Topic: BusinessManagement

Last updated: May 2, 2019

Pakistan is stretched over an area of 796,095 km2 between longitude 60o 52′ to 75o 22′ E, and latitude 24o to 37o N, from snowy mountains of world’s highest peaks in Himalayas in the north, descending to touch the arid coast of the Arabian Sea in the south. Amphibians are scattered throughout northern and western mountains, Balochistan tableland and arid plains of Punjab and Sindh are unusually wide range of habitats co-inhibiting with wide assemblage of amphibian and reptile species (vol1,2010).

Biodiversity refers to all species of plants, animals and micro-organisms existing and interacting within an ecosystem. Humanity depends upon components of biodiversity for all of its food and much of its medicine and industrial products. Global biodiversity is increasingly threatened by human domination of natural ecosystems and concomitant impacts that accelerate rates of population and species extinction, and homogenization through invasion (Khan, 2006).Herpetiles are the important members of environment and have important position in pyramids.

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They control the population of many insects and pests, and themselves are source of food for many predators. Amphibians and many reptiles transfer nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems and if they are removed from any ecosystem, the algae communities, invertebrate populations, predator dynamics, leaf litter decompositions and nutrient cycling can be affected (Khan, 2006). Amphibian are the second class of vertebrates (tetrapodes) and they have both character living in water as well as terrestrial. In the world amphibians are represented by about 7481 species divided into three major clades, viz., Caudata (Salamander), Anura (Frog) and Gymnophiona (Caecilian). Clade Caudata com prises of 698 known species having both aquatic and land dwelling members.

Most diverse clade representing class Amphibia is the order Anura numbering almost 6577 species. The third group Gymnophiona includes about 206 species of sessile and nearly blind organisms (etal 8)Basically Amphibians have cosmopolitan distribution apart from Antarctica. Temperate areas of South America, most of Australian continent, West Indies, and most Oceanic islands of the world hold low amphibian distribution (et al 11) . Diversity refers to the extent, diversity and distribution across biological scales ranging through genetics and life forms of populations, species, communities and ecosystems (etal4)Ecosystem services In the face of global amphibian declines, it has become increasingly critical to identify trends in amphibian population genetic structure to inform conservation planning. An estimated 32 % of amphibian species are currently threatened with extinction, with over 42 % showing population declines (IUCN, Conservation International, and Nature Serve. The primary factors implicated in these declines include habitat alteration, overharvest, invasive species, climate change and disease (etal 18)This point is central to our discussion and, therefore, we discuss it here in some detail. Many amphibian species in natural environments can be considered to form meta-populations 43,53 due to their requirements for non-continuous habitat types (e.g.

, ponds). The gene flow and colonisation dynamics that characterise meta-population systems ensures that equilibrium between founding and extinction of localised populations is maintained (e.g., 54).etal 15 The different species of frog, is the most widespread anuran species of Europe inhabiting all kinds of permanent and temporary waters from northern Spain to subarctic Fennoscandia, and all the way to the Ural mountains in the east (Gasc et al., 1997). In Scandinavia, it breeds in the shallow zone of the water bodies in early spring just after the ice-melt.

It is an explosive breeder, and the spawn is aggregated from a few up to several thousands of clutches, each consisting of ca. 700–3000 eggs (et al 1) In many country, as it is mostly found in disturbed habitats created by man, such as flooded paddy fields, plantations, and irrigation ditches. The species is widely distributed in Southeast Asia (Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Myanmar), hence suggesting complexity within the species as observed in other widely distributed Southeast Asian frogs (e.g., Stuart et al. 2006, Inger et al.

2009). However, no diagnostic morphological differences were reported among populations.Physiological, morphological and genetically variations were seen in populations of species that occurred in different habitat, these variations were created in response to contrasting environmental conditions (etal 6).

