RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FINAL YEAR PROJECT PROPOSAL NAME : MUGASHINI THANA BALAN MATRIX NUMBER : 56744BATCH: YEAR 2 / SEM 2TITLE :RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION TO LEARN AND JOB PERFORMANCE: SUPERVISORYSUPPORT AS A MEDIATORABSTRACTThis research was conducted to measure the mediating effect of supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. The study was coordinated by using two types of motivation theories which are the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These two theories was used to examine the relationship motivation to learn and supervisory support towards the education sector employees which are school teachers.
There are two dimensions that will be tested; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, which are the independent variables while job performance of the employees in the education sector as the dependent variables. The research also concentrate on how to increase the level of job performance among the employees which the supervisory support as a mediator. The questionnaire are distributed to the respondents which consists of 200 education sector employees which are school teachers that are selected randomly in the Johor state. The employees consists of different range of age, race, gender and level of education. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION1.0 IntroductionMotivation and job performance always been a common research among all the researches. It also have been extensively researched. Throughout the halfway in this twentieth century, there are few important motivation theories which are Maslow hierarchy of needs (1943), Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1959) and Expectancy Theory (1964).
Those researches will commonly focused on the motivation theory as general while employees motivation will be specifically researched. In the past few years, there were various of definition was given for motivation, e.g. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs defined motivation is a theory that consists of five interdependent levels of basic human needs that must be satisfied in a strict order which starts from the bottom level. In this rapid society where everyone is racing with the time, employees in education sector faces difficulties to cop up with the timing and also with the loads of work. These employees need some certain ways to boost up their motivation in order to complete their work on time and also by giving the best quality of work.
But, in order to boost them up, what are those ways to solve this problem? What can be done by the supervisor in order for the employees to produce best quality and on time work? The only solution is through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. These motivations plays a critical role in producing better performance at work. Intrinsic motivation can be defined as a stimulation that will allow an individual to adapt or changes his or her behavior for their own satisfaction and fulfillment. Intrinsic motivation is usually will be self-applied and behavior automatically changes according to the individual itself and the surrounding situation. Meanwhile, extrinsic motivation can be defined as the driven to an action that is influences from outsider instead of their own feelings.
However in this research, supervisory support is very important towards a better job performance. Supervisory support helps to encourage the employees who are the trainees through effective communication and also helps to improve the motivation among them. Without the support of supervisory, the employees might be travelling beyond their own right track to complete their work and produce better quality work.
1.1 Research Background In this research, we are going to study about the motivation concepts and its importance towards the job performance especially in education sector. The practitioners, that is the supervisor, and the person that involves in this education sector must know the significance of the motivation in order to increase the job performance.
To make sure we have better understanding about this research, we are going to explore more about the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and its impact in particular. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early of 1970s. this motivation is actually a self desire to look up for new things and new challenges to be satisfied. This is because it is used to analyze the capabilities, gain knowledge and also to observe. The phenomenon of this intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within the experimental studies of animal behavior.
In that studies, it was evident that the organisms would be more boost up and excited in its curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Extrinsic motivation is actually comes from influences outside of the individual itself. The main question that will be ask in extrinsic motivation is where do people get their motivation in order to keep pushing with better persistence. Common extrinsic motivation can be named as reward such as money or even grades.
Competition among staffs or even outsider also can be one of the extrinsic motivator because it gives a strong driven for an individual to perform well and better to win. This is because human being have always wanted to be best in everything and also receive the best and better reward compare to others. In this way, when there are competitions among them, they will be more trigger to do their work in order to receive better reward. 1.2 Problem Statement The success or failure of an organization is determined based on the employee quality in order to achieve their organization goals and long term visions. An organization can be called successful if the employees manage to finish their work on time, produce best quality results and also achieve the initial organization objectives. Job performance have become a huge impact on the organization itself. This is because, a success of an organization is based on the employees job performance.
