Parenting can be very stressful. Whether you stay at home parent or a working parent ,single parent, mother or father ,parent of single child or several children . A single parent usually refers to a parent who has most of the day to day responsibilities in the raising of the child , which would make them as the dominant caregiver who is not living with a partner, or those who are not married. The authoritative caregiver is the parent in which the children have residency with the majority of the time.
If the caregivers are separated or divorced, children have to live with their custodial parent and have a visit with their noncustodial parent.1.1. Status of Women in society.
The concept of equal status of women still appears in books and in words. Some recent studies have suggested that the women’s status is the single most considered and comprehending situation in India ( Mirta, 1978, Dyson ). Several previous studies have defined women’s status in its own ways. Education, employment, salary, and nature of work etc (Silpa 1975, Chaudhary 1977, Bhargava & Saxena 1987) are the basic ground for measuring women’s status. However an individual woman’s status in the society can be determined by her composite status which can be identified by her economic conditions ,physical appearance, the knowledge she have and how mush is she educated. In India, divorce and marital separation are socially disapproved and widows suffer from social discrimination even today. There has been a major increase in divorce rates in India during the last decade.
The percent divorced was 0.74 percent in 1991 and 1.01 percent in 2001 (Census of India, 2001).It convey that widows suffers a lot of problems while living in a Indian society ,they pleed to be considered as normal human beings. They say that they don’t want any special consideration from the government or society .
They just want to live happily with their children in which ever place they live.1.2. Situations of Single mothers Consequences faced by children of single parent families include less support, greater percentage of high school dropout, less parental attention and supervision at home, and less money for their needs. Work is the major cause of conflict and many and various types of stress among single working mothers.
It is associated with long, irregular, tough working hours, travel long away from home, and fear of illness, occupation, and loose of patience from work to family and family to work (Pleck, 1985).Single motherhood is associated with higher percentage of poverty rates and higher rates of welfare programmes among women. It is also associated with higher rates of depression, unhappiness, low self-esteem and poor health (McLanahan and Booth 1989; Seltzer 1994; Brown and Eisenberg 1995).
Results prove that early childbearing has similar consequences for married and unmarried mothers .Labor force participation of poor, uneducated, single mothers may increase their stress, depression, guilt, and anxiety, and result in more irritable, less organized, less consistent, less warm, or more demanding parenting (Wilson et al. 1995).
Such parenting has been associated with adverse cognitive and behavioral child outcomes (Aber et al. 1995)Bauman (2000) found that employment of at least one household member is associated with lower levels of material hardship for households with married parents, but that hardship increases with employment for unmarried parent households. Those findings were consistent with ethnographic evidence describing serious challenges faced by working poor families in coping with work and family demands (Edin ; Lein 1997).