QUESTION 1 Describe THREE of the most important components of fitness for Amber’s sport of choice, including a test which can be used to measure each component.

I believe that the three most important components of fitness for Amber in her chosen sport are, cardio vascular endurance, agility and finally coordination, with these three key components, I believe that Amber will thoroughly improve her chances for making the touch football team and overall fitness.

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The more efficiently your body delivers oxygen to its tissues, the lower your ventilation rate needs to be. This is why cardiovascular endurance is a vital aspect of fitness for touch football due to the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to deliver oxygen to your body’s tissues. If Amber can improve her cardio vascular endurance she will find fitness a lot more easier and her body will be able to keep up with a lot more as well as being able to cope at high intensity levels for longer and more efficiently. A great test for cardiovascular endurance is the Multi Stage Fitness Test. or more commonly known as the PACER test or Beep Test. during this test you must run continuously between two points 20 metres apart from one side to another. Through the use of a pre recorded tape these runs are synchronised, as the test goes on the beeps between each set interval decreases causing you to move faster between checkpoints.

Being able to change direction quickly and having quick reactive abilities in unpredictable environments is a must for the majority of sports including touch football, agility is best described as a rapid body movement with a change of velocity or direction. A test used for agility is the Illinois Agility Test. To complete this test the athlete must run a red line route as fast as possible.

Being able to smoothly and efficiently enable different parts of the body to work
together is the result of coordination, coordination is an asset when it comes to being
able to flow through a game or sport smoothly without error, practicing your coordination
skills ensures that you are able to simultaneously improve the organisation of the
complex body or activity to enable them to work well together. To test coordination Amber
will patrician in the Wall Toss Test. To complete this test you must place a mark a citron
distance from a wall, say 2-3 metres a person must then stand behind the mark and the
person must then attempt to throw the ball underarm with one hand and when the ball
comes back try and catch it with the opposing hand and then repeat for a curtain amount
of time.

Cardio vascular endurance will help Amber during her striving to achieve her goals of making the touch football team and improving her overall fitness, improved cardio respiratory functioning whilst at rest will have little to no difficulty keeping top with the race for the bodies need for oxygen an fuel. The reason that this is important for ambers chosen sport is, in touch football you need to be able to continuously run and move around on the field, so in order to successfully do so without getting tired, you first must improve your cardio vascular endurance.

Agility is a must for any touch football player, playing touch football Amber will have to be very quick and precise with her movements as well as having the ability to change direction quickly, whilst running with the ball or chasing the opposition, to enable this on the field Amber will have to continuously train to help Improve her agility skills.

One last major aspect of touch is being able to catch/kick the ball as well as passing it with precision to a target, if this is done correctly your team will keep possession for the amount of time that is needed, for this to happen you will need coronation, so basically the ability to have control over our limbs, without this you can kiss any sport good-bye, coordination will come in very helpful on the field. Coordination is needed for tagging the opposition because if Amber didn’t have coordination tagging an opposing player would become very difficult. Touch football requires coordination with catching the ball, kicking the ball and being able to defend and tag others. Amber will need to build up this skill for the basic fundamentals of touch football.

Cardio vascular endurance, agility and ordination are personally the most important aspects for Ambers chosen sport due to the reasons I have stated. If amber is able to master these skills I strongly believe that she has a higher chance of succeeding in her attempt to make the touch football team, as well as upping her fitness game overall.

QUESTION 2 Explain how the FITT principle can be used by Amber’s personal trainer to plan an aerobic training program for her to improve future cardiovascular endurance test results.

The FITT principle can be used by Amber’s personal trainer to plan an aerobic training program by involving all the steps of the FITT principle into a weekly routine to ensure improvements in her cardio vascular endurance and therefore her CVE test results.

The FITT principle consists of frequency, intensity, time and lastly type. First off Ambers trainer will start with frequency

Frequency:     

Amber will be exercising between 3 and 5 times per week. By Amber doing this she will train her body to improve her cardiovascular fitness. By Amber performing a high impact activity more than 5 days a week causes potentially cause an high risk of injury.

Intensity:       

Amber will maintain a heart rate of between 60 – 80% of her Maximum Heart Rate, to improve cardio fitness and weight management. This zone is known as ‘zone 2’.

To be able to find the Maximum Heart Rate you will need to calculate by using a Maximum Heart Rate test conducted by a fitness or health professional or estimated using the formula, for a woman in Ambers case

Women: (230 – Age = Maximum Heart Rate).

One of the best ways to help Amber constantly monitor her heart rate is by using a heart rate monitor.

Time:              

Considering that Amber’s level of fitness is quite low currently, it would be best if she maintained her heart rate in her selected target zone for a minimum of 15 to 20 minutes, excluding a warm-up and a cool down period.

This would differ if Amber where amongst those who are much fitter, in which case would be exercising for a minimum of 20 to 60 minutes in her target heart rate zone. This is because Amber’s level of fitness is lower than those who are able to train for longer because of their fitness level that they are currently at. In order for amber to progress to be able to train at high intensity for a longer period of time she must first start with the basics to build up her cardio vascular indurance

Type:              

Amber should participate in exercises that involve as manly muscles as possible and allow a relatively well maintained level of intensity, would be best for this situation. Excellent examples of these include: Walking, Jogging, Cycling, Swimming, Rowing and Hiking. In ambers case she will be participating in jogging and cycling to get her fitness levels up as well as seated rowing because it involves many different muscle groups. If Amber stays consistent with these exercises she will have a well maintained level of fitness intensity.

QUESTION 3 Analyse the immediate physiological responses to training that Amber will experience during her aerobic training sessions.

Whilst going through these exercises amber will start to experience changes in her
heart rate, ventilation rate, stroke volume cardiac output and lactate levels. These changes are all proportional to the intensity of Ambers training. In order for her body to keep itself going during exercise, Amber must provide energy for it, energy is the body’s version of fuel, it is the thing that keeps your body going for longer periods of time. Due to ambers low levels of fitness, her heart rate will continuously rise gradually, due to this occurring it could take some time or even a few hours for a resting heart rate to return to its normal state. A different process can be used for Amber to burn calories for Aerobic training than anaerobic training, although there are many differences which don’t stop there. Your muscles, cells and heart all have cultivated due to different physiological responses to aerobic and anaerobic training.

Amber will experience changes in her muscle which working her muscles during exercise will increase Amber’s body’s demand for oxygen, this is provided by the increasing in blood flow, which is responsible for carrying oxygen to different parts of her body, then to the exerting muscles. In order to supply the increase in blood flow to the muscles that have been worked.

Ambers’s heart must increase the cardiac output, or the amount of blood it will need to pump per minute. by speeding up the rate that the heart beats is how Amber’s cardiac output will be increased.

The lungs will need to work extra hard during exercise, supplying the increased oxygen needed by the muscles being exercised as well as removing all of the excess carbon dioxide that has been produced by the working muscles are the increased demands on the lungs during this.

There are other changes that will occur throughout Amber’s body ensure that Amber’s increased oxygen as well as blood flow make will it to the working muscles,, Ambers organs may experience a decrease in blood flow in the way of constricted blood vessels, this occurs when the blood vessels in the muscles dilate to increase blood flow to all the working muscles during exercise. This change is most directed to the abdominal organs, due to the blood being pushed towards the utilised muscles being used for exercise.

Amber will experience these changes throughout her program in the oncoming weeks at different levels, depending on what stage she is at fitness wise.

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