If the employees job performance decreases it will eventually gives an huge impact on the development of the organization. Eventually it can be said that what an employee think and do will literally leads to the productivity and the efficiency on the organization. Labor turnover and absenteeism have been the common issues that related to employees’ dissatisfaction, however there are some other factors to related to it. This is why to improve job performance, motivation plays an important role to boost up the employee. An job performance will be failed if there is no motivation concepts in their organization.
The motivation provided can be internally or externally. There are some evident saying that the decrease in job performance of an employee is because lack of the motivation to learn among themselves and also lack of support from the organization management.1.3 Research Objective1.3.1 General Objectives This study aims to test the mediating effect supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance.1.
3.2 Specific Objectives The objectives of this proposed study are to: To examine the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance.To examine the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performanceTo examine the effect of supervisory support as mediator in the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance. To examine the effect of supervisory support as mediator in the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance.1.4 Research Questions This study have generated few questions to be answered regarding the motivation to learn and job performance. The research study will be guided by the following research question for the investigations as follows:How to increase the employees job performance by providing motivation to learn ?What are the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and job performance?3. How the supervisory support affect the employees job performance?1.
5 Significant of Study This study contributes to further research, organizational perspective and individual perspective (employee). The certainty and reliability of the result of this study can be a guideline for future research on job performance. In organizational perspective, this study helps to promote better understanding and knowledge on the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Besides that, this research helps to determine how the supervisory support affect the job performance of the education sector employees.
It also helps the organization to figure out the best way to improve the productivity and the efficiency of the organization. Furthermore, this research study helps the organization by providing useful information to set suitable strategy in making sure that how the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the supervisory support gives maximum level of satisfaction and fulfillment. 1.6 Limitation of Study This study was conducted on the motivation to learn and job performance which targeted the education sector employees. Around 200 employees are targeted and selected randomly from the Johor state.
And the randomly selected students are from the sector around Kluang city. Furthermore, the research project is likely requires more money and time. And due to the money and time constraint, so the scope of the study has been reduce. 1.
7 Conclusion In this chapter, it is the introduction regarding the motivation to learn and supervisory support that was related to the job performance. This chapter introduce some variables of motivation to learn that would by studied (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and the importance of these variables in order to increase the job performance especially education sector. Thus, to understand better the concept of the motivation to learn and its importance towards the employee job performance a review of literature and a testing of framework should be conducted, in which will be revealed in the following chapters of this research. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 IntroductionA literature review is a step-by-step process that involves the identification of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest, the evaluation of this work in relation to the problem and the documentation of this work (Sekaran ; Bougie, 2009, p.
38). Each of the contents of the literature is focus on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study. This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after several referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. Hypothesis will be formulated based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance).
.2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn In general the word motivation is very powerful yet can sometimes be tricky too. At times, it would be really easy to get motivated and could find ourselves wrapped up all the excitement. However, it can also be impossible to figure out how to motivate yourself and you can sometimes be trapped in a death spiral of procrastination. However what is motivation to learn? How to define it? The phrase motivation to learn can be divided into two components which are motivation and learning. The word motivation only can be known as a persistence, direction or even an amount of effort that may be expanded into an individual so that he or she could achieve their particular objectives.
(Blanchard ; Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning can be determined using two component which are human cognitive and behavioral perspective. Cognitive theories have explained learning as relatively permanent changes in cognitive occurring as a result of experiences.
Behavior theories also have defined that leaning as relatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulus or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the above, will directly or indirectly affect the individual who have a clear goal, high self efficacy and even who puts a high value of outcomes. Motivation to learn also related to goal orientated. The way an employee try to orient themselves to learn new task or skills within a domain is a very strong indicator of their engagement and performance. Employee who wants to master in new field, department or even new skills will eventually uses more effective learning strategies compared to other employee who is ego orientated.
