Public Health approaches to the health care of coal miners in developing countriesMariam Bulia, 2nd semester, 1st group, Tbilisi Medical AcademyIntroductionPublic health approaches to the health care of coal miners is one of the main important problems in developing countries like the republic of India and China, which are two fundamental coal producer countries over the world. China conveyed about 3.6 billion tons of coal in 2012, 47% of the world’s total coal production and India produced 605Mt of coal in 2012, after this fact it became the third biggest coal producer in the world. Additionally the important fact is that, India’s electricity generation’s 68% is made by coal.
Coal mineworkers are people who work and spend the majority of their day tunneling and digging coal from the mines. This kind of life and working style can have serious negative impact on their health and may even lead to their death.Nowadays, the number death toll of miners from China, India and other developing countries rather than developed countries, for example death toll of mineworkers in USA is raising. The main causes of death are accidents and disasters; there are a lot of miners who die due to cancer caused by mining.
Some statistics show that this problem is not approached correctly by the health care department in said countries, and should be changed. In accordance with research, Chinese miners are 350 times more likely to die at their workplace than their American or British colleagues. They are frequently harmed, injured, by having their arms broken, fingers crushed, hands split open by picks and shoulders broken by falling rocks. Others suffer from broken ribs, lung diseases and damaged internal organs.Other researches show that in Indian Coal mines, as Jharkhand, they have miners working on various floors.
These miners have to work and operate the mine for 24 hours, a factor that seriously impacts their health. This issue is a major problem not only in developing countries, but in all countries and regions which can produce coal, like Germany, Ukraine, USA, Kazakhstan, Poland, Russia, and Indonesia. 1 But in the developing countries the issue is more serious, however, since their Public health department has some of the means to prevent at least part of the problems in the mines and ensure the miners’ safety, but they do not have as many means as developed countries like the USA, for example Queensland government created Coal Mine Workers’ Health Scheme, which helps them to protect miner health perfectly, also in Utah, there special hospital for miners to provide their health care.The basic Idea of this research is to examine what public health approaches are being taken in developing countries (focusing on China ; India) and to analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of said approaches to compare which of them has better results for the coal miners.
Research MethodThe main and most important questions which are asked: What is the public health approach, which is being taken to ensure the health care of coal miners in republic of India and China? Besides this, In order to evaluate the effectiveness of said approaches, there must be first analyzed to see what they consist of. After studding this there must be said which one out of the two has better outcomes?Analyzing couple approaches and comparing them can show how effective they are, and which one is more effective.Inclusion CriteriaThe Literature was chosen according following criteria: only articles which are about coal miners, who are people working just in developing countries, exactly China and India. The research method is based on comparative, observational or case studies of Chinese and Indian miners.
All articles which are necessary to ensure and clear the main concept of this research had to be made written in English.FindingsIn this research, for analyzing public health approaches to health care of Chinese and Indian mineworkers, there have been used research studies, documents and articles made in India, China and moreover in the USA. According the fact that, coal mining over the globe is extremely managed industry because of numerous hazards, risks of people’s health, particularly miners, who are working there. Republic of India and China are the cases of both big producer, consumer and importer developing countries over the world.
Ministry of mines is a component of Indian government, that with facilitate of public health system regulates, formulates laws, receives necessary choices to reduce the health hazards of mineworkers and maintain their safety. In India, the coal miners operating processes are overseen by the Mines Act, Mine Rules 1952–1955, furthermore there is Coal Mine Regulation, created in 1957.NIMH is Institute of Miners’ Health in Nagpur, India, set up under Ministry of Mines, Government of Republic of India for promoting and doing prevention of occupational diseases among the individuals employed in mining. The health condition of those mineworkers, situation in their working places, specifically in coal mines are regulated and observed by this institute. This institute offers approach to ensure the health of miners, first of all, gives top-quality technical help services in evaluation, control of workplace risks in mines, supports health and prevent the degree of occupational illnesses among mineworkers and assists administration agencies, mining industry in agree with international standards.
The coal production has long been viewed as one of the most dangerous industries in China, which is world’s largest coal maker and consumer. SAWS is State Administration of Work Safety in China, which with help of Public Health system of china to observe the quality of miners’ health safety in their workplaces, additionally in china there is China coal information institute, that makes decision support for the state administration of coal mine safety. It’s responsibilities are to deliver information on coal mine safety and analyzing all information on coal mine accidents and occupational hazards of miners, arrange mine emergency rescue effects. Despite the approaches that Governments of these countries with their departments and institutes of coal in China and India did, the outcomes unfortunately aren’t great like in developing countries as in USA, Utah, and Queensland. Death of miners in coal mines become the fact of life style. In India Between 2009 and 2013, there had been 752 registered fatalities in mining activities in India, according to the Office of Directorate General of Mines Safety, Ministry of Labor and Employment. According to Indian express news, during the time between January and June 2016 inside India coal mines there have been a death of workers every third day.
