Topic: BusinessDecision Making

Last updated: December 10, 2019

Regardless of what we do for a leaving or where we are , we spend most of our waking hours constanly trying to solve problem. For many students, problem solving solving is a procedure thy carry out on task assigned by a teacher. They view the problem as something to be completed within a set time so as to avoid punitive consequences. Unforunately, in thier daily lives, students, and people in general have a tendency to overanalyse every action or event deemed problematic. The problems we face can be small or complex, but they need to be solved in a constructive manner. Hence , problem solving is an important skill. Whether we arrive at an efective solution or not depends on how we confront the problem. Thinking is defined by Ruggiero, V.R (2008) as a purposeful mental activity over which we have some power or control. This can be understood by looking at the scenario where a person sitting in the driver’s seat or car is driving only when he holds the streering wheel in his hands and controls the movements of the car. Thus, the activity in the minds of induviduals becomes thinking only when it is being directed.
Problem solving is one of the cognitive and learning processes performed by living organisms or organisms. Before we fully understand what is meant by the concept of problem solving from psychological perspective it is better for us to understand to understand a little bit about cognition and learning, because the problem solving actually has a close connection to human cognition ability as well as learning gained from past experience. The word cognition (cognition) is a term taken from the Latin word cogno which means “to know”. Cognition emphasizes on the development of knowledge and understanding (Clarke ; Gillet, 1997). Cognition is an intellectual process in which this process occurs systematically that information is acquired, transformed, stored, retrieved, and eventually used. Sometimes the concept of cognition is somewhat difficult to understand by some, as the solution to the simple term to refer to cognition is “thinking”. Learning also means behavior change as a result of experience or other factors such as mental surgery (Ma’rof Redzuan & Haslinda Abdullah, 2003).

In problem solving, there are four basic steps.
• Define the problem. Diagnose the situation so that your focus is on the problem, not just its symptoms. …
• Generate alternative solutions. …
• Evaluate and select an alternative. …
• Implement and follow up on the solution.

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Acceptance or to reject the reasons and claims given by colleagues will depends on individual decision being made. Acceptance of what the colleagues mentioned about company being downsized will show that the persons character is weak and no confidents and believe blindly on rumors. To reject a statement which has been told need a brave heart to do it and will have to face the risk of a bold decision made.
Critical thinking is a general term given to a wide range of cognitive skill and intellectual characters requires to effectively identify, analyze and evaluate arguments and truth claims; to uncover and overcome personal prejudices and biases; to devise and present convincing reason in support of conclusions; and to come up with reasonable, intelligent decisions about what to believe and to do. It is disciplined thinking controlled by clear intellectual benchmarks that have proven their values over the course of human history. The important characteristics of critical thinking are: clarity, precision, accuracy, relevance, consistency, logical, correctness, completeness and fairness. While, creative thinking is important in today’s competitive world. Creative people share a number of important characteristics, among which are dynamism, daringness, resourcefulness, diligence and independence. Taking an innovative approach, formulating a process or system, devising a new product or service, finding uses for existing things, improvising on existing things, and inventing or redefining concept are the most important ways to apply.
In this case, where the charctors spouse has just passed away and there is a rumors that the company is due to be downsized. Also, that some employees would have to be asked to leave the company due to being downsized and some of the employees will need to be resigned. Some of the employee mentioned that the news is true and the company is in a lot of depts. On the other hand there are groups of employee who claims that this news is just gossips and the company is in good shape. Unsure and confused on what decision to be made which is a favorable one. The right strategy is creative thinking. Replacing those false impression with facts is a vital step in developing one’s creative potential. The facts that follow are among the most important ones:
• ‘Doing your own things’ is not necessarily a mark of creativity
• Creativity does not require special intellectual talent or high IQ
• The use of drugs hinders creativity
• Creativity is an expression of mental health.
Creative thinking can be defined as ‘being in an optimal state of mind where new ideas can be generated’. In other words, creative thinking is a purposeful thinking that improves the chances of new thoughts transpiring. Creative thinking is thinking out of the box where one come about with original, diverse and elaborate ideas. There are five characteristics of creative thinking which is:
Dynamism – in this simple sense, dynamism implies the notion of change – change in response to, and possibly ahead of, circumstance or information. It implies an active interaction, as opposed to passive acquiescence.
Daringness – creative individuals are less prone to accepting existing views, wider in their perspective and less likely to agree with those around them. Creative people can come up with bold ideas. They are willing to try out ideas than are not acceptable by others and also experiment with possibilities that are disliked by others. Daringness is a virtue because it makes individual who possess this traits less susceptible to face-saving than others. Daring individuals accept bad experiences, apply their curiosity and learn from those experiences. Thus, they are less likely than others to repeat the same failures.
Resourcefulness – resourcefulness can be defines as the ability to act effectively and conceptualize the approach that solves the problem. In addition, being resourceful also being able to solve a problem that perplexes others when the resources at hand are insufficient. Although this ability is not measured by IQ tests, it is one of the most important aspects of practical intelligence.
Diligence – all problems present themselves to the mind as threats of failure. Only individuals who are not frightened by the prospects of failure and have the opportunity to succeed. Creative individuals are ready to make the required commitment. One important traits present in creative people is their ability to be thoroughly engrossed in a problems and give it their full attention. In addition, creative people, due to their competitiveness, pay more attention to their ideas rather than to other people.
Independence – for most people, especially those who obtain their power from communicating with others and those who depend on others for their identify, such separation is frightening. Sad to say, such people do not feel comfortable entertaining and expressing new ideas. This is due to their fear of rejection. Creative individuals are different. Although they accept friendship and support from others, they are not entirely dependent on them. They look within themselves for strength and are thus more self-confident, more independent in the way they speak and act and less afraid of appearing strange or out of place. Creative individuals are said to be more independent comparatively.
The more widely applicable, below are the six-step conceptions of problem solving by Hayes (1981) to solve some problems :-
Step One – Finding the Problem – is about diagnosing the problem – the context, background and symptoms of the issue. Once the group has a clear grasp of what the problem is, they investigate the wider symptoms to discover the implications of the problem, who it affects, and how urgent/important it is to resolve the symptoms.
At this stage groups will use techniques such as:
• Brainstorming
• Interviewing
• Questionnaires
As this step continues, the PS group will constantly revise the definition of the problem. As more symptoms are found, it clarifies what the real problem is
1. Determine the Root Cause(s) of the Problem
2. Develop Alternative Solutions
3. Select a Solution
4. Implement the Solution
5. Evaluate the Outcome
Step Two: Determine the Root Cause(s) of the Problem – Once all the symptoms are found and the problem diagnosed and an initial definition agreed, the PS group begins to explore what has caused the problem. In this step the problem solving team will use tools such as:
• Fishbone diagrams
• Pareto analysis
• Affinity diagrams
These techniques help collate the information in a structured way, and focus in on the underlying causes of the problem. This is called the root cause. At this stage, the group may return to step one to revise the definition of the problem
Step Three: Develop Alternative Solutions – Analytical, creative problem solving is about creating a variety of solutions, not just one. Often the most obvious answer is not the most effective solution to the problem. The PS group focuses on:
• Finding as many solutions to the problem, no matter how outlandish they may seem.
• Looking at how each solution relates to the root cause and symptoms of the problem.
• Deciding if different solutions can be merged to give a better answer to the problem
At this stage it is not about finding one solution, but eliminating the options that will prove less effective at dealing with both the symptoms and the root cause
Step Four: Select a Solution – In the fourth step, groups evaluate all the selected, potential solutions, and narrow it down to one. This step applies two key questions.
1. Which solution is most feasible?
2. Which solution is favoured by those who will implement and use it?
Feasibility is ascertained by deciding if a solution:
• Can be implemented within an acceptable timeframe?
• Is cost effective, reliable and realistic?
• Will make resource usage more effective?
• Can adapt to conditions as they evolve and change?
• Its risks are manageable?
• Will benefit the organization/
Which solution is favoured?
Acceptance by the people who will use and implement the solution is key to success.
This is where the previous steps come into play. To users and implementers, a solution may seem too radical, complex or unrealistic. The previous two steps help justify the choices made by the PS group, and offer a series of different, viable solutions for users and implementers to discuss and select from.
Step Five: Implement the Solution – Once the solution has been chosen, initial project planning begins and establishes:
• The project manager.
• Who else needs to be involved to implement the solution.
• When the project will start.
• The key milestones
• What actions need to be taken before implementing the solution
• What actions need to be taken during the implementing the solution
• Why are these actions necessary?
The group may use tools, such as a Gantt chart, timeline or log frame. Between Steps Five and during Step Six the operational/technical implementation of the chosen solution takes place.
Step Six: Evaluate the Outcome – The project implementation now needs to be monitored by the group to ensure their recommendations are followed. Monitoring includes checking:
• Milestones are met
• Costs are contained
• Necessary work is completed
Many working groups skip Step Six as they believe that the project itself will cover the issues above, but this often results in the desired outcome not being achieved.
Effective groups designate feedback mechanisms to detect if the project is going off course. They also ensure the project is not introducing new problems. This step relies on:
• The collection of data
• Accurate, defined reporting mechanisms
• Regular updates from the Project Manager
• Challenging progress and actions when necessary

