Topic: Entertainment & MediaEvents

Last updated: February 1, 2019

Researchers have claimed that “human nature” “is aggressive on the basis of having combined together with a wide variety of culture, emotions, and behavior under the label of aggression”. The biological approach to explaining aggression starts with the limbic system in which plays a key role in how an organism responds to cultural threats and challenges humans and cultures. This could be the major factor in whether we respond aggressively or not to an external stimulus. While human aggression is a naturally evolved events we have in common with other animals, the difference between human and animal violence comes down to the complexity of the emotion motivating it. Many of us have experienced anger at some point in their lives and most of us males, for the most part, going by statistics only have formed that aggression into a confrontation, for example; by throwing a punch during a football game or having too much to drink at a bar. Testosterone and Serotonine is another influence for stimulating aggression because males (of all ages) races, and cultures are more physically aggressive than females. However, in animals, “testosterone is correlated to social aggression”(Baladan, Young 1970). Serotonin has also been found in human aggression. Research has found that pharmacological interventions have raised an augment that”serotonergic efficacy has been shown to reduce hostile emotions and violent outbursts in aggressive psychiatric patients”( Bergeron, Schneider 2005). In addition, America continues to be a very aggressive culture, so much more so than other countries that are similar to it in many ways, such as Iceland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Western European countries. These cultural differences show that cultures very seriously in how, and how much, their culture aggress against each other.
Human aggression is “any behavior directed toward another individual that is carried
out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm” (Anderson, Bushman 2002). In addition, the person must believe that the behavior will bring him/her great harm. The individual and that the individual is motivated to resist the behavior. A great portion of research implies that the amygdala as an influence on the brain structure for triggering violence. One of the first indications that “the amygdala might be important for fear and aggression came from Kluver and Bucy’s 1939 descriptions of monkeys who had their temporal lobes removed”(Archer, 2010). One of the most interesting points of view is in “Violence” which is aggression that has extreme harm as its goal (Anderson, Bushman 2002). All violence is aggression, but many instances of aggression are not considered violent. There have been (5) main categories of aggression researched in the past century. The first, I will examine is Cognitive Neoassociation Theory which is aversive events such as “frustrations, provocations, loud noises, uncomfortable temperatures, and unpleasant odors that produce negative affect” (Anderson, Bushman 2002). Then, Social Learning Theory which is “acquisition of aggressive behaviors, via observational learning processes, and provides a useful set of concepts for understanding and describing the beliefs and expectations that guide social behavior” (Anderson, Bushman 2002). This concept which was furthered researched by Albert Bandura in which he gave a correlation with television commercials. Commercials suggest that drinking a particular beverage or using particular products “like hair products” will make it very popular and win the attractive people. It depends, upon the component of attention or motivation, sometimes we might model the behavior shown in the television/commercial and purchase the product televised. Script Theory is which states that human behavior falls into patterns called “scripts” because of how they function “analogously to the way a written script does, by providing a program for action” (Anderson, Bushman 2002). For example, one might have a script for going out to the club. First, one enters the club, and either approaches the bar or waits for the host, depending on the type of club he/her is visiting. One then orders drinks or food pays the bill and then leaves. A script is proportioned into smaller divisions called “scenes”. The club script is very consistent with a sequence of scenes. For example, having drinks is a scene that can be divided into several actions: looking at the “for cleanness”, physically stirring the drink with your hand, drinking, using a napkin to wipe your lips, and so on. The Excitation Transfer Theory is “when we focus on physiological manifestations of bodily arousal. All vital emotions/ behaviors are known to be accompanied by elevated sympathetic reactivity in the autonomic nervous system”-{regulates bodily functions such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal} (Anderson, Bushman 2002). This occurs when overreacting happens within relationships. This happens when partners, after fighting their heads off arguing, makeup and experience unusually strong sexual pleasures. Or when an argument expands from silly to serious, exchange of insults, and ends with physical violence. Or when a person who went along on a scary ride is so terrified that they grab their companion and then finds him/her irresistibly attractive. It is very obvious that even the most rational individuals are not immune to such overreacting. Finally, the last of the 5 theories is the Social Interaction Theory is when we study the ways that people engage with one another. For example, the male structure of the family on how he engages with his family primarily with his children and then his wife.
Cultural aggression is how cultures have “different norms about aggression as well as different rates of aggressive behavior” (Kitayama, Markus, Kurokana 2010). In America, particularly in the American middle class, there is a strong and arrogant culturally shared belief in the superior of the culture from others. Children from a proven violent culture such as that of America, they may be generalized as to be more violent. In a study of students at a high school near Detroit, Michigan, (Souweidane, Huesmann 1999) found that the children who had been born in the United States were more adapted to aggression than were children who came from the Middle East and others cultures, even in most cases were the children came after the age of 11. Society point to television as a key promoter of violence, quoting statistics about the thousands of horrible murders that American children watch on television each and every day, and there much evidence to support this idea. However, television cannot just be the sole trigger of violent behavior. Vancouver receives the same television programming as Detroit but the crime rate in the Canadian city is not even a 1/10 of the American one. In many cultures, it is known that males are supposed to be brave and strong. It is almost required that they must show their masculinity by aggressively taking what they want. Androgens which are of the male sex hormones. They are correlated with the increased ability of males in many cultures. This is to assure resources, sexual partners and hierarchical position. This has made a connection between testosterone and physical aggression sometimes a males testosterone level will not really be a good indicator of aggressive behavior. Measurements of these behaviors can be revealed by using EEG this is used to measure the functioning of the brain. Many samples in different studies from America, across Europe, Canada, and Japan, are very different in terms of their standards of honor, pride, and face, as specified later, which how aggression is applied.
In conclusion, there are many factors in human and cultural aggression. There are many researchers who have figured in the biological influence within each culture as well as each individual. Aggression is a worldwide problem in so many cultures that not just humans, but all species, experience, and witness.


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