For example, an employee will invest his effort and time to master the HR department because he or she really interested in the HR field and the employee will even asked how to do this ?, how to do that?, why should do that?. This will make them to explore even more better and have a critical thinking. Besides that, motivation to learn can strive for goals and the willpower as well. An employee need encouragement and feedback in order for them to develop their willpower. Before employees’ initiating a learning activity, they should orient themselves to the learning task in terms of its purpose and the possible solution plans.
This is because, knowledge is the main item needed to make any effective decisions which is persist in goal striving stage. In this way, employees can think and judge which strategies will be best for them to take and which one will be more useful in order to achieve the self goals and also the organization goals. 2.1.1 Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation is a motivation that involves the engaging in a person behaviour because it is personally rewarding, they will also perform an activity for their own sake rather than the desire for some external reward.
This theory also can be define as the internal motivation for the employees or trainees. Examples of action for this motivation include: solving a word puzzle because it is more fun and challenging and even exciting, participating in a sport because you find the activity more enjoyable. In this way, we can say that a person’s behavior can be motivated by their own internal desire to participate in any activity for its own sake. Besides that, through this intrinsic motivation, people will try to obtain their motivation in it self for work very well. This is because intrinsic motivation is more on self satisfaction. There are five aspects of intrinsic motivation which are preference for challenge rather than for easy work, incentive to work to satisfy their own interest and curiosity rather than pleasing others, always independent mastery attempts than dependent on others, independent judgement and always prefer internal criteria for success and failure rather than external criteria. Intrinsic motivation is also a highly desire form of incentive that shows up from a person’s internal desire for their self satisfaction or pleasure in performing their particular task and even can be directly or indirectly effect the employee job performance.
This is because for an employee to do their work or to fulfill their satisfaction, they need some spirit and satisfaction in order to improve their job performance. 2.1.2 Extrinsic motivation According Kendra Cherry (2018), extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity to earn a reward or avoid punishment. Extrinsic motivation is also more to external reward to an employee. This is called in such way because it can boost up the employee and eventually gives them the spirit for them to be motivated. This motivation typically has been characterized as a pale and impoverished form of motivation. The classical case of extrinsic motivation is that one feels externally propel with the action and it can also be called as self endorsed.
Whenever a person is motivated by the external factors such as money, praise, competition and even threat or punishment, whether to avoid the negative outcomes or to achieve positive results, it is wholly considered as extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is been carry out in order to increase the productivity in an organization or even get to create a better learning environment for all the employees. This motivation also helps to increase an individual benefits. However, there is one disadvantage which is everyone have been spending their whole life by chasing rewards and pride at work and then they will eventually regret for what they have missed in their life. External rewards which is the extrinsic motivation can also be such a source of feedback where they know until to what extent they have achieve their goals and how their performance have affected and achieved to a deserving standard. In many cases, the employees are extrinsically motivated if they are able to satisfy their needs and satisfaction especially through monetary compensation. In such way, we can say that this motivation directly help to increase the job performance of an employee because each of the people needs the reward for the job that they have done well and done it in a certain time period.
2.1.3 Theory Related to Motivation The theory that is related to motivation is the Herzberg motivation theory. This theory is been developed by Fredrick Herzberg (1959) who was an American psychologist where he describes about the human motivation. The word motivation acts as a reference that guide the trainee thinking, feeling and action will become the subject. This Herzberg’s findings have showed that there are some characteristics of job that can lead to job satisfaction and even otherwise too. So for example, factors for satisfaction such as achievement, recognition, responsibility can eventually lead to satisfaction which can lastly related to job performance.
In this Herzberg motivation theory there are two factors involved which is the motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivator factors was needed in order to motivate the employee to performance well and give their very best in any work they do, however the hygiene factors more needed to make sure that the employees are not dissatisfied where it may affect the job performance of an organization. Motivators will lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and also for their self achievement. However, the lack of motivators can literally leads to over concentration on the hygiene factors which are those negative factor where it can form the basis of complaint and concern in any ways.
