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Literature Review: Six Sigma

Introduction
Six Sigma is an imperative progress in quality management and process change over the most recent two decades. Six Sigma has increased wide prevalence in different sorts of associations since the 1990s. Most Fortune 500 organizations have received Six Sigma (Goh, 2002). Rich narrative confirmations demonstrated that Six Sigma can enable firms to accomplish noteworthy execution change. For instance, Motorola revealed $16 billion advantages from Six Sigma for the time of 1986-2001 (Eckes, 2001; Motorola, 2003; Hendricks and Kelbaugh, 1998). Different firms, for example, General Electric (GE), Honeywell, and 3M detailed comparable outcomes (Honeywell, 2002; Arndt, 2004). The advantages of Six Sigma incorporate however are not restricted to cost diminishment, consumer loyalty change, and deals income development (Pande et al., 2000).
Contrasting with its amazing track records in hones, inquire about on Six Sigma was at a fairly low level because of a few reasons. A few researchers see Six Sigma as applying an arrangement of measurable devices and methods (e.g., Das et al., 2008). Normally it’s anything but a genuine research subject. Others trust that Six Sigma is just a repackaging of the outstanding Total Quality Management (TQM) program, i.e., “new container with old wine”. In conclusion, there is an aggregate worry that Six Sigma may be an administration craze. Clearly, considering an administration craze isn’t probably going to make huge commitments to the writing (Abrahamson, 1996). Notwithstanding, as more Six Sigma examples of overcoming adversity were distributed, there is a need to return to the set recognitions around Six Sigma. Subsequently, look into enthusiasm on Six Sigma started to take off (Goh, 2002). As of late, a few papers regarding the matter of Six Sigma have showed up in top diaries. In any case, by and large, investigate on Six Sigma is as yet lingering behind.
Absence of research on Six Sigma has two critical ramifications. In the first place, the worry of Six Sigma being an administration craze has kept numerous researchers from leading thorough research on Six Sigma. Be that as it may, if Six Sigma isn’t an administration trend, this implies we have lost valuable chances to propel learning. Unexpectedly, the inquiry whether Six Sigma is an administration craze must be really replied by thorough research. Second, Six Sigma usage by and large requires a huge number of dollars of venture and long stretches of exertion. Rehearsing directors require logical information to control their Six Sigma execution exertion. Without logical research, the overwhelming assignment of investigating viable execution technique is helpless before experimentation, prompting higher shot of Six Sigma disappointment. Along these lines, the direness of directing more research on Six Sigma can be unmistakably observed.
Background of six Sigma
Six Sigma was created at Motorola in the 1980s (Barney, 2002). The creation was roused by the mind-boggling expense of low quality found at Motorola. In the same way as other organizations around then, it was as high as 15% to 20% of the business income (Crosby, 1979). The generation forms had low capacity. A vast segment of the items neglected to meet client necessity. This prompted scrap, adjust, field administration, or return or review if the item has been now dispatched to the clients. Clearly, if Motorola can enhance its procedure with the goal that not very many inadequate items are delivered, the cost of low quality can be decreased fundamentally. This will straightforwardly add to Motorola’s main concern (Pande et al., 2000). Motorola designs subsequently proposed the idea of Six Sigma, which implies accomplishing a quality standard of under 3.4 deformities for each million opportunities (DPMO). This is an exclusive requirement since the then modern standard is around 35,000 DPMO (Bothe, 2002).
Motorola delighted in the achievement brought by Six Sigma. Subsequently, Six Sigma was elevated to numerous Fortune 500 organizations in the 1990s where it additionally helped them accomplish noteworthy outcomes. The rundown included renowned organizations, for example, AlliedSignal (now Honeywell), GE, and 3M. In the meantime, Six Sigma likewise experienced critical development. Especially, GE improved Six Sigma with numerous new practices. GE later guaranteed that Six Sigma has turned into an indispensable piece of its business culture and system (Barney, 2002). GE’s prosperity additionally spread Six Sigma from little to medium measured organizations. Two decades since its commencement, Six Sigma is never again only a deformity rate measure. It has a measurements center, a thorough change technique, and a special arrangement of practices (Breyfogle et al., 2001; Pande et al., 2000).
Definition of Six Sigma
From the different definitions found in the surveyed distributions, it was conceivable to distinguish no less than four surges of thought of Six Sigma. The principal definition characterizes Six Sigma as an arrangement of measurable instruments received inside the quality administration to develop a structure for process change (Goh, 2002). The goal is to upgrade the Six Sigma level of execution measures alluded to as the Critical to Quality (CTQ) which mirrors the client prerequisites through a gathering of instruments for the examination of the information. Measurable instruments recognize the primary quality marker which is the Parts per Million (PPM) of nonconforming items (Mitra, 2004). Accomplishing a Six Sigma level means having a process that creates yields with under 3.4 damaged parts for every million (Coleman, 2008; Anand et al, 2007). Here, Six Sigma is perceived as a critical thinking strategy that utilizations quality and measurable apparatuses for essential process changes however not fundamentally an extensive administration framework.
The second definition characterizes Six Sigma as an operational rationality of administration which can be shared advantageously by clients, investors, representatives and providers (Chakrabarty and Tan, 2007). Because of its adaptability, Six Sigma application isn’t constrained just to assembling however can be stretched out to the entire store network which incorporate the arrangement of administrations. It is, as indicated by Yang et al (2007), valuable to uphold a more trained approach towards store network activities to characterize and execute them all the more thoroughly. Six Sigma is additionally characterized as a multifaceted, client arranged, organized, efficient, proactive and quantitative philosophical approach for business change to build quality, accelerate the conveyances and lessen costs (Mahanti and Antony, 2005).
The third definition characterizes Six Sigma as a business culture. This stream contends that the achievement of Six Sigma does not depend just on factual devices and methods but rather likewise on the responsibility of the best administration to ensure the contribution of the representatives in the association. Markarian (2004) thinks about Six Sigma as a thorough best down system which requests point by point investigation, actuality-based choices and a control intend to guarantee progressing quality control of a procedure. This authoritative angle is likewise appeared in crafted by Pheng and Hui (2004), who characterize Six Sigma as a ‘social furthermore, conviction’ framework which directs the association in repositioning itself towards world class business execution by upgrading truthful basic leadership. Comparative definition is given by Schroeder et al (2008) who think about Six Sigma as a sorted-out structure utilizing process change masters with the point of accomplishing vital targets.
The fourth definition alludes Six Sigma to as an investigation procedure that uses the logical techniques. Banuelas and Antony (2004) and Thawani (2004) consider it as a very much organized constant change system to diminish process changeability and evacuate squander inside the business forms. Six Sigma is asserted by different authors as a prevalent and generally utilized quality change system. Kumar et al (2007) contend that Six Sigma is an expansion to quality change activities, for example, the Total Quality Management (TQM) due to the similitudes between the Six Sigma technique for Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) and the Deming’s PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Act). Utilizing the DMAIC technique successively can help coordinate human perspectives (culture change, preparing, client center) and process angles (process soundness and capacity, variety decrease) inside the Six Sigma usage (Antony et al, 2005).
Implementation of Six Sigma
