or threats) to the company.”
The current HR strategy is to develop existing, internal talent. Doing this will not only benefit the organization, it will benefit the internal employee by providing a career path at Goodwill.
To ensure top organizational training, it is essential that the training is in alignment with corporate strategy. Goodwill of Dallas has the following strategic focus: “Using a holistic, client-centered approach, Goodwill Dallas begins each client’s journey by identifying key barriers to employment. Once barriers have been identified the client is placed on a customized track consisting of a combination of GED preparation, computer literacy, financial literacy, resume building, mock interviews, job searches, job training, job coaching and case management. Client are then placed in applicable positions utilizing our employer network of over 200 external agencies.” (“Goodwill Industries of Dallas”, n.d.).
It makes sense to develop talent internally. If targeted staff are provided job specific training and development, the organization will benefit from highly skilled employees. In addition, providing a career path will most likely lead to greater retention of valued employees.
I feel strategically developing internal talent can align with employee goals. Highly trained, skilled employees will most likely perform their jobs more effectively. Additionally, when staff believe the organization is invested in their professional growth, staff are more likely to remain with the employer long-term. Nonprofits have a very high turnover rate. This issue could be reduced or mitigated by providing quality ongoing training.
Research validates the need for alignment of training with employee end goals. The Brookings Institute (2002) discovered the following: 1.) Nonprofit employees were much more likely than federal or private-sector employees to say that the people they work with are open to new ideas, willing to help other employees learn new skills, and concerned about achieving their organization’s mission; and 2.) Nonprofit employees were much more likely to say that they took their job in the sector for the chance to help the public, to make a difference, to do something worthwhile, and pride in the organization than the job security, the salary and benefits, or the paycheck. The focus on Goodwill’s mission (“…to enhance the dignity and quality of life of individuals and families by strengthening communities, eliminating barriers to opportunity, and helping people in need reach their full potential through learning and the power of work”) has both strengths and weaknesses. The strengths surround Goodwill’s mission which provides staff with motivation and dedication to perform their jobs well regardless of low salaries. Additionally, with alignment of work with the mission statement new employees can be hired despite long hours and low pay.

If Goodwill follows their mission without ever veering off, however the organization may see “exploitation and under-resourcing. Even their most ardent supporters know that nonprofit organizations will skip pay checks, cut supply and training budgets, defer needed maintenance, and hiring, and even sell assets to keep the mission alive. They also know that the sector will almost never raise a well-organized word in protest, lest they somehow lose sight or their mission or get in trouble with the watchdogs.” (Light, 2002).
If I oversaw training and development for Goodwill, I would generally feel that training and development could be improved. According to Light (2002), “A healthy nonprofit workforce does more than recruit talented people and give them the chance to accomplish something worthwhile. It also gives its employees the tools, training, and technology to succeed, and creates the organizational settings in which high performance can flourish.”
Goodwill’s mission statement is the following: “Goodwill works to enhance the dignity and quality of life of individuals and families by strengthening communities, eliminating barriers to opportunity, and helping people in need reach their full potential through learning and the power of work.”. (http://www.goodwill.org/about-us/, n.d.). This mission statement remains constant in the 162 branches in the U.S. and Canada. The strategic goals of Goodwill are:
1: Implement a holistic and integrated service delivery model driven by the needs of people served. We will… Create universal access to our services addressing various employment barriers, while expanding services to employers.
2: Implement innovative green initiatives that address community needs. We will… Continue to expand our recycling efforts and position Goodwill as a “Green Innovator” by creating new stores and facilities that are energy efficient and environmentally friendly.
3: Implement innovative human service programs. We will… Expand services to populations of emerging and unmet need and become a resource to other Workforce Development organizations.
4: Enhance organizational capacity to support innovation and create a culture of continuous improvement. We will… Take actions to improve awareness of our programs, educate policy makers regarding workforce development needs, enhance loyalty programs and measurement systems, and improve the quality of employment at Goodwill.
5: Continue to enhance financial sustainability by managing our risk profile. We will… Grow our retail operations, expand our fundraising efforts, enhance our risk management and safety program, create new revenue generating social enterprises, and explore partnership opportunities.