2.2 Concept of Supervisory Support Supervisory support can be defined to where the leaders in an organization value and appreciate their employees’ work, contributions and even they also care about their well being. In a simple word, we can say that the leader with a higher supervisory support is the one who will care, hear, and even guide and value their employees’ needs and well being. Even it is very easy to hear and see but it eventually become the hardest part to be done when an employee is being promoted to a supervisor and he or she haven to start doing all those things in order to increase the employee’s job performance in the organization.
Supervisory support will be more effective if the supervisor is very supportive and cared and valued their employees. This kind of supervisor will make a lot of differences in the employees’ everyday work environment. For example, when an employee entered work and the supervisor wished for their day to be good and support them, the hole day the employee mood will be good even with a lot of workloads.
Supervisor plays an important role an the employees’ life. Strong supervisor support can help to improve and changed the quality of employment to best and better ones. This support also associated with job satisfaction where it leads to job performance, perceptions of a better fit the employee and organization and lastly even helps to reduces the employee turnover which is very common in many cases these days. 2.2.
1 Theory Related in the Supervisory Support The theory that related to supervisory support is the organization support theory. The organization objectives, goals and even intentions is related to the action of the supervisor. According to Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger (2002), organization support theory also supposes that to determine the organization’s readiness to reward increased work effort and to meet socio emotional needs, employee develop global beliefs concerning the extend to which their organization values their contributions and cares for their well being. (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, ; Sowa, 1986 ; Shore ; Shore, 1995). Supervisor roles is very important as supervisor can help to increase the job performance of an employee with the help of motivation too. Supervisors need to have knowledge and skills in the particular areas such as planning, budgeting, organizing and even developing and evaluating human resources programs.
This is because supervisor is the first person that an employee will find in order to gain information for that particular areas that they work on. Besides that, supervisor also need to provide encouragement and support to their employee in order for them to build motivation among themselves and it can eventually related to satisfaction ad lastly job performance.For an organization to run smoothly and successfully, supervisor need to use their skills and knowledge to empower their employees. Furthermore, supervisor will evaluate their employees by giving feedback on what they are doing right, how to improve it to give better results and also can give some suggestions on how to settle the work in a short period of time but with best results as well. Every word by the supervisor is actually a small motivation tat have been given to the employees.
Supervisor also are there to give negative and positive reinforcement when needs and they even uses motivation theories to empower their employees. 2.3 Concept of Job PerformanceAccording to Business Dictionary, the definition for job performance is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed. This job performance have been the most important dependent variables and have been studies for a long decade. Performance is a multidimensional concept.
According to Campbell, performance is known as a behavior. It is something that ie been done by employees. Performance and outcomes have some differences between them. Outcomes is more about the individual performance results and it also result from some other influences. Performance does not have to directly observable actions of an employee. It consists of mental production such as decisions or even answers. However, performance needed to be under an individual’s control such as the supervisor. Job performance is divided into task and contextual performance.
Task performance was defined as effectiveness with which job incumbents perform activities that contribute to the organization’s technical core (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). however, contextual performance was defined as performances that is not formally required as part of the job but that helps to shape the social and psychological context of the organization (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993). 2.3.1 Theory Related to Job PerformanceThe theory that related to job performance is the Maslow’s hierarchy need theory. This Maslow theory is one of the best known theories of motivation. Maslow first introduced the hierarchy of needs in 1943. Maslow believed that people have a certain desire to be self actualized, that is to be all that they can.
In order to achieve the ultimate goals, a person need to have a certain number of basic needs such as safety, love, food, and even self esteem. Maslow’s hierarchy is often looked as a pyramid that have certain level to achieved. In order to achieve the upper level, a person should achieve the bottom level first in order to go the next level. The lowest level of this Maslow hierarchy are made up of basic needs while the complex needs are remain in higher top level. This theory consist of five levels. First is the physiological needs.
This needs are probably fairly apparent where these are the things which is vital to our survival. This needs consist of food, water, sleep, clothes and even homeostasis. Next is the security and safety needs. In this level it start to be a bit more complex. Safety and security become the primary needs in this level. In this stage, people want to have control and order of their own lives. Examples of needs in this level is the financial security, helath and wellness and even safety against injury and accidents.