Al-Mishari and Suliman (2008) propose three conceivable ‘entrance ramps’ or methodologies an association can take to execute Six Sigma. The first is through a business change approach where an association experiences finish change to change over its customary technique for working to recapture lost clients or to defeat the substantial misfortunes. The second is the vital change approach constrained to maybe a couple basic business needs concentrating on real openings and shortcomings. The third is a critical thinking approach which concentrates just on relentless issues.
In this regard, a large number of the distributions recommend the Design, Measure, Analyze, Enhance, Control (DMAIC) and the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) strategies as the two most normal systems to actualize Six Sigma, albeit as per Edgeman what’s more, Dugan (2008), the fundamental destinations of the two systems are very unique.
While DMAIC is a critical thinking strategy which goes for process change, DFSS is characterized by Watson and DeYong (2010) as “a procedure to characterize, outline and convey imaginative items give intensely appealing an incentive to clients in a way that accomplishes the basic to-quality attributes for all the huge capacities”. It is thusly obvious from this definition that DFSS is utilized as a part of the setting of new item advancement that spotlights on quality from the earliest starting point (Edgeman and Dugan, 2008). To this end, Mader (2006) trusted that organizations with solid market development furthermore, aggressive position will be in an ideal situation with DFSS (concentrating on item advancement furthermore, advancement), though for organizations with stale market or generally less aggressive, DMAIC is by and large a more ideal decision concentrating on cost lessening, conservation or divestiture.
Applying the two methodologies in various parts of the business all the while is conceivable, regardless of whether the greater part of the distributions checked on exhibited the contextual investigations based on both of them. As a general pattern, numerous associations have now broadened DMAIC to incorporate DFSS (Mader, 2006). Conceivable reason is that numerous organizations regularly prepare their workers in DMAIC first at that point grow it to DFSS which is custom fitted to the unique situation of new item or potentially benefit improvement. In this regard, Banuelas and Antony (2004) expressed that so as to accomplish the Six Sigma figure of 3.4 sections for each million of abandons is to upgrade items, key procedures and administrations by methods for DFSS. This contention is, be that as it may, far from being obviously true as no writing plainly acknowledges or rejects this speculation. In any case, Edgeman and Dugan (2008) contend that both DMAIC and DFSS are immovably established in the logical technique and are from numerous points of view closely resembling the well-known methodologies utilized either by the theory testing or the iterative exploratory plan.
The writing further demonstrates that there are a few varieties for DMAIC (regardless of whether it remains the most regularly received technique, for example, P-DMAIC (Project-DMAIC), E-DMAIC (Enterprise-DMAIC) and DMAICR (DMAIC Report). The distinctions are for the most part as far as the number and sort of stages, instead of the instruments utilized. DMAICR, for example, includes the last advance of “Announcing the advantages of the reengineered process” into DMAIC (Senapati, 2004). Various varieties of DFSS moreover exist, for instance DMADV (Define Measure Analyze Design Verify), DCOV (Design Describe Optimize Verify), IDOV (Identify Design Optimize Validate), ICOV (Identify Describe Optimize Verify) and DMADV (Define Measure Analyze Design Verify), be that as it may, for this situation, there are no huge contrasts among them. The choice of the philosophy, at last, relies upon the particular necessities (Chakrabarty and Tan, 2007) and a few organizations execute Six Sigma at the task level as well as at the venture level (Ward et al, 2008). In these cases, either P-DMAIC or EDMAIC approach is by and large utilized (Breyfogle III, 2008). Watson and DeYong (2010) give a far reaching sequential elective ways to deal with DFSS.
Six Sigma Tools and Techniques
Numerous techniques that can be connected to Six Sigma ventures are accessible both in the writing and public, e.g. Halliday (2005). Albeit the majority of these techniques are as of now understood and connected in different settings, Six Sigma gives a client concentrated, all around characterized strategy upheld by a reasonable arrangement of far reaching instruments for process change (van Iwaarden et al, 2008). Fundamental instruments of DMAIC, regularly utilized at the Yellow-Belt level of ability incorporate flowcharts, check sheets, Pareto charts, cause/impact outlines, scramble graphs, histograms and Statistical Process Control (Ferrin et al, 2005). Further developed apparatuses, for example, relapse investigation (e.g. with marker factors, curvilinear relapse and calculated relapse), speculation testing, control outlines and Design of Experiments normally highlight at the Black-Belt level. This additionally implies Six Sigma might be seen as a blend of existing instruments and procedures accessible well before Motorola built up this approach (van Iwaarden et al, 2008).
Tools are additionally accessible in different structures, for example, models, examination formats and systems (de Koning and de Mast, 2006) and it is this abundance of methods that muddles the procedure, making the need of a vigorous arrangement of what are basic change devices to be utilized inside the DMAIC procedure more self-evident (Brady and Allen, 2006). One vital viewpoint to consider while setting out any Six Sigma venture is that apparatuses should adjust and create as the undertaking develops. Regularly, straightforward apparatuses are sufficient to decrease the imperfections of an intricate assembling framework in the underlying stages (Raja, 2006).
Despite the fact that instruments and procedures change, it is basic to apply the correct apparatus justified circumstance so as to accomplish victories. This maybe legitimizes why it is a normal practice in the writing to list the principle devices inside the five periods of the DMAIC approach. In any case, there is a nonattendance of institutionalized choice strategies to pick the most fitting instruments in a particular setting (Hagemeyer et al., 2006; Williams, 2009; de Koning et al., 2008). In like manner, as put forward by Brady and Allen (2006), discovering writing that gives strategies to particular ventures and the related money related outcomes is frequently troublesome due to the privacy reasons.
Throughout the years, organizations have incorporated various devices into the Six Sigma approach to make them more viable and to wipe out conceivable holes after its application. Such toolsets incorporate measurable and scientific apparatuses both from mechanical building and activities inquire about fields (Bunce et al, 2008). In this example, these apparatuses enhance the pragmatic and mechanical approach with a more grounded hypothetical premise to accomplish a superior hardware and assets use (Maciel Junior et al, 2005). The devices inside the DFSS system are normally not quite the same as those of the DMAIC. Chakrabarty and Tan (2007) assert that DFSS regularly incorporates advancement instruments such as the hypothesis of innovative critical thinking and aphoristic outline which DMAIC does not, in spite of the fact that it could.
One remarkable perception amid the survey was the utilization of recreation strategies inside the ‘Enhance’ stage. In spite of the fact that not some portion of the catchphrase seek, the utilization of reenactment is normally referenced in the papers yet does not reliably show up in the apparatus categorisation records. Recreation is one of the devices meriting unique specify as a developing procedure that can assume an essential part in Six Sigma activity today and is considered by a few creators, for instance McCarthy and Stauffer (2001), to be “essential to the long-haul accomplishment of Six Sigma ventures”. The advancement of PC equipment has empowered the utilization of great reproduction bundles for the Analyze and Improve stages, as it permits critical reserve funds in the Design of Experiments stage by testing arrangements before usage (Gladwin, 2003). Recreation has been exceptionally fruitful on its claim for as far back as twenty years yet this apparatus was not seen as corresponding to Six Sigma and just couple of articles tended to the blend of such instrument and approach. This is not true anymore today, albeit still couple of, a few creators, for example, McCarthy and Stauffer (2001) state in their content that Six Sigma has just conveyed huge outcomes without the advantage of recreation however concur that reproduction could make Six Sigma much more fruitful in the coming years.

