In this essay I am going to advise and inform you about human resource management. The sectors that I will be focusing on are; ways in which performance can be monitored, how individual training and development needs can be identified, and different strategies for continuing development of individuals in health and social care. This is important because, ‘Human Resource Management deals with issues related to compensation, performance, management, organization, development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, training and others.’ (Griffith, 2011, pg1). Human resource management can be defined as
There are endless ways performance can be monitored. To monitor them, the manager and the individual may converse, so they can both comprehend the improvements that should be made and the improvements that have been made. Commnication is pivotal when monitoring the performance of any individual, as you would need to interact and communicate in order to settle any developments that could help the individual further. In consequence, you can be able to promote individuals as if they improved by a great quantity, then the individual may be promoted into a higher level. Performance appraisal is the most frequently used tool to measure an individual’s performance. The appraisal has five key elements: measurement, feedback, positive reinforcement and exchange of views and agreement. Also, an electronic way to perfectly monitor your employees’ performance, is to use a new technique which is email monitoring, which is specifically used for organizations that have employees for email duties. Email monitoring gives employers the ability to look at email messages sent or received by their employees. Emails can be viewed and recovered even if they had been previously deleted. Although, in my opinion, I believe that the communicative monitoring is more effective as it assists both the employees and employers since both sides have knowledge of the monitoring and the employee knows what to improve and what to do better, rather than doing it secretly without any feedback or improvements to be made.
Using the performance of individuals, individual training and development can be identified by, firstly, assessing their performance and what needs to be improved and what skills has been developed, then, you shall identify their training needs and the specific major details in their overall performance that needs to be maintained and the individual needs to be trained. Leadership and management in health and social care (2008) stress that ‘Performance management is about ensuring that managers themselves are aware of the impact of their own behavior on the people they manage and that managers should identify and exhibit positive behaviors’. In order for this process to work successfully, you need to only assess each individual and not use an individual as an allegory for the entire population of staff, as some individuals may have more alarming skills that have to be developed more than others, or some individuals may not have one skill that other individuals may have mastered. Identifying individual training is very important, because it helps the employer to develop a partnership with the employee, and also ensure that the employee would become a qualified, skilled professional.
To ensure that the development of the individuals is continued and the mistakes that have been learned from are used for future references, there are a few different strategies that could be used, for example;
the employer could send a supervisor to supervise the employee, so that the individual would be refrained as to make the same mistake again, and therefore make that attitude a habit.
The employer could put the employee in the same situation over and over again. This would make the individual aware of their previous mistakes and, also, make their mind more mindful and therefore be refrained from making the same mistakes again.
Another way is to ‘provide timely feedback so mistake can be responded to.'(Heick, 2017) If you provide feedback of the issue and provide it in an understanding, calm way; research shows that the individual would more likely to respond to the feedback and not make the same mistake again.
There are two relevant theories of leadership, that apply to health and social care, which include the behavioral theory and the situational hypothesis. the behavioral theory is very similar to the trait theory. However, the most vital attribute of this theoretical approach is that the Behaviorism theory is a more “democratic” kind of theory. Becoming a leader, according to the behaviorist school of thought, is just a matter of proper training, while trait theory holds that a leader must have certain inherent, innate qualities. Nevertheless, this theory introduced following the criticism of trait theory. It has been also shown by many research, that if you are influential and prosperous then you are more likely to be leader, and that leadership is mostly self-ascendancy. According to behavioral theory, leaders can be learned instead of being inherent. The situational theoretical is defined by anon as it presumes that different way and patterns of leading depend on different side and stratum. Nevertheless, situational theory asserts that the best leaders pattern is ascertained by the situational gene. However, many critics argue that behaviorism is a one-sided approach to fully comprehending the reasons to human behavior and that behavioral theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts and feelings. Behaviorism tends to be quite vague and unrealistic in explaining behavior and learning of individuals. It only includes what is seen as easy to observe and measurable, and it tends to forget that there are several unique aspects of an individual that are quite salient in the individual’s personality and learning capabilities.