This security and safety needs will eventually motivated some actions such as finding a job, contributing some money into the savings account or even moving into a safer neighbourhood. Besides that, is the level of social needs. Social needs in this level such as belonging, acceptance and even love. This level is more about emotional relationship driven in human behavior. Some things needed to be satisfy in this level such as family, friendships, social group, community group and even romantic attachments. This level needed to be achieve in order to avoid loneliness, depression and even anxiety.
People need to be loved and cared by their family and friends and even surroundings too. Furthermore, the fourth level in this Maslow hierarchy is the esteem needs which is also known as respect ad appreciation level. After the below three levels are been achieved, this fourth level will begin to play a more prominent role in motivating behavior of a person. Respect and appreciation can be seen when their work and accomplishment is been praised and talked proud about. In addition self esteem and personal worth is very important in this stage. For example, esteem needs will be fulfill when we participate in professional activities, become an athletic or team participation and even academic accomplishments. Lack in self esteem and respect will cause to develop feelings of inferiority. Last level will be the self actualization needs.
This will be the very peak level in this Maslow of hierarchy. This level if more like ” What a man can be, he must be,” where it refer to the need of people to achieve their full potential as human beings. According to Kendra, in Maslow theory, self actualization definition is more like “it may be loosely described as the full use of talents, capabilities and even potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves with the things that they are best at and capable of doing so”.
Self actualizing people is very much as self aware where they concern about their personal growth, less concern about others’ opinion and comments and they even take this opportunities to fulfill their potential to maximum level. 2.4 Conceptual Framework2349578105Independent Variable Mediating Dependent variable166370210820Intrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation Motivation to learn19094452203451444625231775 23317204445 Supervisory Support Supervisory Support 401320012065Job PerformanceJob Performance35718758890191706522225181610245110Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation 1472565241300Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Research2.5 Hypotheses of Study These study is to attempt to examine the mediating role that supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Thus the following are hypothesized.
H1: There is a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performanceH2: There is a significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performanceH3: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performanceH4: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance2.6 Conclusion Literature reviews of the theoretical models and variety of approaches to job performance provides conceptual background to strengthen the argument of this research. The formulation of the hypotheses will able the researcher to proceed with the test on the topic. Research methods will be discussed on the next chapter. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODODLOGY3.0 Introduction In order to get an accurate results, research project requires suitable techniques and methods.
To complete this research, methodologies are developed to refine the study that enables researchers to generate information needed. It is essential for a research paper to have a well-designed research methodology as the degree of accuracy and usefulness of a research is directly affected by the methodology.Research methodology is an important part of the research study that explains how the research was conducted. This chapter includes, research design, sampling and population, research instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis technique. 3.1 Research Design Research design is a step to gather and analyze the imperative data and assist to find the location of the study, sample size, population and so on (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.102). in conducting this research, the researcher use quantitative research.
Quantitative data are collected through measuring things and are analyzed through numerical comparisons and statistical inferences. The data are then presented through statistical analyses. Descriptive studies are conducted with a considerable understanding of the situation being studied. A good research design ensures that the information collected is relevant and useful to conduct research project more effectively and efficiently.
This research study focuses on exploring the importance of motivation to learn with the supervisory support towards job performance of the education sector employees. 3.2 Sampling and Population 3.2.1 Target Population The main objective of this study is to explore the relationship between motivation to learn with supervisory support towards job performance. The industry that mainly reviewed in this research is education sector. So, the target population for this research will be among the education sector employees who are school teachers.
To choose the employees from the education sector, the researcher wish to use simple random sampling. Simple random sampling is the probability sampling which is randomly selected sample from a large sample of population. 3.2.2 Sampling Frame and Sampling Location In statistics, a sample is defined as the subset of a population that is used to represent the entire group as a whole.