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Benefits of Six Sigma
Diminished costs, decreased venture time, enhanced outcomes and enhanced information uprightness are a portion of the advantages of Six Sigma recommended by Ferrin et al (2005). What’s more, the writing has a tendency to break down the procedures used to improve the procedure execution. The approach taken by and large, e.g. by Lin et al (2008) and Antony et al (2005a), is to give the arrangements and the techniques worked by Six Sigma to accomplish sensible changes, giving a learning procedure to chiefs with a specific end goal to take a wide view of the framework and change adequately the business (Thawesaengskulthai and Tannock, 2008). There are numerous advantages that can be gotten from the selection of Six Sigma. It could improve item advancement cycles and process configuration, shorting item lead times by diminishing the process duration of the general assembling process. Six Sigma can be utilized to discover and wipe out the underlying drivers of the issue, so diminishing the changeability in the process with a specific end goal to avert deserts.
There are likewise authoritative ramifications. In reality Six Sigma approachs give rules which could enable the specialists to see how to complete the activity and prepare them to take care of potential issues. As an outcome, they turn out to be more mindful of the generation process along these lines enhancing their resolve and lessening the human-related surrenders (Hong et al, 2007). Concerning the part of Six Sigma in decreasing the deserts, it has been exhibited in a few investigations that the imperfection rate per unit (DPU) is decreased after its execution in assembling frameworks (Kumar et al, 2006).
The selection of Six Sigma has enhanced both the productivity of the line and creation ability, including limiting waste, for example, lessened requirement for assessment, expelled pointless parts and intemperate developments and diminished time for repair (Oke, 2007). Thus, Six Sigma can be utilized to manufacture prescient models in view of encounters assembled from before uncorrected measures to guarantee a consistent change of the procedure (Johnston et al, 2008). Lately, information administration has added to encourage the usage of Six Sigma and has developed as a wellspring of upper hand inside the organizations (Gowen III et al, 2008).
Six Sigma is likewise perceived as a technique that drives the social change to enhance gainfulness of the organization expanding the advantages from funds created at the point when the deformity is distinguished at a beginning time (Antony et al, 2005a). In any case, van Iwaarden et al (2008) express that the way to deal with Six Sigma fluctuates between associations since they incorporate diverse systems as indicated by their necessities, so there may be contradiction viewing the advantages as they rely upon the business and indeed, even the nation where Six Sigma is connected.
Six Sigma likewise enhances the connections outside and inside the association (Kumar et al, 2006). It can fortify the client devotion by fulfilling their necessities what’s more, desires and it fills in as an immediate connect to organization’s administration which makes a difference set up a typical dialect from the board to the shop floor.
Adoption of Six Sigma
Six Sigma has created and experienced critical changes. It at first connected in the assembling division however has now traversed over administration and budgetary divisions (Aghili, 2009). Antony (2007) gathered these progressions into three ages. The original of Six Sigma (1987-1994) was centered around diminishment of deformities and saw accomplishment with Motorola. The second era (1994-2000) was focused on cost lessening and was received by organizations, for example, General Electric, Du Pont and Honeywell. The third era (2000 onwards) is situated to making an incentive for the clients and the endeavor itself and discovers its application inside organizations like Posco and Samsung. This is more situated to administration and business forms including value-based frameworks quality, which considers conveyance times, client holding up time to get administrations, stock administration levels, and so forth.
Despite the fact that the use of Six Sigma in benefit areas is developing, most of the productions checked on talk about the usage and the issues experienced inside the assembling areas. Conceivable clarification of this is, as indicated by Hensley and Dobie (2005), is on account of the administration division is managing impalpable substances, for example, client benefit, i.e. giving the help important to set up great associations with them and going for a productive correspondence to meet their desires, where the achievement is harder to measure. Despite what might be expected, in the producing divisions where a programmed information accumulation is utilized, for instance in mechanical production systems, estimating the effect of the quality control program is significantly less demanding to do. Moreover, vast associations have a tendency to at first presented Six Sigma in their fabricating offices. Simply in the wake of improving their insight about the instruments and strategies to embrace, they step by step spread it to the administration tasks.
Additionally, there is an alternate level of intrigue appeared in the Six Sigma appropriation not just as far as kind of tasks (assembling or administration) yet additionally in terms of organization estimate. Specifically, multinational organizations are regularly answered to have received the full rewards of Six Sigma. Notwithstanding, in light of the undertaking-based approach in DMAIC, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) ought to likewise profit by it (Antony et al, 2005a).
It additionally developed that numerous huge organizations, e.g. Xerox, Fidelity Investments, coordinate Six Sigma with different strategies, for example, Lean (Ranch, 2006; Hensley and Dobie, 2005), Quality Management System (Morgan and Brennig, 2006), and Kaizen/Continuous Change, e.g. Caterpillar (Haikonen et al, 2004). This shows how the accessibility of assets can assume an imperative part in fruitful reception of Six Sigma that can be intensely incorporated different procedures to receive ideal advantages in return (Nonthaleerak, and Hendry, 2008). Besides, Pantano et al (2006) proposed the use of Six Sigma in a bunch of little organizations so they can share their assets and accomplish the required level of contributions as conceivable answer for beat the challenges found in the SMEs.
Six Sigma Enablers
There is little proof in the writing to feature linkage between Six Sigma and association culture in spite of their combinatorial importance in exhibit day assembling or administration associations (Davison and Shagana, 2007). Be that as it may, sound achievement of it is likely in case of ceaseless refinement of culture in association (Kwak and Anbari, 2006). Lee-Mortimer (2007) watched a vast preparing to advance Six Sigma as a significant strategy to battle introductory hesitance towards social change. He likewise proposed that decreasing the levels in authoritative structure may accelerate the reception of Six Sigma culture. Welch (2005) trusted that it is fundamental to make Six Sigma an initiative apparatus for change that ought to saturate into all levels of organizations. The exertion required is to change the way to deal with the execution of Six Sigma ventures from just utilizing an arrangement of apparatuses to the formation of a culture that ought to be profoundly implanted in each representative (Antony, 2004).
Contribution and duty from top administration is the prime empowering agent in expanding level of a Six Sigma program usage (Chung et al, 2008). Moreover, in request to encourage the correspondence inside the association and to help the execution process, Information Technology and cutting-edge Information Frameworks foundation are key. They ceaselessly empower joining of complex errands in getting practical quality change arrangements in a brief span outline (Hsieh et al, 2007). On account of a composed and precise approach, the part of Six Sigma as a ‘administrative apparatus’ for enhancing quality and profitability can be stretched out to a ‘fundamental instrument’ for quality and process control (Han et al, 2008).
Note that Six Sigma does not give a brisk and simple answer for all sorts of assembling issues and the earth in which it is presented (Lee- Mortimer, 2006). Moreover, he additionally recommended that little and medium endeavors ought to step by step embrace Six Sigma as it will help to equitably extend their assets and abilities to get the most out of them. In any case the span of the organization, McAdam and Laffert (2004) concur that strengthening of individuals, association, inspiration, powerful correspondence, reward and acknowledgment framework assume a basic part in the accomplishment of Six Sigma usage. This can be achievable through a transformational initiative, which is useful in persuading workers to achieve supernatural objectives instead of their own interests (Montes and Molina, 2006). This implies adjusting the technique definition, in spite of the fact that the previously mentioned creators propose there are few papers in writing with respect to the reconciliation of Six Sigma point of view and practices into the technique definition process regardless of whether it naturally is a worry for an effective Six Sigma activity.
The linkage between Six Sigma and association culture should be comprehended. Effectively empowering these elements, supporting quality culture among workforce and taking worry for the issues communicated above, will shape enhancements and increment efficiency, consequently making Six Sigma more unavoidable and imperative in both assembling and administration associations.