In Step Six as the results of the project emerge, evaluation helps the group decide if they need to return to a previous step or continue with the implementation. Once the solution goes live, the PS group should continue to monitor the solutions progress, and be prepared to re-initiate the Six Step process when it is required.
It helps keep groups on track, and enables a thorough investigation of the problem and solution search. It involves implementers and users, and finds a justifiable, monitorable solution based on data.

Identify a problem-solving strategy that you can use to solve the problem
Will be using step four problem-solving strategy, select a solution which can be use to solve the problem. To make a wise decision on the career and not listen to rumours. To investigate our self on the companies situation and how extreme will it be. To officially speak to the department head on the companies decision if its really downsizing.
Option 1
If management decides that the company is stable and no depths then continue to work as normal until an official letter being given to leave. They will usually compensate on the salary and advance notice will be given. The writer should then concentrate solely on the job responsible and not being influence by the rest of the colleagues. Since the writer is a single parents, the motif of up bringing the child is the utmost important task to be concentrate by the writer. Once the writer performs well, chances of being promoted with better salary scale will be higher. Never assume on what will happen next until a persons finds out the actual situation of an organization
Option 2
Following the situation of the company being downsize and ask employee to resign then the best and wise decision is to make to be prepared for anything.
There is always light at the end of the tunnel. Will need to look for alternate plans and start looking job elsewhere and not just hoping to stay on until being told to leave. Better opportunity lies ahead. The writer should put the child’s welfare before the writer.
Bold decision to be taken in this situation and face the reality. There are other better organization out there to give a better opportunity. The writer should not be worried or concern if the writer will be able to get another job as the writer knows the capabilities to perform at a new organization.
Being a single parents, we need to lead by example for the kids and not to just dwell about our lost and moving forward decide what to be done to secure the future before others take advantage.
Decision making is the process of choosing what to do by considering the possible consequences of different choices. When we make a decision, we make a wilful selection from a set of alternatives as possible and consider thier possible consequences, and then choose one that best fits our goal, desires, lifesyle, values and so on. So , in this case , the charactor must be bold daring and take decision for the better future the ownself and kids and stick to the decisons. Creative thinking to solve the problem.


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