Review Related Literature
Readings and other pertinent information are presented in this section. This is to establish a clear framework of the concept and principles of the variables under study.
Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 18 at the time that the pregnancy ends. A pregnancy can take place after the start of the puberty before first menstrual period, but usually occurs after the onset of periods. In well-nourished girls, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12 or 13. Pregnant teenagers face many of the same obstetrics issues as other women. There are, however, additional medical concerns for mothers aged under 15. For mothers aaged 15–19, risks are associated more with socioeconomic factors than with the biological effects of age. Risks of low birth weight, premature labor, anemia, and pre-eclampsia are connected to the biological age itself, as it was observed in teen births even after controlling for other risk factors. 20,000 girls under age 18 give birth in developing countries every day. This amounts to 7.3 million births a year. And if all pregnancies are covered, the number of adolescent pregnancies is much higher.
From 2000 to 2010, the number of live births by mother teenagers in the Philippines rose by more than 60 percent, latest data from the National Statistics Office showed.
Another alarming fact is that the number of teenage mothers who gave birth to their second or third child during their teenage year has increased in the last 10 years. This is according to the data shown in the press conference in Quezon City by Carmelita Ericta, administrator and civil registrar general of the National Statistics Office. (Ime Morales, July 9, 2013) Teenage pregnancy is a global issue and a major contributor to school drop-out among girls. Permanent expulsion was one of the solutions made for teenage pregnancy but this has been proven ineffective and unfair to the girls. Now there is a return to school policy where a student is temporarily dismissed from school due to teenage pregnancy to further pursue their education. (Okeyo, 2012)
As stated by Brown and Amankwaa (2007) “As more female college students are involved in sexual relationships their risk of conception increases. However, when pregnancy occurs it is only the woman who bears the burden and risk of the pregnancy and in most cases child care.” often these types of pregnancy are unplanned or planned caring for a child becomes a full time job. Having a child while being a student becomes stressful because child rearing consumes time and energy, with a few exceptions the women are the primary care giver of the child. (Hofferth, Reid, & Mott, 2001 as cited by Brown & Amankwaa, 2007). According to Kidwell (2004), rearing a child while being s full-time student may be daunting and difficult however, it will be easier if she has a partner or a family member who can help her in taking care of the child.
With the increase of higher education students, 10% of this population are parents or mothers who are hoping to give their children a better future and attending to their needs through receiving a degree. These nontraditional students are often Student Mothers and should be given special attention because aside from their role as student they are also mothers and care givers at home. Many see or consider their families a hindrance to their education which is wrong they should see it as a motivator because primarily, Student mother go back to studying because they want to provide for their child. (Wilsey, 2013)
When pregnant students and student mothers are expected to subordinate their needs and desires to those of their children and families, they are forced to grapple with the conflicting roles of motherhood and studentship (Berg & Mamhute, 2013). Brown & Amankwaa, (2007) stated that parenting is a very stressful and some women cannot handle all the tasks involved especially the first time mothers and need help or assistance from the people around them. Although having someone help the mother is good but the expectation of receiving support after giving birth to a baby often causes Stressors that may lead to depression during postpartum period. Many student mothers have expressed feelings of guilt, worry and inadequacy in both as a student and as a mother.( Thompson, 2004)
Though not always does being a student mother have negative effect, it also has positive effects. Story (1999), as cited by Brown & Amankwaa (2007), has found out that student mothers are more responsible than those of regular students. He has seen that girls who were irresponsible before pregnancy has become more responsible after pregnancy and is more less likely to drop out of College than the regular students.
For women who juggle family and student responsibilities, the lack of time is one of the major issues faced. (Liversidge, 2004) Many student mothers use different coping strategies to adjust to their situation. As stated by Grohman (2009), student mothers depend on time management to handle the many different tasks of a student mother. Another coping cited by Grohman & Renelamn (2009) is managing tasks to handle the things needed to be done as both student and a mother as well as emotional and physical support from both the partner and parents of the student mother.
Okey (2012) has said student-mothers go through a number of challenges as they live double lives as mothers and students. Often challenges are faced like lack of support due to other factors like lack of finances and time being limited.
A study by Boutan (2012) shows the feeling of student mother regarding`s to lifestyle she said the Gale (her participant) said she juggles multiple lifestyles as a full-time student and a full-time mom. This does make her feel disconnected from campus life.
Due to student mothers’ situation being difficult they have adapted coping mechanism. According to Okeyo (2012), Their coping mechanisms included: problem-focused, avoidance and emotion-focused strategies and the support they received upon resuming studies were spiritual and social support.
It was argued that raising a child involves a great deal of financial, emotional, and practical planning (Kidwell, 2004). it is necessary to make sure that there are adequate child care resources available. This may be very difficult to do if the student is going to school full-time. However, if the student decides to remain in school and take care of the child it may be more possible if she has a partner or family member who will provide additional help to care for the child (Kidwell, 2004). Parenting is very stress and some women cannot deal with all the tasks that are involved. It is best if there are people around who are there to assist. Although it is best to have family, friends and spousal support after giving birth to a baby this expectation often causes Stressors that may lead to depression during the postpartum period. (Brown ; Amankwaa, 2007)