Relationship of Six sigma and other disciplines
The strain to stay focused by giving an astounding item to fulfill the client prerequisites has prompted a complete investigation of value, speed and readiness inside and outside the organization limits. Existing writing unequivocally distinguishes higher consumer loyalty as a huge advantage from the joining of Lean and Six Sigma ideas (Thomas et al, 2009; Teresko, 2008) however it doesn’t appear agreement about how to make such incorporation. Most of the papers exhibit the DMAIC approach as a guide and recommends to approach Lean devices when proper to complete the two sorts of practices in parallel (Thomas et al, 2009; Proudlove et al, 2008; de Koning et al, 2008). In different cases, a few creators recognized the nonappearance of a fundamental technique to consolidate the two ideas bringing about the execution of Lean and Six Sigma in grouping (Na?slund, 2008; Shah et al, 2008). What is clear what’s more, typical, notwithstanding, is that the amalgamation of the two reciprocal methods has conveyed huge advantages to the organization execution.
Six Sigma has additionally been connected by Kumar et al (2008b) with regards to store network plan. They utilized DMAIC way to deal with investigate alleviation of holder security hazard. Because of the Six Sigma process approach introduction, the store network can be observed and enhanced utilizing the Six Sigma measurements. Those measurements make a typical denominator (Defect per Unit) for the investigation of the considerable number of frameworks on a similar scale, from items to forms (Kumar et al, 2008b).
As already expressed, there is a discussion among the writers about the creativity of Six Sigma. Six Sigma offers a typical metric to adjust and assess the execution of all the capacities inside the association and gives a strategy to decipher the TQM logic into hones. Six Sigma additionally keeps the fundamental standards of TQM, for example, client center (distinguished as Critical To Quality in the “Characterize” stage inside DMAIC), worker association (Green belts and Black belts group pioneers who lead self-directed work groups are engaged to roll out improvements), persistent change (the “Control” stage inside DMAIC), edified administration (spoken to by the champion in Six Sigma group) and reality based basic leadership (Six Sigma is unmistakably information situated) (Green, 2006; Black and Revere, 2006). There are numerous advantages applying both Six Sigma and TQM in corresponding in light of the fact that in actuality Six Sigma is the expansion to TQM, in which the TQM reasoning is at the center of Six Sigma. As Andersson et al (2006) put forward, Six Sigma is an organized approach inside the broader structure of TQM and it gives a progression of ideas and devices that help the general standards what’s more, points of TQM.
The writing likewise shows the connection between Six Sigma and Kaizen (constant change) and characterizes a structure to enhance the organization execution utilizing the DMAIC steps and attempting (Savolainen and Haikonen, 2007; Murugappan and Keeni, 2003; Ehie and Sheu, 2005). Truth be told, Kaizen apparatuses are significant instruments in Six Sigma Green belt venture. Not generally recorded, be that as it may, is the connection between Six Sigma and the Process Management. Sledge (2002) perceives the remaining solitary as significant cutoff of Six Sigma and states that it ought to be more lined up with the endeavor and part of the Process Management keeping in mind the end goal to distinguish when the Six Sigma approach isn’t sufficient also, a radical re-building of the procedure in required. Similarly, once in a while announced is the connect between Six Sigma and manageability. The principal creators to ponder the point of supportability in the creation stage were Miron and Skarke (1981). The purpose behind this was conceivably in light of the fact that the idea of maintainability inside Six Sigma is verifiably contained inside the Control period of the DMAIC. Additionally, research may be expected to recognize conceivable advantages driven by Six Sigma in this promising field.
Conclusions
As of late there has been a considerable measure of enthusiasm for the utilization of Six Sigma standards. Various papers have been introduced regarding this matter substantiating the significance of embracing Six Sigma to enhance process execution. This exploration is completed to recognize the most recent patterns, different methodologies, instruments and procedures, advantages and mixes of Six Sigma with different ideas via doing a deliberate, topical writing audit.
In spite of the fact that there is a lot of distribution around Six Sigma and accordingly many perspectives, it is conceivable to recognize four elucidations of Six Sigma: an arrangement of factual apparatuses, an operational rationality of administration, a business culture furthermore, an examination technique that uses the logical strategies, despite the fact that the streams are not totally unrelated but rather, covering. The primary objectives of Six Sigma, nonetheless, stay unaltered, i.e. enhancing effectiveness, productivity and capacity in the process.
There are an expansive number of apparatuses and strategies inside Six Sigma. The assortment of apparatuses, in any case, regularly causes perplexity as to which devices work best for what situation of the organizations. A deliberate method to manage the determination of these of instruments is alluring. Existing writing likewise generally classifies these Six Sigma apparatuses under DMAIC yet order of devices under other elective methodologies, for example, DFSS, DCOV or DMADV is deficient. Conceivable clarification of this is all these DFSS apparatuses are exclusively chosen for a specific R;D process, industry and utilize, so a settled definition isn’t conceivable past a general categorization (Watson, 2005).
Another issue, as specified previously, is to clear up the utilization of the factual instruments and to see how the reenactment can help in the proactive investigation of the frameworks. Recreation systems have been distinguished as one of the promising ones. The primary empowering influence for Six Sigma usage is the best administration responsibility that can advance a viable
Six Sigma has been broadly received by various kinds of associations for quite a while period yet examine on it is still in its beginning time. Specialists are by and large worried that it is an administration trend. This is a true-blue concern yet it clearly obstructed logical research exertion on Six Sigma. After some time, narrative confirmations propose that Six Sigma is likely a successful intends to enhance execution. The demonstrated reputation of Six Sigma at a wide range of settings has lightened specialists’ worry and helped inquire about enthusiasm, as showed by the quantity of distributed articles on Six Sigma as of late.
To pick up an inside and out comprehension around Six Sigma, we played out an extensive inquiry of the writing. We found that the mass piece of the writing on Six Sigma is professional situated, including around 700 book titles. Scholastic research on Six Sigma has created 154 papers, among them around 10 papers showed up on top business look into diaries. Most of the scholastic articles were distributed in the previous quite a while. This is in accordance with the perception that exploration enthusiasm on Six Sigma has become generously yet still in its beginning time.
We initially considered the meaning of Six Sigma. An appropriate definition is a crucial advance toward thorough research bits of knowledge. Our survey uncovered that Six Sigma has been characterized in an unexpected way. It implies distinctive things to various individuals. We found that these definitions can be arranged into four sorts: a deformity metric, an arrangement of change instruments or a change technique, a change approach or a change program, and a change logic. We broke down each kind to recognize the quality and shortcoming. Our correlation investigation demonstrated that Six Sigma speaks to another way to deal with quality administration and process change, and usually executed as a change program. In light of the investigation of the writing, we abridged the characterizing components of Six Sigma. Six Sigma underscores client introduction, thorough following of venture benefits, and a typical change technique for variety decrease. A Six Sigma program is bolstered by solid initiative help and a few one of a kind HR hones. Six Sigma consequently speaks to a fascinating exploration subject itself and additionally an examination setting.