Goodwill Industries has 6800 employees working in 165 stores nationwide. Should this organization grow, they will need to hire and employee additional staff. This growth will be in alignment with strategic goal #3: “Implement innovative human service programs. We will… Expand services to populations of emerging and unmet need and become a resource to other Workforce Development organizations.”
A recommendation I would have as the training and development director for Goodwill is to devote more resources to address staff retention and turnover. This issue may be solved with career development (e.g. training, etc.). Reportedly, this problem is not specific to Goodwill McCambridge (2017) states “The 2016 Nonprofit Employment Practices Survey published last year by Guide Star and Nonprofit HR revealed that turnover rates have generally increased among nonprofits, with the average rate growing from 16 to 19 percent between 2013 and 2015. The most difficult positions for staff retention continue to be in direct service, which includes some of the lowest-paid positions in an organization.”
Human resources training and development opportunities which may contribute to Goodwill’s mission and vision include:
Ensuring a work setting which enables professional growth through career development.
Attracting and retaining highly qualified, dedicated individuals who believe in Goodwill’s mission.

Challenges which human resources faces in advancing Goodwill’s mission and vision through training and development include:
Budgetary issues which consistently are dependent on moving contributions and grants. These issues impact HR’s ability to have the financial resources to train and develop highly qualified employees.
Outdated technology in the nonprofit sector and at Goodwill often prohibit HR staff in their ability to train and develop employees. Ultimately this negatively impacts programming.
References
Conger, J. (2003, December). Developing Your Leadership Pipeline. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2003/12/developing-your-leadership-pipeline
Goodwill Industries International, Inc.. Goodwill Industries International, Inc.. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://www.goodwill.org/
Goodwill Industries of Dallas, Inc. – GuideStar Profile. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.guidestar.org/profile/75-0800649
Light, P. (2002, September 21). The Content of their Character: The State of the Nonprofit Workforce – Non Profit News For Nonprofit Organizations | Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved from https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2002/09/21/the-content-of-their-character-the-state-of-the-nonprofit-workforce/
Light, P. (2004, May 28). Pathways to Nonprofit Excellence | Brookings Institution. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/book/pathways-to-nonprofit-excellence/McCambridge, R. (2017, January 3). High Nonprofit Frontline Turnover Rates Require Focus and Collective Chutzpah – Non-Profit News for Nonprofit Organizations | Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved from https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2017/01/03/high-nonprofit-frontline-turnover-rates-require-focus-collective-chutzpah/Noe, R. (2013). Employee training and development (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Saratoga™ benchmarking, hr Saratoga: PwC. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pwc.com/us/en/hr-management/people-analytics/benchmarking.htmlShonour, L. (n.d.). Managing the Talent Pipeline | Goodwill Industries International, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.goodwill.org/blog/news-updates/managing-the-talent-pipeline/Smith, M. (n.d.). Goodwill SWPA – Home. Goodwill’s 2013-2016 Strategic Plan. Retrieved April 19, 2017, from http://www.goodwillswpa.org/UserFiles/File/Misc%20Files/Strategic%20Plan%20Summary%202013-2016.pdfWorkforce Succession Planning. (2012, January 1). Retrieved from http://www.wfm.noaa.gov/pdfs/NOAA_WorkforceSuccessionPlanningToolkit.pdf

Running head: THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 1 The Case for Responsible Congressional Apportionment Joshua Deese Palm Beach State College

