Prevention of overweight and obesity in children promotion program.
The purpose of this paper is to create a special Health Promotion Program to motivate a healthy lifestyle among children stimulating for the conscious, purposeful work of the person to restore and develop life resources, to take responsibility for their own health, so that a healthy lifestyle becomes a natural need.
Reducing a person’s overweight is an important thing for his healthy life.A person need to visit a nutritionist/dietologist, follow a meal plan and try to be physical active,but the prevention of overweight and obesity in children’s entire community is a completely different,essential topic, that requires a special Health Promotion Program. Overweight and obesity have become the biggest health problem of the United State. Today, there are a lot of reasons to say, that the problem of overweight and obesity has become rampant, and the number of overweight people in the world population is growing rapidly. The urgency of the problem is confirmed by a large number of studies in this area and the introduction of various programs to reduce calorie foods. The social significance of the overweight and obesity problem is determined by the threat of children’s disability and decrease of the overall life expectancy because of the frequent development of severe concomitant diseases – type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and related diseases, reproductive dysfunction, cholelithiasis, osteochondrosis. Obesity brings down the resistance to colds and infectious diseases, increases the risk of complications of surgical interventions and injuries.
Unfortunately,the society has not realized the need to create and implement the programs of the prevention children’s overweight and obesity yet. Meanwhile, the modern community provokes the development of obesity in people who eat a lot of high-calorie food with high fat and lead a sedentary lifestyle thanks to technical progress.
Children aged 0 –18 years are the priority task in the program. Childish overweight and obesity is a serious health problem today. It is said about it on television, in the Iinternet, in magazines. Unfortunately, the number of obese adolescents and children continues to grow over the past twenty years. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 18.5% of U.S. children and adolescents aged 2–19 years have obesity, including 5.6% with severe obesity, and another 16.6% are overweight from 2016 .( Cheryl D., Margaret D., ) So it means that around 1 in 3 children in United States is overweight or obese! Scientists and doctors are worried about this trend. If we didn’t find the key to the solution of this problem, children might suffer from many diseases in the future, like heart diseases triggered by high cholesterol and / or high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, asthma, apnea (snoring) in a dream, respiratory, musculoskeletal, digestive and other body systems. Obesity is also associated with many other unpleasant effects,for example,the children’s overweight and obesity can lead to the social discrimination. Overweight teenagers and children are in risk because of their susceptibility to obesity and overweight in adulthood. Some of the reasons of overweight in adolescence and childhood are psychosocial. Such children are often represented a target of early and systematic social discrimination. The psychological stress of such social stigma causes low self-esteem, which can impede the development of knowledge and the normal healthy development of the child’s personality and it persists in adulthood.
Risk factors for children’s obesity:
unbalanced or inadequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy
cessation of breastfeeding to the age of six
early adult nutrition
insufficient amount of vegetables and fruits in the daily diet
increased sugar copnsuming
eating while watching television, movies, cartoons
Of course, the main symptom of obesity is noticeable – it is overweight. If the disease occurs in young children, the emersion of such symptoms is not excluded: developmental delay; constipation; tendency to allergic reactions; low activity; infectious diseases (more often than peers); fat on different parts of the body;shortness of breath; high blood pressure; loss of interest in physical activity.There are generally accepted methods of treating obesity: it is a balanced diet, increased physical activity, drug therapy (only on the recommendation of a doctor and again on the background of the diet, there are no “magic pills”), and all in all, surgical treatment.( )
The goals of the Health Promotion Program are to minimize and to prevent childish overweight and obesity, to educate, to promote and to set policies that will lower the number of overweight and obese children in the community. So I will focus on education and prevention methods in community which give more information for teaching children and their parents how to eat properly; motivate physical activity behaviors and healthy lifestyle; promote the breastfeeding as a protective factor and healthy breakfast. I’ll concentrate on work with low-income and at-risk communities, tell how to do healthier lifestyles and food choices; elaborate school programs for extracurricular physical activities.
Actions should be taken both at the micro and macro levels and in different environmental conditions. Special attention should be paid to actions on the individual and family level, local communitiy, preschools and schools, health and social services. Activities in this direction should also be carried out at the local, country and international levels, providing support to people and encouraging them to take responsibility for their health by active using of the proposed opportunities for them.