In light of the administration writing, we at that point played out a basic examination of Six Sigma to distinguish intriguing exploration issues. We recognized ten research regions. We initially recommended observational examinations on the viability of Six Sigma. Plainly, execution change viability is an extreme test to build up the legitimacy of any administration intercession. We at that point recommended ponders on how Six Sigma projects ought to be tweaked to fit diverse settings. Many trusted that all associations ought to take after GE’s approach to execute Six Sigma. In any case, this is plainly against the settled possibility point of view. Next, we proposed examining Six Sigma from the authoritative science viewpoint. Six Sigma utilizes a somewhat robotic way to deal with change, yet the hypotheses propose that a versatile approach is more successful for dynamic condition. Concentrate this pressure may prompt fascinating novel bits of knowledge.
We likewise proposed that Six Sigma can be contemplated from other point of view. One viewpoint is about the connection between Six Sigma and development. Six Sigma accentuates change, which is an exploitative movement. Researchers are worried that an emphasis on abuse will smother investigation, which in the end prompt the downfall of development inside an association. Be that as it may, it stays hazy whether the execution of Six Sigma programs drives firms to be less inventive. Six Sigma in this way gives another setting to take a gander at the old strain. Likewise, issues, for example, the connection between Six Sigma and task administration, and Six Sigma and production network administration may all prompt productive research bits of knowledge.
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Name: Adolph Mbayo Mbao
Student No: R1710D3611630
E-mail: [email protected]
Assignment 3 – Article Review
Article Review
Shen, D., Cho, M. H., Tsai, C.L., Marra, R. Unpacking online learning experiences: Online learning self-efficacy and learning satisfaction. Internet and Higher Education (2013).
The article reports on a study that had been conducted by the authors. The aim of this study was to identify dimensions of online learning self-efficacy. Shen et al. (2013). Since most researchers are generally agreed that online learning entails self-efficacy of multifaceted dimensions one of the other things they explored “was to identify dimensions of online learning self-efficacy”. They also investigated the role of demographic variables in online learning self-efficacy. These variables included the number of online courses taken, gender, and academic status.
The purpose of the study covered in the article was to look at what makes online effective. In other words what makes it easier for some online students than for others to effectively learn online. It looked at various variables and compared findings with research carried out by other researchers. It also attempted to fill in the gaps left by other researches.
The research could have done well to ensure balance in terms of the gender of the participants and it should have also increased the sample size. The inequality in sex distribution, where almost three quarters (74.1%) of the participants in the study were females, could have had a bearing on the findings as clearly there are differences social interaction between males and females. A bigger sample size would have helped increase the validity of findings, a limitation even the authors acknowledged. The study should also have considered ensuring the demographic representation of the sample was as per the students participating in online learning. This is so as to ensure good representation as well as contribute to the validity of the study.
Proceeding from the theoretical framework that there were a number of multifaceted dimensions to online learning self-efficacy, they were able to identify five of these. They list them as self-efficacy;
1. to complete an online course
2. to interact socially with classmates
3. to handle tools in a Course Management System (CMS)
4. to interact with instructors in online course, and
5. to interact with classmates for academic purposes
The study found that though the validity of the findings may be low due to the sample size, it provided “a reliable instrument that can be used to measure diverse aspects of online self-efficacy”. It was also demonstrated that future research “should consider multiple aspects of self-efficacy in online contexts”. The study found that there were gender differences in self-
efficacy and demonstrated that self-efficacy to complete an online course most significantly explains variances in satisfaction. A student’s “self-judgment about their capabilities to complete an online course was critical for their satisfaction with an online course”. Further, instructor’s proactive approaches for social interaction, such as monitoring and encouragement for social interactions are suggested to students develop the self-efficacy needed to complete an online course.
The researchers collected data from online students as two American universities. They sought the permission of online instructors to include the questionnaire in their online courses. Participants were recruited online and asked to fill in an online survey and based on the responses the data was subjected to several tests to come up with findings. These included Principle Axis Factoring (PAF) extraction method and this was supported by and used in collaboration with other tests. No clear limitation was mentioned by the authors.
The results are quite reliable since the study endeavoured to account for any factors that may reduce its reliability and clearly and clearly acknowledged that there may be need for a larger sample to increase reliability. Moreover, it opened up the bases for suture research as it identified five dimensions which it even tested against various factors at play in online learning. It also established how these dimensions interacted with factors in online learning and how these same dimensions interrelated. The results make a lot of sense.
The study is very important to the body of knowledge as it has been able to fill in the gap identified by prior researches and has been able to bring out the interrelationships and insights into the problem. Its findings make sense to me as I am able to relate to some of the things I have personally observed from the time I enrolled for the course. Further, the study is very strong scientifically as it used scientific methods in data collection and analysis. This fact is strengthened by the fact that it was even approved by the (IRB) and its findings are presented in the internationally accepted scientific format.
When tested amongst the different variables; prior online learning experience, gender and academic status, the statistics showed that the male gender had a lower level of self-efficacy in most of the dimensions listed and that raised a level of concern. While we must individually take ownership of our learning, we must also learn to develop a “no man is an island” (Donne, 1600) or an “each one teach one” (author unknown) mentality. Not only will it help to develop us as individuals, it will also aid in enhancing our self-efficacy to interact with classmates both socially and academically, which is where we see Two of the dimensions out. I made mention earlier that there were major concerns raised regarding level of self-efficacy expressed from the male gender, based on the lower level of self-efficacy observed, the authors urged the instructors to give more attention to that specific sex. It was also derived that the number of online courses taken, played a role in boosting the level of self-efficacy to complete an online course. As it relates to academic status, the article indicated that no noticeable amount of differences were found between graduates and undergraduates in self-efficacy hence the reason it was chosen as a dimension. For student like myself, who have little or no knowledge of nor experience with the online learning platform, I firmly believe that constant monitoring, guidance and evaluation is necessary to aid the reduction of the dropout rate students in the online learning environment (Ali & Leeds, 2009) and to assist in the development of students
level of self-efficacy overall including interacting instructors, ensuring that they can handle too in CMS and effectively complete an online course.
People’s judgement of their capabilities to organize and execute of action required to attain designated types of performances (Bandura, 1986, p. 391), is self-efficacy. We must be mindful of others and know that in every experience there are room for errors and growth, let us use both to strengthen our self-efficacy to; interact with classmates both socially and academically, interact with instructors, complete our online course and effectively handle tools in Course Management System (CMS). This article was written based on tests done on students and empirical researches were carried out.
References
Bandura, A. (1986).