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 2 The Case for Responsible Congressional Apportionment “There could be an unprecedented redistricting war, and both sides are going into it fully armed,” says Michael Li, an attorney and electoral politics scholar (Pierce & Rabinowitz). The issue of congressional redistricting and apportionment has been at the forefront of American electoral politics since the dawn of the republic. Political scholars in favor of gerrymandering claim that it helps lower the cost of elections, making the voting bloc more compact and concentrated. Those against gerrymandering claim that the practice effectively makes congressional races less competitive, less fair, and unnecessarily focused on race and partisan politics. Indeed, partisan gerrymandering should not be allowed as it deprives voters of their entitled right to fair, free, and open elections, which can and will lead to potentially irrevocable consequences for our political and electoral systems. Redistricting and apportionment have been in place in America’s electoral system since the first United States Census in 1790. Although similar, these two terms are different. Redistricting refers to the process in which lines are drawn on a congressional map to divide up electoral districts. This usually depends on the amount of seats contained within a state. Apportionment is the process in which the number of seats/districts remains, is added, or is subtracted from the state. This is based on changes in population based on the previous census. Seats can be gained, lost, or remain the same. For example, “Some areas of the state now have fewer residents due to several factors including Hurricane Katrina. Other areas have more population.” (Public Affairs Research Council, 2011). The United States Congress is comprised of 2 chambers, the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. The Senate holds

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THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 3 100 Senators, where there are 2 per state. The House holds 435 Representatives, where there are a certain number of seats/districts allocated to each state, based on their population at the time of the most recent census. Seats can be added or subtracted based on these population shifts, thus, prompting the redrawing of congressional districting map lines in order to make the districts more representative and equal to the communities housed within them. Moreover, these lines also affect how other races, including those for circuit court judgeships, school board seats, city, and county council seats, which undoubtedly have a larger and more immediate effect on communities, compared to the United States Congress. Finally, after redrawing the map, it is usually up to (in most states) the state’s legislature to review and approve the new lines. A smaller amount of states use an independent commission, consisting of mostly civilians and some government leaders to receive constituent feedback, create a plan of proposed districts, and ultimately approve them. The difference here is that state legislatures have the opportunity to skew the lines on a partisan basis, whereas the independent commission is mostly an assortment of citizens chosen at random, swearing an oath to remain unpartisan and unaffected by political thought, beliefs, or ideologies. Figure 1: Gerrymandering Explained

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 4 Gerrymandering is the process of drawing electoral district lines to the effect in which a particular minority group (political party, race, socio-economic background, religion, etc.) is at a disadvantage over a majority group. This prevents the minority from having a fair and equal opportunity to have their candidates, values, and votes have an effective impact on the outcome of the election. Professor Coleeza states that it is important to note “a minority is a group of people that is different from other groups in some important way AND that has often been discriminated against because of that difference” (Public Affairs Research Council, 2011). The term “gerrymandering” comes from Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry (pronounced gahr-ree), who drew the state’s electoral districts in such a way, many took notice of its shape – an apparent salamander or dragon, thus giving him the namesake. Figure 2: Original “Gerrymander” Map The act of gerrymandering is illegal, if done for racial purposes, or any other form of discrimination towards a protected class. Despite the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling (Gill v. Whitford) that gerrymandering in this sense was illegal, as it violated the “One Person,

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 5 One Vote” standard of the Equal Protection Clause, there continue to be attempts to unfairly skew the maps through party lines. It is much harder to prove partisan gerrymandering. Moreover, recent court challenges have placed the burden on the plaintiff to produce sufficient evidence proving the violation of one’s right to a fair vote, as well as the extent of said injury, and other contributing factors. Critics argue that elected officials seek to have congressional districts drawn in a way that minimizes the number of contested races (Bump, 2013). It’s in both the best interests of the parties and the voters, as fewer competitive races mean less fundraising efforts and staffing needs on the campaign trail and election season overall. This creates a much more cohesive district, therefore ensuring that a larger amount of voters actually get the representation they want. Further, opponents of doing away with gerrymandering claim that the practice makes electoral races even more competitive (O’Connor, 2013). The argument that gerrymandering allows for a better electoral process is a flawed one. Gerrymandering takes a huge toll on the integrity of America’s elections, costs millions of taxpayer dollars to combat and reverse, and has the potential of changing the American political landscape dramatically, in ways that harm the civic fabric of the United States. For instance, critics argue that gerrymandering makes political races more competitive. However, just as recently as June 2018, the issue of gerrymandering came up in the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, when lines were disproportionately drawn for Pennsylvania’s 7th Congressional District. The Court ruled that the lines must be “much more competitive” (Wines, 2018), so as to not yield an unfair advantage to a specific party or incumbent. The Court eventually drew the lines themselves and made them more equal. The lines were drawn and approved in 2011 by the Republican-led legislature, and