The state government should offer the funding to support the program against childish overweight and obesity and give credits for families with low income, so they can afford healthy meals for their children. Restaurants and fast food places have to list calories per serving on their menus. A big responsibility lies on the media. The media takes responsibilities for education families about health risks of unhealthy diet and non-active lifestyle. Social network, brochures, billboards also need to popularize healthy and active living among the children.
On the social level we need to maintain a healthy lifestyle and physical activities. Overweight is usually the result of an unbalanced diet or the wrong diet. Food is a source of energy and a building material for children. Physical activity should be a must-have lifestyle companion for children too. Physical activity tones muscles, strengthens bones, burns calories, allows you to normalize and activate the blood supply to the brain, increases the contractile function of the myocardium. Reserve capillaries are revealed.So the community need to build more trails,play grounds,parks,camps for the summer time.Free nutritionist’s lectures,healthy cooking classes for kids and their parents,creating networks and initiative groups to ensure access to healthy food and opportunities for children’s physical activity could be a good idea. The promotion of farmer’s markets at the community is necessary because fruits and vegetables are very useful for healthy, they also reduce the risk of gaining excess weight by two times.( )Marathons every month,sport events and competitions,swimming,playing different games can be a good motivator in the fight against overweight and obesity.
In the last 30-35 years, the number of calories produced by the consumption of liquids has doubled. Today American teens consume more soda water than their peers ten years ago. Sweet soda water plays a significant role in children’s weight gaining. The basis of it, besides of water, is sugar and this is pure carbohydrates. They are easily digested and give a feeling of saturation, but for a very short time kids have sugar addiction. Therefore, children want to drink soda water all the time which helps to weight gain. (Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM.) We need special actions to reduce the sale of sweetened drinks at childcare centers, preschools and in school canteens. It is necessary to install drinking water fountains everywhere.
To combat the obesity epidemic among children it is necessary to stimulate healthy eating and physical activity at schools. Due to the fact that children and adolescents spend a significant part of their life at school, the environment around them is an ideal place for acquiring knowledge and skills for healthy choices. As a role model a teacher can have a big impact on a student’s lifestyle.
It is also necessary to conduct special lessons on healthy eating. To teach a person how to choose products that do not destroy your body is better in childhood. Children have not formed eating habits yet, and it is easier to influence them. Healthy nutrition classes in an interactive form can be conducted by volunteers ,for example, by students.Schools must provide greater access to healthy food in schools through school food programs (for example, breakfast, lunch and / or snacks at reduced prices); install vending machines with pure water and healthy foods such as dairy products, juice, fruits and vegetables, sandwiches and low-fat snacks; offer a variety of daily physical education classes considering needs, interests and abilities of students; do some physical activities during the breaks (competitive and non-competitive sports events); ensure that students and communities have access to appropriate places and equipment for physical activity; encourage students, teachers, parents and the community to be physically active; organise safe, non-motorized transportation to school and other public events, walking groups for children.
The health services for students need to control and give tips, treat children with overweght and obesity and refer them to appropriate specialists.
Parents can influence their children’s behavior.So it is very important to educate parents and give them right information about healthy lifestyle.The breastfeeding prevents the development of obesity in a child. According to American experiment , the longer the child was breastfed, his body weight was less than by those who were nourished only with artificial mixtures. These results were obtained regardless of the average weight of the child or his height. The chosen diet at early age has the huge impact on the weight of the child and it’ll be developed obesity.So it is necessary to have breastfeeding rooms in public places like malls,airports,train stations. it has to be a part of every institiotion or corporation.
The purpose of this study is to pay attention to big problem of modern children. It’s childish obesity. There are a lot of kids who have health problems because of overweight. They have plenty of temptations such as fizzy sweety drinks, fast food,chips,sweets and many others. They sometimes don’t control themselves. Obesity can lead to the social discrimination. Another problem of this illness is inactivity of teenagers. . Physical activity should be a must-have lifestyle companion for children. They become more addictive from their gadgets. Parents, community,government should help the future generation. So it is very important to educate parents and give them right information about healthy lifestyle. It is hoped this study will inform about a special Health Promotion Program which helps lead healthy lifestyle among children and their parents.