Name: Sakariya Ahmed
Tutor: Brian Payne
Business BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Unit 4
P1. For your chosen organisation investigate and explain the different types of information that are being used, where this information come from and explain its purpose.
Introduction
The organisation I have chosen for this is John Lewis. I will explain the different types of information that John Lewis uses to help improve its company and help it function with the day to day actives of the company. John Lewis, being a retail store, needs information to keep the company running. The way they pass information is very important to how the business handles its day to day activity. There are many three different types of ways that information could be passed, there is verbal information, Written information and on screen information.
How john Lewis uses verbal information
Passing information face to face is the best way to pass information, this is verbal communication. Verbal communication allows less room for misunderstanding, if the other person does not understand the information being passed, the one giving the information could clear up the misunderstanding. John Lewis being a retail store, verbal communication would be the main way the outlet stores pass information, it could also help employees when costumers need help with something, they would pass the information by verbal speaking with the costumers. This would also be used when John Lewis has meeting, for example they could be having a meeting about a new advert, they would talk about their ideas.
How John Lewis uses on screen information
If they are providing information for a large audience, on screen information would be best. On screen information is information that is produced on a screen, this would also include multimedia TV. The term “multimedia” means multiple forms of media integrated together, this would include the TV news. On screen information could include text, graphics, animation, audio and video. John Lewis would also use on screen information, once again I’m going use the example of an advert, the company could have an on screen display explaining their ideas for the advert.
How John Lewis uses written information
Written information would be any type of information that is written down, this could be in a form of newspaper, books, etc. Companies like John Lewis could have customers writing either saying if they had a problem with the company or in ways to change the company to improve the customer services.