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 6 were later corrected in 2018. The result of this gerrymandering allowed for 7 years of unfair representation and immeasurable amounts of government waste and taxpayer funds. This is hardly the type of government responsibility and oversight we expect from our lawmakers. Figure 4: A graphic depicting the 2018 controversy over Pennsylvania’s 7th district (following page). The argument for responsible congressional apportionment doesn’t just stop at elections becoming more competitive. The current redistricting system in place is a broken one. Most state legislatures appear to draw partisan lines when making their maps, tending to favor the majority. This phenomena of political bias leaves room for dangerous precedents to be set. Despite rules and laws set in place by both the United States Supreme Court and the Federal Elections Commission, gerrymandering is still practiced today, under the guise of creating equal districts that benefit the constituency.

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 7 Michael Wines, political reporter at The New York Times states that even federal Members of Congress have influence on state’s lines. Professional data makers were summoned to the U.S. Capitol to meet with top Congressional leadership, to format new maps on special computer software. Some members, from both parties, even made explicit requests to leave their district alone, thus leaving it untouched and giving the incumbent an uneven advantage towards any outside competing candidate (Wines, 2018). The issue of cracking and packing are also issues that come out from these unfair practices. Cracking refers to the practice of vote dilution, where the minority is spread so thin over different districts, that their electoral influence has little-to-no impact on voting. Packing refers to the practice of placing pockets of minority voters in one district or area, so as to not interfere with other districts. In short, these are all sleazy back-room political tricks that are used to undermine the American public and take away from the legitimacy of the American electoral process. The United States has a history of voter suppression and disenfranchisement. The increase of this type of political and electoral behavior simply go against the “One Person, One Vote” standard set forth by the Supreme Court of the United States. These malicious actions muddy up the essential integrity of elections, allowing inconsistent and unfair trends to skew towards the majority. According to Marozzi (2016), in reference to the State of Ohio, claims: In 2012, Republican congressional candidates received just over half of the statewide vote, yet they won 75% of the seats. In 2014, Republican candidates received 57% of the statewide vote and yet again they hold 75% of congressional seats. This is not democracy; this is rigging elections. Gerrymandering is obvious

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 8 in swing states like Ohio. Ohioans voted for a Democratic president in 2008 and 2012, a Republican Governor in 2010 and 2014 and since 1975 both parties in the US Senate have represented Ohio evenly. And yet three-quarters of our Congressmen are Republican? Skewed district lines consolidates the power of the party in control and leaves voters with less accountable elected officials, with less pressure to solve the problems facing all voters. Figures 5 and 6: Comparisons of gerrymandering on a district and state level To better bolster the integrity of our nation’s elections, many look westwards towards California, to look at their approach. The Voters First Act, passed by voters in 2008, gave birth to the California Citizens Redistricting Commission, a 14-person body. The panel consist of 5 Democrats, 5 Republicans, and 4 members of parties that are neither Democrat nor Republican. These members are chosen at random in a lottery-type selection, in a pool of other commission applicants. The Commission took into account factors including, but not limited to: population equality (one person, one vote), the Federal Voting Rights Act (ensuring equal opportunities for minority voters), and geographic integrity (the breaking up of cities, counties, and neighborhoods must be kept to a minimum. There was a great deal of opposition to this system – the vote had passed