Molecular genetic analyses are exceptionally well suited for this task. Many amphibians are difficult or impossible to observe directly in the field: most species are nocturnal, and the vast majority spend significant portions of their lives underwater, underground, or in otherwise cryptic habitats. Information regarding population size and landscape use by animals has traditionally been gathered through direct observation (et al17)This group characterized by a high diversity in colour phenotype exemplified by black and yellow M. madagascariensis, the uniformly golden orange M.aurantiaca , and more criptic M.crocea .This goal the study was contribute to relationship and phylogeography with species of M. madagascariensis grouf base on 2.

8kbp of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. In the addition we examined haplotype variation in cytochrome b gene (etal 12) Observation of genetic structure in pond-breeding amphibians have shown that some species may show significant genetic structure across small geographical distances whereas others show little structure across similar scales (etal 7) The diversity comes from random mutation, larger geographic separation, separation over time between populations, relatively stable isolating mechanisms acting on the population, and the habitat’s climate gradient, and different biotic and abiotic conditions between habitats (etal 9)To complement these findings, we analyzed the genetic characteristics of P. moratoi populations, using microsatellite markers, in order to estimate the genetic diversity, inbreeding levels, and effective size of populations; ii) characterize the spatial genetic structure and gene flow between populations; and integrate the results into management recommendations for the conservation of this species. etal10Hedges and Maxson ( 1993) demonstrated that a region of the mitochondrial 12s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is useful for elucidating aspects of amphibian phy- logeny. Although 32 families were sampled in that study, only 333 aligned nucleotide sites were examined. For phylogenetic analyses involving such a large number of lineages, it is important to increase the size of the data set to provide better statistical resolution of phylogenetic relationships.

Accordingly, we now expand that earlier work (Hedges and Maxson 1993), analyzing those 12s rRNA sequences together with approximately 850 nu- cleotides of the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene. Also, sequences of three anuran taxa (Bombina, Mantellidae, and Pseudidae) were added for both gene regions. Etal 16Following is the checklist of amphibian and reptile species that, so far, have been recorded and described in the major works on the herpetology of the subcontinent from the areas now included in Pakistan (Günther, 1864; Murray, 1884, 1886, 1892; Boulenger, 1890, 1896; Smith, 1931, 1935, 1943). Recently described and recorded species from Pakistan are also included in it (Anderson and Leviton, 1966, 1967, 1969; Anderson and Minton, 1963; Cherlin, 1981, 1983; Szczerbak, 1991; Golubev and Szczerbak, 1981; Ingoldby, 1922; Mertens 1969a,b, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1974; Baig, 1988, 1989, 1998, 1999;Baig and Böhme, 1996; Baig and Gvozdik, 1998; Dubois and Khan, 1979; Minton, 1966; Minton and Anderson, J. 1965; Minton et al., 1970; Khan, A.

Q. and Khan, M.S. 1996; Khan, 1972, 1974, 1980, 1984a,b, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993a,b, 1994,1997a,b,c, 1998, 1999a,b, 2000, 2001a,b, 2003a,b; Khan and Baig, 1992; Khan and Khan, R.Z.

, 1997; Khan and Tasnim, 1989, 1990; Khan and Rösler, 1999; Rastegar Pouyani, 1999.{In the Punjab, the variety of amphibian and reptile species are highly populated province especially Kalabagh Game reserve to represent the geographical distribution on earth lengthen to Indus River. Therefore we planned to study the established diversity of amphibian and turtle to provide the information about distribution and habitat of local different species Pakistan work done in different places to protect the resources and biological diversity for functional beneficial for next generation. Provincial and federal authority made national parks, Game reserve, sanctuary and wetland for biological diversity of different fauna and the established cover area is nine million hector ((1999).

In Pakistan scientific community is very weak to take conservation of amphibian and reptiles because they are looking dangerous and fearsome creature. In Pakistan, herpetological surway are dated out. The exploration of amphibian diversity dire needed in different provinces. Our goal was to improve our knowledge about the richness of amphibian species in order to implement immediate action plans to mitigate the causes associated with their decline (etal 5)}


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