Present study worked on cellulase and hemicellulase production on supplementation of surfactants from white rot fungi (G. gibbosum). The non ionic surfactants were assumed to increase the permeability of cell membrane as well as promote the release of cell bound enzymes (Pardo 1996). An increase in cellulase activity was recorded after addition of various surfactants (Tween 20, 60, 80 and Triton X). Results showed that tween 80 enhances maximum ?-glucosidase and CMCase production, while for FPase Tween 20 resulted into better surfactant. Like our result Tween 80 was also reported to be best surfactants by other researchers (Pardo 1996; Reese and Maguire 1969). Reese and Mauire also reported a significant increase in cellulase activity in presence of tween 80. In our results increase in ?-glucosidase and CMCase activities in presence of tween 80 were (24.97 and 8.0 IU/g) respectively amounting around 1.2 and 1.3 fold increase over there control conditions and FPase activity (6.17IU/g) was found to be increased about 1.2 fold over the control on addition of tween 20. Increase in cellulase and hemicellulase activity was observed which is due to increase in the cell membrane permeability and release of the bound enzymes (Fig) shows slight enhancement in enzyme activity on supplementation of surfactants. Addition of non ionic surfactants had a positive effect on secreted enzyme yield. Similar results were found i.e the studies of A. fumigatus and Melanocarpus sp., that cellulase secretion was improved with the addition of surfactants (Jatinder et al 2006; Soni et al 2010). The optimized conditions offers high level of production of enzymes, the enzyme production level were improved significantly ranging from 1.2 – 2.1 times, especially for ?-glucosidase where production was increased 2.1 times of that before optimization. Soni et al., 2010 also reported approximately 1.6 times improved endoglucanase, FPase and ?-glucosidase production were improved approximately 1.6 times after optimization of production parameters in A. fumigates. Narra et al 2012 also reported 1.5 times increase in FPase after optimizing conditions in A. terreus. For xylanase production from Ganoderma sp on wheat bran Triton 100 was found to be the best, resulted into 245.95 IU/g, which was around 1.12 fold more compared to control. FPase and CMCase activity was very low in comparision to ?-glucosidase activity when compared with control conditions. FPase and CMCase do not show any appreciable amount of enzyme production (Fig). Effect of metal ions (Cu2+ and Mn2+) on cellulase and hemicellulase production from G.gibbosum on wheat bran was also tested. From the result it was found that cellulase and hemicellulase activity increases on supplementation of metal ions. FPase activity increases at all four concentrations but maximum activity recorded at 0.1 mM Cu2+concentration which were around 1.32 fold compared to control. However Mn2+ does not induce FPase activity at any concentration. Enzyme activity inhibition has been reported previously by ( Tao et al., 2010; Dutta et al., 2008; Shanmughapriya et al., 2010), which may be related to the fact that certain group attack at the active site of enzyme such as thiol group that may lead to inactivation (Tao et al., 2010). Cu2+ and Mn2+ were found to stimulate ?-glucosidase activity around 1.19 and 1.06 fold at 0.1 and 0.2mM concentration respectively, while CMCase increased upto 1.48 and 1.39 fold with Cu2+ and Mn2+respectively at 0.3mM concentration. In case of xylanase activity around 1.19 and 1.06 increases was recorded with Cu2+ and Mn2+ at 0.1 and 0.2mM concentration respectively.
- The San Bernardino Shooting took place on December 2