Problems or issues
There are Air Pollutant Index (API) under the Ministry of Energy, Science, Technology, Environment & Climate Change in Malaysia. The one that calculated and monitored and measured the air surrounding by an index of number in 5 stages. Pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels emitted by vehicles is one of the main cause for air pollution in Malaysia. In 2011, Malaysian roads witnessed more than 21 million registered vehicles and that number is very likely to be higher now and all those cars are producing dangerous gases that is detrimental to our health. Another alarming issue is the annual visit by the haze from Indonesia. I am not solely blaming Indonesia alone as there are also open burning happening elsewhere, but when it causes a regional conflict it is a matter that must be handled comprehensively. (Teng, A serious case of air pollution, 2016)
Water pollution in Malaysia are the most fundamental environmental issue in Malaysia. There are three major traditional industries which are tin mining, natural rubber and palm oil that lead to water pollution. River pollution are one of the largest threat in Malaysia. The sources of pollution come from domestic and industrial sewerage, effluents from livestock farms, manufacturing and agro-based industries, suspended solids from mining, housing and road construction, logging and clearing of forest and heavy metals from factories. Urbanisation significantly contributes to the increase in water pollution problems, especially in the form of sedimentation, solid waste, rubbish, and organic pollution. Urban development usually removes forests within a basin that results in soil erosion and sedimentation. Inefficient waste disposal systems and lack of proper sanitation facilities lead to waste and sewage ending up in rivers. (M.N., 2011)
Solid Waste Managements
The Malaysian population has been increasing at a rate of 2.4% per annum or about 600,000 per annum since 1994. With this population growth, the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation also increases, which makes MSW management crucial. (Latifah Abd Manaf,Mohd Armi Abu Samah,Nur Ilyana Mohd Zukki, 2009). They will be more and increasing in number of waste disposal throughout each year especially without any action was taken to reduce the number of waste were made.
In 2016, the quantity was 38,200 tons/day (recycling rate: 17.5 percent). As reported, food waste is a major component of generated waste (45 percent) and contains high organic compounds. Due to unseparated waste, more than 30 percent potentially recyclable materials such as paper, plastic, aluminum and glass are still directly disposed of in landfills. In addition, diapers are evolving into a major component (12.1 percent).
Global warming is caused by human activities. Electricity generation is one of the main course of global warming. The lack of the usage of renewable energy and eco-friendly fuel can increase the greenhouse effects. Not only that, the activities such logging, open burning, increasing of transportation, residential buildings, and industrial pollution could lead to thinning the ozone layer.
Malaysia used to have the highest rate of deforestation in the world. The rate of forest lost are about 14.4% in Malaysia than the other country such Laos that only 5.3 in forest lost in year 2000-2012. (Butler, 2013). Malaysia is destroying the forest more than three times faster than other ASIA country a year. In 1960, 1.2 million cubic meters of rain forest timber was cut in Sarawak. The rate increased ever year after that. In year 1991 saw the most intense logging, 19.4 million cubic meters of logs were cut. At that time scientists warned that if current deforestation rates continued there would be natural forest left in 50 years. In the 1990s Malaysia had 47 million acres of natural forest and another 12 million acres of rubber and palm oil plantation. Combined, they covered 75 percent of Malaysia’s territory. In Sabah between 45 to 74 percent of the trees left after logging have been damaged or destroyed. (Hays, 2015)
One of the major weakness in this policy are lack of publicity. Undeniable that lots of ministers and government agencies took part in implementing the policy. Many programs and activities were held especially campaign among youngsters. The problem is that many people are not aware about the environmental due lack of publicity of the policy. Furthermore, people that are stayed in rural area only know a few activities that had been publicize through main channel of media such as newspaper, radio and television. Not only that, either in urban or rural area, the ways of it were publicize were not entertaining and interesting. The creativity of commercializing the programs and activities could attract more people especially among youngsters and kids. Indirectly, those kids and youngsters will be accompanied by their parents and the family. Although many ways were made to publicize, still there are many people that are not aware of the environmental. Many programs were made such No Plastic Bag Day in Saturday but they still demand for plastic bag. (Siti Mazwin Kamaruddin*, 2016)
Besides that, this policy must be enforcement of law. In order to control the behavior of people to protect the environment.