Population affects the country’s economic growth in positive and negative ways. But how can overpopulation possibly be a disadvantage to a country? This topic was chosen in order to explore the ways in which population could affect a country’s economy. What are the causes of overpopulation, and what are the consequences? How does overpopulation gradually become a burden to human beings? What are the outcomes of being an overpopulated country? How is population density related to overpopulation, and how does a country take measures to control the population density? In order to answer these questions and many like this, it was necessary to carry out a research and learn more about the effects of population in a country’s economy and also its people. So, to what extent does overpopulation affect the country’s economy?
Recent studies have shown that the world’s population increases very rapidly. Population in the world is currently (2018) growing at a rate of around 1.09% per year (down from 1.12% in 2017 and 1.14% in 2016). The current average population increase is estimated at 83 million people per year. Taking an example of china, in the country itself there are 1,414,672,333 people, which is equivalent to 18.54% of the total world population. Some of the causes of the overpopulation could be: decline in death rate or increase in birth rate, migration, lack of education in certain areas lead to lack of birth control that causes an increase in population. The decline in mortality rates are one of the main factors of overpopulation. There’s a cure to almost every disease now, and developing countries are improving their medical care rapidly. Technology has helped to find a cure for almost all of the harmful diseases. Due to this, death rate is reducing and there are more births also. There are advancements such that even the rates of reproduction in human beings have increased. Good medical care assures safety and security thus helping parents to believe in the medical system of developed countries. Mortality rate has reduced and birth rates have increased causing an imbalance in the world population and hence, leading to overpopulation.
Population increase is caused by several factors. If we take a closer look, we come to know that these factors can actually be controlled and therefore overpopulation can be managed too. China’s one child policy was a very clever way to control the birth rate in the country. This hence proves that medical knowledge and education is very important in a country to control population. Research shows that LEDCs are the main places where population grows rapidly. Women need to be educated with knowledge about contraception and birth control. Improving economic factors also controls the population. Some cultures also don’t allow contraception and therefore raising awareness becomes important. Taking example of China all countries and even LEDCs should plan to control overpopulation. Government’s and the country’s people’s role is also crucial to handle these overpopulation problems.
CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
What are the causes of population increase? And how does overpopulation cause lower economic development? What are the causes of overpopulation to the future generation? Some of the causes can be explained using the example of LEDCs. Culture and tradition prevent the use of birth control. Instead of causing a major disruption to what has been practiced for years and years, we can simply start by raising awareness among women. This is an effective way of controlling population. Some social factors can also be responsible for population changes. Mostly in India, people migrate from a region of a different religion to a region of their own religion. Social factors like these cause the population density in a country to differ. It is known that India is densely populated with almost 80.5% Hindus. Environmental factors such as war defence and terrorism could also be responsible for population changes. Refugees often migrate to nearby countries. An example of this situation is the European migrant crisis. In 2015, Syrian refugees fled to Europe causing a major change in the population of the country. The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 was 33 million people, or 7% of the total population of the 28 EU countries (above 500 million people). By comparison, the foreign-born population is 7.7% in Russia, 13% in the United States, 20% in Canada, 27% in Australia and 1.63% of the total population in Japan. Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees, immigrated into the EU each year using regular means, with a slight decrease since 2010.
Economic causes like this could also be responsible for overpopulation. Migration always occurs to an overly resourceful place. People may migrate due to better health care, education systems, healthier job opportunities, and also better weather conditions. In a country like china, overly populated regions lead to degradation of land and resources, pollution, and detrimental living conditions.
Overpopulation in the global scale could deeply affect the future generation. Overpopulation can lead to depletion of natural resources. This not only affects the future generation, but also the economy of the country/society. If all the resources are used up, there will be none left to export. Places which rely on natural resources export will be dangerously affected. The future generation may also not have enough resources to fulfil their needs and wants. All of this could be caused by depletion of natural resources due to overpopulation. The country could also face economic problems such as shortage of food, fuel, minerals and other resources. Overpopulation leads to more number of people and less resources. This leads to scarcity which results in the amount of resources being less to support the population. The economic state of the country is hence affected.
POSSIBLE SCENARIOS AND LOCAL, NATIONAL AND GLOBAL COURSES OF ACTION
Due to overpopulation, countries could come at conflict. Fights for food, water and other resources will be unavoidable. There are many possible ways to overcome overpopulation. One of the very important global courses of action is to promote women empowerment. Women all over the world should be provided with education. Education is one of the many ways in which women can stay out of pregnancy. Birth control and contraceptives should be provided to women all over the world, especially LEDCs and awareness programs should be organised. Local courses of action can be government activities that encourage parents to limit their children to two. Governments could provide funds to the first two children born. The one child policy is also a great way to tackle the increase in global population. All countries should adopt this method in order to control their birth rate. Improved medical systems and decrease in mortality rates will not be an issue once birth rate is controlled.
To conclude, overpopulation could lead to international conflicts, poverty and depletion of natural resources. It will negatively impact the environment thus, affecting the economy globally. There are several ways to tackle problems of overpopulation and most of them have been discussed in the report above. Government’s and the people’s contribution is crucial to tackle such problems. Raising awareness is the key to tackle economic imbalances.