POLLUTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT – the introduction of new, not characteristic for it physical, chemical and biological agents or excess of their natural level.
MAIN TYPES OF POLLUTION
(thermal, noise, electromagnetic, light, radioactive)
(heavy metals, pesticides, plastics and other chemicals)
(biogenic, microbiological, genetic)
Physical pollution is pollution associated with changes in the physical parameters of the environment. Depending on which parameters exceed the MPC, the following types of physical contamination are distinguished:
– radiation ..
Temperature (thermal) pollution.
An important meteorological element of the environment is the temperature, especially when combined with high or very low humidity and wind speed: when the wind is strong and the air humidity is high, the cold days seem even colder (this contributes to the person’s overcooling, total freezing or frostbite), and hotter more hot. At high ambient temperature, increased humidity causes discomfort, the excretory function is disrupted, and the efficiency of heat recovery by thermal conductivity and heat radiation decreases. Under such conditions, there is a threat of overheating of the body with a simultaneous violation of the function of blood circulation and respiration.
excess of the content of chemicals over the natural level or the emergence of new chemical compounds as a result of anthropogenic impact on the biosphere, causing a change in the natural chemical properties of the environment. Sources of chemical pollution are industrial emissions of toxic substances into the atmosphere, solid waste from various industries, untreated sewage from industrial and communal enterprises, pesticides and agrochemicals used in crop production, etc. Chemical pollution poses a threat to the state of the environment and human health.
Accumulation of persistent chemicals that are almost not destroyed in nature, as well as substances that have natural mechanisms of decomposition or assimilation (fertilizers, heavy metals, etc.), in quantities exceeding the ability of the biosphere to process them, disrupts natural systems developed during a long evolution and communication in the biosphere, undermines the ability of natural complexes to self-regulation.
Under the biological pollution of the environment is most often understood as pollution by its pathogenic organisms, i.e. the introduction of uncharacteristic species of living organisms ( rotting products, mold, viruses, animal wool, dust mites, cockroaches, pollen ) that impair the conditions for the existence of biocenoses or have a negative impact on human health in the ecosystem as a result of economic activity .
Biological pollution causes a person a variety of diseases. These are pathogens, viruses. They can be in the atmosphere, water, soil, in the body of other living organisms, including the person himself.
The most dangerous pathogens of infectious diseases. They have different stability in the environment. Some are able to live outside the human body for only a few hours; being in the air, in the water, on different objects, they quickly perish. Others can live in the environment from several days to several years. For the third, the environment is a natural habitat. For the fourth – other organisms, for example wild animals or humans, are a place of conservation and reproduction.