In 2017 China saw 219 coal mine accidents, causing 375 deaths, dropping by 12 percent and 28.7 percent year on year, severally, as indicated by the country’s top coal mine safety watchdog. According those research studies, after creating Institute of Miners’ in republic of India, the death toll numbers have started to drop, reduced and has better outcome than state administration of work safety and coal in China.DiscussionAccording all data and information, gathered towards public health approaches to the health care of coal miners in China and India, there can be discussed that, in these mentioned countries coal industry is one of the most important energetic source for their population, but the coal mines still are being places famous with their workers death and these is remaining very serious and problematic for both governments.
Moreover, there can be said that In these developing countrys’ governments and public health departments made some decisions, some approaches to solve this problems but the unfortune reality is that it’s not enough, and death toll number isn’t changing positevely like developed countries, USA, Queensland. In China and India there aren’t exist some medical clinics specially for their workers, people who are damaged during working time, also there aren’t some medical schemes and health insurances, which can protect these people’s health, miners which have very high chances for damaging, injuring and harming their health, this is a real fact that they sacrifing theirselfes and making their countries energetically provided In conclusion, if there is done comparative analyzing, that which one of them approaches can be judged as best resulted, Chinese or Indian approaches, somehow both of them have the same percentage numbers of reducing death toll of miners, there approaches aren’t enough for preventing these hazards caused by coal mining. The facts are that after creating laws by Indian ministry of mines, coal mine regulations and rules the miners are feeling safety rather in the past but not like miners in developed countries, also Chinese miners with help of administration of work safety, are not harmed as seriously as before controlling their working processes and overlooking their problems by this organization.ReferencesSafety in Coal Mines. Government of India’s ministry of coal’s website. June 2018. https://coal.
nic.in/content/safety-coal-mines In pictures: India’s coal miners. BBC news website. August 2014. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-28784100 Robb Kendrick: Life in India’s Coal Mines. National Geographic website.
March 2014. https://www.nationalgeographic.
com/photography/proof/2014/03/28/robb-kendrick-life-in-indias-coal-mines/ Dr. Rabindra Garada, Coal Mining Environment and Health Problems: A Case of MCL affected Households at Talcher, Odisha (India). IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 5, Ver.
1, 2015. DOI: 10.9790/0837-20518998Coal giants: the world’s biggest coal producing countries. Mining Technology Website. March 2014. https://www.mining-technology.com/features/featurecoal-giants-the-worlds-biggest-coal-producing-countries-4186363/ The dangers of mining around the world.
BBC news Website. October 2010. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-11533349, Coal Mine Workers’ Health Scheme (formerly Coal Board Medical).
Queensland Government Website. May 2018. https://www.business.qld.gov.au/industries/mining-energy-water/resources/safety-health/mining/medicals/coal-boardTHE MINERS HOSPITAL AT UNIVERSITY OF UTAH HEALTH. Health University of Utah Website.
Visited July 2018. https://healthcare.utah.edu/miners_hospital/#overviewSafe Mines and Healthy Miners. National Institute of Miners’ Health Website.
2010. http://www.nimh.gov.in/GoalandObjective.htmlNational Institute of Miners Health (NIMH), Nagpur. Ministry of Mines, Government of India Website.
2015-2016. https://mines.gov.in/UserView/index?mid=1412Jiuchang Wei, The Effectiveness of Chinese Regulations on Occupational Health and Safety: A Case Study on China’s Coal Mine Industry, Journal of Contemporary China, Volume 25, 2016 – issue 102. June 2018. DOI: 10.1080/10670564.2016.
1186369. Safety concerns: Inside India’s mines, a worker dies every 10 days. Indian express Website.
June 2016. https://indianexpress.com/article/business/business-others/safety-concerns-inside-indias-mines-a-worker-dies-every-10-days-2828182/Inside India’s mines: Between Jan and June 2016, a death every third day. Indian express Website.
November 2016. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-news-india/inside-indias-mines-between-jan-and-june-2016-a-death-every-third-day-4365075/ China reports fewer coal mine accidents, deaths in 2017. The State council, The people’s republic of china website.
January 2018. http://english.gov.
cn/state_council/ministries/2018/01/30/content_281476030560486.htm, Jitendra Pandey Et. Al., Environmental and socio-economic impacts of fire in Jharia coalfield, Jharkhand, India: an appraisal, Current science Journal 110(9):1639 · May 2016. DOI: 10.18520/cs/v110/i9/1639-165017 dead in Xinjiang coal mine explosion.
China Labour Bulletin website. July 2014. http://www.clb.org.hk/en/content/17-dead-xinjiang-coal-mine-explosion