NAME: OGORE MATAGA ANGELINE

SCHOOL: SOCIAL SCIENCES

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DEPARTMENT: SOCIAL AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

UNIVERSITY: MOUNTKENYA UNIVERSITY

YEAR OF STUDY: FIRST YEAR

UNIT CODE: DED 1301
UNIT TITLE: RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING

DED 1301
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FUNDRAISING
CAT 1
1. Outline and explain 5 methods/strategies of mobilizing financial resources for public development projects.
a) Donor agency
Donor is an organization or a person who willingly or voluntarily donates resources in form of money, information, materials and energy.
We can get financial resources from donor agencies to support any public project. It is a matter of writing a good proposal requesting for cash, material and energy resources from maximum number of donor agencies so that incase one refuses to give the donation, the other agencies are in a position to continue with their support. It is also advisable to expand the relations with the national, local, private and public sectors for a stable income generation.
The donation can also be in form of boxes where you request donations from the public by placing boxes in a stationary point. It can be a hospital, school, airports, or any other public places.
b) Fundraisings
This is a way of getting voluntary contributions of money or other resources. This can be done by organizing fundraising events whereby mobilizing of people can be done by distributing contribution papers, synthesizing the public through media, newspapers, audio visual materials, billboards, stickers or contacting them directly. This fundraising can also be by grants from the government or charitable organizations which are willing to contribute finance for public projects. The fundraising is done by inviting guest of honors in a place booked by an organization which can include churches, schools, stadiums, conference halls. This fundraising can be successful by having good communication skills and consulting the existing donors and the local communities.
c) Income generation
Income is money earned after work done. The work can either be self, public or private employed. Business oriented projects organizations can come together and contribute their incomes and other resources to start a public project in a different location of their choice. This type of resources mobilizing is done by the Indians and Somalis who mostly run family businesses. Although this is how they operate their businesses but most of them are generous and can contribute to start a public project which will help the surrounding and create employment opportunities to the public. Civil servants can decide to contribute some of their incomes to establish a public project. Most churches in the countryside are built using the contributions from incomes of their congregation.
d) Government policy
Tax is money payable to the government. This money is used to build schools, infrastructure, hospitals, stadiums and social amenities. It is also used to pay salaries of public servants. A public project can get its financial resources through the government by the proprietors writing proposals or during finance allocation to different places. Yearly during the budget reading the government allocates a certain amount of money to different firms for public projects. It can be for construction of bridges, infrastructure, schools or hospitals and this money is allocated to the government officials like governors, senators, members of parliament and head of different departments. The government can also borrow funds from developed countries or any good established film; get loans so that the money is distributed for the establishment of public projects.
e) By raising fees
This can be done when different organizations whether public, private or international decide to collect funds through increasing partnership by raising a certain fee to either goods or services rendered so as to acquire financial resources for a public project. The other way of raising fees would be for the NGOS to carry out the construction of public resting places, canals, schools, monastery, worshipping areas and hospitals; and the local body to pay back to the NGO. The county government on the other hand can collect some cash by raising the parking fees for vehicles, in the market stalls and the street vendors. This can be seen like harassing the less fortunate but with proper communication and negotiation skills, people will be able to understand what is happening. Also an organization can raise fees by selling its technical skills, becoming trainees or raising fees from visitors from individuals or organizations doing research in another organization

CAT 2
2. State and describe 5 skills required for effective resource mobilizing
a) Communication skills
Communication is a way of transmitting knowledge or information to someone else. To have an effective resource mobilizing, one has to have best communication skills to be able to convince people to mobilize resources. Mobilizing of resources to take place people have to be communicated to by either verbal or nonverbal; through media.
People have to be told the reasons for resource mobilization so as they can extend their contributions in form of cash, materials, information, energy or skills.
One needs also to communicate clearly both verbally or written to be able to give advice and inspire trust to develop a strong rapport otherwise getting the resources required will be hard because of the mistrust.
Leaders in a given organization needs to have good communication skills to be able to explain the specific goals and tasks. He should be able to master all forms of communication, including conversations, one-on-one and be computer literate to be able to communicate with people through media, phones and emails

b) Management and leadership skills
These skills are essential in resource mobilization because both involve decision-making, planning, communication and problem solving. For resources to be brought on board, it needs proper planning and communication to achieve the goal. People mobilizing the resources need to keep a record of all the events for future reference and be a role model.
In order to be an effective leader and manager, one needs more than a good attitude and intentions of uniting people. Unity is the key to strong bondage which is unbreakable thus making people to do great things and fight back in case of problem. If the leaders have good vision the team members will not feel confused but organized and have an initiate to prioritize thus leading to effective resource mobilization

c) Writing skills/financial reporting skills
Financial resources are one of the key resource mobilizations, for it to be effective the knowledge and skills of writing is needed especially in proposal writing to the donor agencies and other financing institutions. Good and appropriate proposal convinces people to contribute more resources unlike if a person writing the proposal or requisition does not have good writing and reporting skills.
On the other hand financial reporting skills are more effective in an organization because most of decisions of private or public organizations depends or relay on a good detailed and accurate financial reports. Inaccurate resource reports can damage the image of an organization thus discouraging investors and donors in investing in such places.
d) Interpersonal skills
In resource mobilization one needs to have a clue and be in a position to tackle complex problems as they arise. In any given organization misunderstandings are inevitable but how to deal with it needs more personal skills.
During resource mobilization, for it to be effective patience and courage is a guarantee because it is not easy to convince people to contribute their resources especially in grants and donations. Also in energy resource people will tend to be rigid but with patience and a convincing words one can harvest more than he thought off.
When mobilizing resources many obstacles may arise, when such problems arises one needs to be strong, these can be cases of theft, natural hazards and death many resources are destroyed and lost. The resources destroyed have to be replaced and this needs extra personal skills to mobilize them again.
Personal skills like trust and integrity are essential and lead to an effective resource mobilization. People need to trust someone with their resources. Trust leads to a strong bond in that one is convinced of gaining or getting good resources.
e) Innovation skills
Innovation means introducing and creating new important ideas and issues related to life. This can help in mobilizing resources when people with such skills are able to think critical and solve difficult problems experienced by human beings. Innovation skills help one to build new things to create and develop new ideas with others. Collaboration is very essential because different organizations brings their thoughts together and end up with something meaningful which will help others and the community in general. The reason these skills of creativity, communication and critical thinking is becoming important is because of the changing nature of the work and the rapid pace at which change is spreading. For example the technology of computers has spread like bush fire and everyone is enjoying the resources. Incase more new innovations can come up then life will be easier as compared to the olden days.
Finance and accounting may be associated with normal routines systems but that does not mean that innovation in new resources has changed much.

