REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Today’s organizations need a leader to guide and motivate its people. And in implementing plans, providing direction and motivate its people a great leader must have an effective and appropriate leadership style. Having an appropriate leadership style helps a lot in achieving improvement, good result, and a successful on a responsibility of being a leader. Some researchers looked at distinguishing traits of leadership and others looked at their behaviors and actions, while other researchers explore the different leadership approach and style. Different theories employed different techniques and instruments to measure leadership skills. According to Barchiesi, the leadership effectiveness role influence on performance on the behaviors, attitudes and action of the leaders. It stated that the effectiveness of leadership style won’t rely on the past performances of the leader but of enhanced performance that result for a good leadership, good communication between the leader and the team and to better organization. They found that high leadership indexes are not related to past performance records but associated both to higher potentiality of enhanced performance and to higher reputation of organizations, pointing in the direction of a meaningful influence of behavioral complexity and dynamics on the leadership
perceived level. According to Mike and Samder 2010, the terms “leadership” as well as “management” are used interchangeably, although they do have major differences that separate them. Leaders inspire their followers, while the managers motivate their staff. In all those inspired people are self – motivated persons who enjoy of what they are doing and get effective results. They accomplish their works and made it more productive. It also stated that an effective leadership style made up of six fundamental leadership elements such as purpose, vision, behavior, identity values, beliefs and greatness (Mike and Sander, 2010) Pearson-Goff & Herrigton, November, 2013 shows that Leadership in the government sector should be effectively operated in a political, compound social and organizational environment. The challenges that everyone commonly encounter in policing are demands for a greater accountability, for advancements in equipment and technology, dealing with new crime types, lack of open communication, and cultural diversity. Leadership is one of the most important presage of whether the organization are able to function effectively in an energetic environments and thus, the effective and great leader with effective leadership style will lead for an in organized and better organization. Leadership have a styles, those will help the leader be an effective one to build a good
organization, business etc. and lead it to success. The leader should know what is good for its constituents and he or she must use an appropriate leadership style fits for or what’s the most effective leadership style. There are different leadership styles on how to be an effective leader and to take a role of Leadership. Some other researcher found the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership style in every improved organization. The very first concentrated study of leadership styles was performed in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a group of researchers to result in different leadership styles. (Lewin, Lippit, ; White, 1939). This primary study has remained powerful as it leads to the major three leadership styles: Authoritarian or Autocratic, Delegate or democratic, and Laissez faire. Autocratic leaders, also known as authoritarian leaders, gives a clear explanations for what the task is, what exactly has to be done, when the deadlines are and the way it should be done in. This leadership style is instructions-centric and the ways of controlling the followers. There is also a clear distinction between the leader and the followers where autocratic leaders make decisions independently with very few or even sometimes no input is done by the rest of the group. Researchers found that in terms of decision-making the creativity was blocked and it put limits in the faces of followers under this
leadership style. The negative part of this leadership style is that it is viewed as a controlling, bossy, and dictatorial. Lew also found the difficulty in moving into different leadership styles from one leadership style to another style, like moving from the autocratic leadership style to a democratic style than from a democratic leadership style to the authoritarian one. (Lewin Lippit ; White1939). Second leadership style according to Kurt Lewin is Democratic leadership style. The researchers found that it is the most effective leadership style among other styles it leads to higher productivity, better contribution of subordinates and increased group morale. This leadership style is more on participation of its subordinate. The members are free to share their ideas and opinions and also they are more engaged to the process and tend to be more creative to solve problems and develop solutions to it. They feel more involved to the projects and to its outcome. The ability to generate ideas leads to high productivity and good outcome. Bruce it al said that transformational leaders are able to define and articulate a vision of organizations and their leadership style can influence or transform individual -level variables such us increasing motivation and organization variables, such as mediating conflict among groups or teams. It also stated that transformational behavior of leadership is leading theme on previous
research (Bass ; Riggio, 2006).It is disclosed being a highly active leadership style that influence on the growth of organization. A higher transformational leadership leads to a higher level of potency. Another leadership style that said to be relies more about trade between the leaders and follower by which follower compensated by meeting specific result. There is an appropriate exchange between them that encourages follower to improve their performance. Bass and Aviolo explained that transactional leadership motivates its subordinate through the use of contingent awards, corrective action and rule enforcement. It depends on contingent reinforcement. To motivate its follower the transactional leadership has this exchange for award of accomplishment. Kahai et al found that transactional has higher efficacy than transformational. Additionally the study of Jansen Vers and Cross (2009) states that, on terms of motivation, contribution and participation in the organizational idea of programs the transactional leadership style is more suitable to be used. Its behavior contains excellence and efficiency that encourages the followers to do improvement.