Vroom’s theory concerns the process of individuals in choosing between different ways to behave. The theory explains that, if an individual believed that maximum effort would lead to great performance, then they will be motivated to make the effort. Vroom explains his theory using three variables: valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence refers to the reward for good work, and how desirable the reward is to them. Expectancy represents each employee’s own confidence in his or her capability when it comes to possessing the work skills needed to perform well enough to achieve the reward. The instrumentality variable refers to employees’ need to believe that when management offers a reward for good work performance, they actually deliver the rewards consistently. There are many strengths towards this theory, for example; employee motivation is incredibly increased by the idea of rewards; therefore, this may boost in their aspirational scheme that, consequently, improves performance. When managers completely understand this theory, they can employ using the concepts to assemble more effective work teams to accomplish their business objectives. The managers will understand better exactly what they need to offer to motivate their employees, search for any lack in skills that needs training, and commit to delivering a reward. Another advantage of the expectancy theory, if applied well, is that employees would willingly and contently participate in work projects because management has planned participation based on the staff being motivated by the chance to perform well and earn rewards that they see as meaningful.
However, there are some disadvantages in vrooms expectancy theory of motivation, like; The theory won’t work in practice without active participation from managers; the theory assumes all components are already known. In reality, leaders must make an effort to find out what their employees value as rewards. They must also accurately assess employees’ capabilities and make available all of the right resources to help employees be successful in their jobs. Managers must also keep their word; employees need to trust that if they put in the work and effort, they will actually get the promised reward. Another weakness of the expectancy theory is when management offers certain motivations and rewards, but the employees wouldn’t value or believe in them. This is the main leverage management has to guide their team’s behavior, so if they don’t choose rewards that have a lot of value or are not seen as goals to achieve, then, employees will lose motivation to perform well enough for the manager and the business. For example, managers believe that an extra £5 of wages should motivate an employee, but that employee might find that amount to small of an amount and would find it more desirable if it were at least £10, and consequently, because of management’s lack of understanding, the employee isn’t motivated to their full capacity.
Finally, the last theory that links to human resource management is Goleman theory. Goleman theory. The five concepts of th goleman theory, they are;
Emotional self-awareness — knowing what one is feeling at any given time and understanding the impact those moods have on others
Self-regulation — controlling or redirecting one’s emotions; anticipating consequences before acting on impulse
Motivation — utilizing emotional factors to achieve goals, enjoy the learning process and persevere in the face of obstacles
Empathy — sensing the emotions of others
Social skills — managing relationships, inspiring others and inducing desired responses from them
To continue, there are many ways to develop a working relationship for leaders. The one that is the best is the one of working relationship maintenance, which is by using trust to trust he employee to carry out a task of high standard. Furthermore, a good leader should always respect their workforce. A way to do that is to; be sincere, mindful, open, genuine, cooperative and patient towards their employees. Thy should be able to promote openness and kindness within the workplace. They should also be able to conquer any cultural discrimination or any prejudice attitudes in the organization. Moreover, the leader should focus on the communication of the individuals in the workplace, including the effective communication that must be happening between the employee and the employer. This focus should be on utilizing the most effective form of communication in each specific scenario. For example, when discussing weaknesses, a private meeting would be appropriate whilst for team targets, team meetings or group emails would be more effective. In addition, body language, listening skills, ability to maintain eye contact and attentiveness are all effective ways to develop and maintain a working relationship. It is the leader’s reaction to circumstances that determines their influence over the individuals.
My own development has been influenced through a number of leadership and management approaches. Firstly, through the use of personal performance appraisals, I have been encouraged to focus on areas of weakness as well as my strengths. By highlighting these weaknesses, I have then been able to concentrate on training or the gathering of information through self-directed reading, to improve my knowledge in these weak areas. Team-working has been improved through the promotion of working relationships between team members, through the use of team-building sessions and activity workshops. In addition, whilst it is acknowledged that everyone has a poor manager at some point in their career, these poor managers accentuate the skills of the effective leader and have helped me to develop good leadership skills. I have also been allowed to mentor new employees as I was very effective in my role. However, I consider the most effective management approach for me, to have been through the use of task allocation and team target setting. Whilst I originally assumed that the task allocation was for an individual’s benefit, I can now see how this benefits the whole team.
Griffith.ie. (2011). The Importance of Human Resource Management | Griffith College. online Available at: https://www.griffith.ie/blog/importance-human-resource-management Accessed 15 May 2018.
Heick, T. (2017). 9 Ways To Help Students Learn Through Their Mistakes. online TeachThought. Available at: https://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/9-ways-help-students-learn-mistakes/ Accessed 27 May 2018.
Mckibbin, J., Walton, A. and Mason, L. (2008). Leadership & Management. 1st ed. Derby: Joanne Mckibbin, p.45.