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 9 by less than 2 percent. Many expressed that it was unconstitutional, though, it was later upheld in a U.S. Supreme Court case (Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission) that an Arizona Commission of the same design, claiming that it was within the state’s rights to create an independent commission. As the State of Michigan looks to whether or not it will follow suit with California, Senior Public Policy Writer Ron French of Michigan Bridge interviewed three members of the commission to reflect on their work. When asked what the Californians thought of the initative 8 years later, one commission member said “Everywhere we go, people say ‘We love our district.'” (French, 2018). Another member responded “There’s overwhelming public support. Even now, I have people telling me ‘I’m so glad you guys drew the lines because you guys were listening to us.’ To the extent that the public has rallied around the process, I think politicians backed up a little” (French, 2018). Despite claims that gerrymandering and the ability for legislators to draw lines their way should remain, there are a growing number of examples of states creating fairer, more cost-effective and transparent representation in Congress. One policy recommendation to consider is to persuade our state legislators and executives to pave the way for independent review commissions. This would allow for a more equal map drawing process, which with growing trends, would lead to a more equally represented nation. Of course, politicians and powerful stakeholders will not yield to this goal so easily. Another policy remedy which may be effective in swaying over legislators would be to create a federal mandate which gives states tax breaks and credit incentives, should they choose to use the independent commission model. Finally, a rating system by the Federal Election Commission may be implemented, publicly rating each state on election

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 10 fairness and transparency, against a rubric of criteria goals. This may add political pressure to those in power, making them more maleable to changing their views or vote. In today’s particularly tumultuous political climate, power politics has taken the mold of a very frightening creature. With corruption hopped up on powerdrunkenness, the pillars of our democracy are at risk of erosion, if not worse. We must stand up for our right to vote freely and fairly. If a voter’s conditions are not fair in their voting situation, it is their right to demand and express the need for a more transaprent process. This ensures that the sanctities of liberty, equality, and responsible leadership will be preserved. Until that day comes, however, it is important to harken back to Michael Li’s words. “There could be an unprecedented redistricting war, and both sides are going into it fully armed” (Pierce ; Rabinowitz). As community organizers and legislators gear up to take their side of the fence, one thing is for sure: there will be all-out political war.

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 11 References Bump, P. (2013, October 29). No, Gerrymandering Is Not Destroying Democracy. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/07/no-gerrymandering-not-destroying-democracy/312772/ French, R. (2018, July/August). California’s redistricting commission has some free advice for Michigan. Retrieved from https://www.bridgemi.com/public-sector/californias-redistricting-commission-has-some-free-advice-michigan II, V. R. (2018, June 18). The Supreme Court Punts on Partisan Gerrymandering. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2018/06/partisan-gerrymandering-stands-for-now/563063/ Lopez, A. (2018, July 22). After Supreme Court Punts On Gerrymandering, Democrats Make It A Campaign Issue. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2018/07/22/630635629/after-supreme-court-punts-on-gerrymandering-democrats-make-it-a-campaign-issue Marozzi, J. C. (2016, June 6). Four Reasons Gerrymandering is Killing Democracy. Retrieved from https://www.fairdistrictsohio.org/blog/four-reasons-gerrymandering-is-killing-democracy O’Connor, P. (2013, July 28). House Districts Keep Getting Safer. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324170004578634270313876136 Pierce, O., ; Rabinowitz, K. (n.d.). ‘Partisan’ Gerrymandering Is Still About Race. Retrieved from https://www.propublica.org/article/partisan-gerrymandering-is-still-about-race Public Affairs Research Council. (2011, February). Reapportionment ; Redistricting. Retrieved from https://www.nfoic.org/sites/default/files/Redistricting-Fact-Sheet.pdf

THE CASE FOR RESPONSIBLE CONGRESSIONAL APPORTIONMENT 12 Shapiro, C. (2018, June 19). With gerrymandering, Supreme Court hangs on Justice Kennedy’s words. Retrieved from http://thehill.com/opinion/judiciary/393012-with-gerrymandering-supreme-court-hangs-on-justice-kennedys-words G. (2018, January 25). Should Partisan Gerrymandering Be Illegal? Retrieved from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/should-partisan-gerrymandering-be-illegal/ Wines, M. (2018, January 29). Just How Bad Is Partisan Gerrymandering? Ask the Mapmakers. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/29/us/gerrymander-political-maps-maryland.html

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