Sampling frame is the source material or device from which a sample is drawn. In this research, the sampling frame will be the education sector employees. While, the sampling location for the survey to be conducted is around Kluang city. The selected students would be the one study in the education sector around Kluang, such as, SJK(T) Jalan Haji Manan, Sekolah Tinggi Kluang, Sekolah Tun Hussein Onn, and Sekolah Menengah Kluang Barat. 3.
2.3 Sampling Element The respondent that will be used as part of this research are the education sector’s employees. A proper selection of the respondent are essential to get a relevant and valid research result to achieve the objective of the research. The candidate that become the respondent must be an employee from any education sector that located around Kluang city, Johor. The reason to choose these sampling elements are because they are the main subject in this research since motivation to learn is very important among the education sector employees because they can be directly or indirectly related to stress and loads of work. 3.2.
4 Sampling Technique There are two technique of sampling; probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling occurs when the members of population has an equal chances to be a part of the sample, while non-probability sampling is the opposite of the probability sampling where the members of the population does not get equal chances to be the samples. In this research, the researcher used non-probability sampling. The questionnaire form will be distributed to the selected respondents that met the requirements of the sampling elements. A total of 200 questionnaire form will be distributed directly to the respondent and they are required to answer it.
3.2.5 Sampling Size Sample size is the number of observations to include in a statistical sample, which is used to make an inference about a population from a sample. As for this research, to represent the target population, a sample size of 200 respondents are chosen randomly among the education sector employees. .
3.3 Data Collection Method In this research study, two type of data collection method had been used; primary data and secondary data. Any data collected or observed from for the first time is known as primary data, for example questionnaire. Meanwhile, data that is collected in the past or other parties is called secondary data, like journals, articles and others. In this research primary data is used, that will be collected by distributing questionnaire to the respondents. The questions designed to elicit specific responses for quantitative analysis, in order to gather information on the motivation to learn and supervisory support on job performance.. And secondary data, such as the journals, articles, books and other references are used to gather the information and data needed from the past study3.
4 Research Instrument The instrument that will be used in this research to obtain the data is questionnaire. Questionnaire is a set of printed or written documents that contain either open ended question or closed ended questions. The questionnaire are distributed to the respondents to collect the data that will be used to conduct further study. The questionnaire contains two sections. Section A is the demographic details of the respondent; age, gender, race, education and length of services which will be measured using nominal scale.
For the Section B, the question are to measure the job performance towards the motivation to learn provided with the supervisory support. Likert measurement scale is being used to get the respond from the samples (1=strongly disagree and 5=strong agree). The sample questionnaire was taken from two different thesis. First is title ” Relationship between motivation to learn and job performance where the supervisory support act as mediator, wrote by Nazhatul binti Bakri in 2011. Next is the thesis title is “Relationship between supervisory support and job performance where the motivation to learn act as mediator, wrote by Sheela Chitra A/P Chandra Segaran in 2007. 3.5 Pilot StudyAccording to Martyn Shuttleworth, pilot study is known as a standard scientific tool for soft research.
This study is carry out in order to discuss the survey questionnaire with the several participants. To verify the content and format of the questionnaire for the actual study, information will be gather that is obtain from pilot study. Pilot study also will be used to make sure the survey questionnaire is understood by the respondents. 3.6 Data Analysis Method To analyze the data collected in this study statistical analysis is used.
The data collected via questionnaire form will be analyzed statistically by using Software Package for Social Science (SPSS). Besides that, SPSS also enables the presentation of data through a better graphical presentation, such as, bar chart, pie chart, histogram and others. As for this study, the researcher is studying on the relationship between motivation to learn and supervisory support towards job performance. 3.7 Reliability and ValidityReliability is known as findings are being repeated while validity refers to credibility of the research.
Reliability and validity are very important when a research instrument is being carried out. In order to test the validity of all the variables, factor analysis will be used. The variables will be valid if the factor analysis value is 0.4 or greater. 3.
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