Name: Rachel Kirby

Date: September 23, 2018

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Name of child observed: Natalie

Age of child observed: 3 months

Location of observation: Childs home

General Observation Characteristic:

The infant observation was of a baby girl named Natalie. First to be noticed was her full head of curly brown hair and thin, almost nonexistent eye brows. Natalie also had very big brown eyes, full round cheeks, small ears, and a small nose. She had an olive skin tone and a bald spot on the back of her head. Audrey did not have any teeth and she was drooling immensely. Her body was not quite proportional yet, her stomach was full and round, she had tiny feet, and long fingers. Natalie was approximately twenty inches in length and thirteen pounds (stated by the mother, Jana).

Physical Development:

When Jana laid Natalie down on the blanket she began kicking her legs and wiggling her arms and hands all over. Natalie also played with her own hands and intertwined her fingers. She would flail her legs up and play with her toes as well. When Jana placed her index finger in Natalie hand she used the Palmer Grasp intensely. She was also using the palmer grasp to grab Janas bracelets. Jana was dangling Natalie’s caterpillar toy to the left of Natalie’s face and Jana used the Palmer Grasp to grab at the caterpillar toy (eye hand coordination). Jana also had a strong suck on her pacifier (oral motor).

Jana turned Natalie over so that she was now lying on her stomach instead of her back. When Jana did this, Natalie kept her chin up immediately and kicked her legs attempting to try to roll over but being that her head is still heavy compared to her trunk she has not been able to do so yet. Jana had turned Natalie back over and Natalie had a lot of strength in her trunk. She was almost turned over entirely from her back to her stomach but because of the heavy weight of her head she was not able to just yet. She also pulled her legs up towards her trunk so she could grab her toes. Natalie moved her head all around the room tracking the people around her. Jana was holding Natalie by her hands and wrists while Natalie was holding onto Jana’s hands to support herself while sitting up.

Intellectual Development:

Language Development:

As reported by Jana when she says “a goo” to Natalie she responds and sometimes even imitates her and says it back. Natalie locks eyes with Jana when Jana is talking to her. Jana also explained that Natalie is beginning to recognize her own name. Natalie expressed herself with monotone babbling. As explained by Jana, during our observation time it was close to Natalie’s nap time, explaining why Natalie was crying and fussy.

Social-Emotional Development

Each time Jana would smile at Natalie she would smile back and imitate her mom. Natalie is very responsive to Jana’s voice and constantly makes eye contact with her. As the teacher was walking around Natalie would follow her with her eyes and turn her head as well. Natalie was very observant to her surroundings and making eye contact with all the students in the motor development lab.

Natalie was constantly looking at Jana. When Jana got up and walked away to grab another toy Natalie began to cry as Jana went out of her sight. As Jana was holding her and walking around the room with her she fell asleep quickly in Jana’s arms. When Jana smiles and speaks to Natalie, Natalie becomes excited and smiles back at her mom. Natalie appears more comfortable when Jana is near her.

Natalie was extremely cognitive of her pacifier. When it was placed in her mouth by Jana, Natalie stopped crying instantaneously. Jana had brought a caterpillar for Natalie to play with. When Jana moved the caterpillar to different sides of Natalie, Natalie would follow it with her head and eyes. She also used voluntary grasping to grab the caterpillar from Jana (sensory motor skills). Natalie was also very cognitive of her reflection in the mirror. Natalie had been holding her and over her shoulder Natalie could see herself in the mirror and was continuously looking at her reflection.

NAME : PATRICIA MARIA
ID : DIT 201804003
IC : 960106565084
COURSE : INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
LECTURE : MS.JANET A/P GABRIEL
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No. Content Page No.
1. A. Identify any TWO (2) types of information system and the hardware that required supporting the information system. Explain in detail.

2. B. Information technology makes people’s life easier; however problem arises due to ethical issue in the society. Identify the common ethical issues arises in the information system environment in hospital regarding information technology and provide solution on how to solve the security issues.

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3. C. Information technologies are rapidly replacing traditional technologies on various real time applications. List and explain the various common related disciplines to Information Technology.

4. Conclusion

5. References

6. Plagiarism Report

Introduction
Numerous association works with an enormous number of information. An information system (IS) is a blend system of programming and equipment that an association used to collect, filters, process, create and circulate information. It will likewise transform crude information into helpful data that can be utilized by an association for better basic leadership. Amazon is a quickly developing web shopping which utilizes IS to process budgetary records. There are different kinds of IS available such as Transaction Processing Systems, Decision Support systems, Knowledge Management systems, Learning management systems and Database Management system.

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Tasks
A) Identify any TWO (2) types of information system and the hardware that required supporting the information system. Explain in detail.
i) Transaction Processing System (TPS)
It is data handling framework which is a mix of programming and equipment framework that help exchange process. It is primarily utilized for business transaction. It records, collects, stores, modifies, retrieves, the information exchange for a business to run. Examples of day by day routine exchange are deals arrange entry, payroll and shipping. Transaction preparing framework experiences a five phases cycle which are information passage exercise, document and database preparing, archives and report age and request preparing exercises. It is predominantly intended to process day by day routine of business exchanges. TPS needs to breeze through an ACID test with a specific end goal to quality.
Atomicity Transaction is either total or not in any manner
Consistency The whole database must have a positive value. Transaction that has a negative esteem will be dismissed naturally.
Isolation All transaction must be done at the same time.
Durability At the point when a transaction is done it can’t be fixed once more.

Features of TPS
Rapid response Quick execution
Continuous Availability Continuously accessible whenever when the user is entering the transaction.
Data Integrity The system must have the capacity to deal with all the equipment and programming issues without ruining the information.
Ease of use The system must be basic for the user to comprehend and enable them to amend theirs mistakes effectively.

There are two types of Transaction Processing System
• Batch processing system
All the transactions are gathered together over some stretch of time however not handled immediately. All the preparing happens with no human interaction. If there is any mistake found amid a transaction it will prevent the cluster from processing. It is extremely valuable for an organization utilize finance framework for paying wages to workers. Finance and checks are a few cases of batch processing. The picture beneath demonstrates a case of finance framework.

Advantages of batch processing system
• It controls after some time of handling
• It is institutionalized
• It likewise decrease setup and preparing costs
Disadvantages of batch processing system
• Operational cost may increment
• Takes excessively of time in social affair data, storing and mass preparing
• Only indistinguishable information is prepared in one group

• Real-Time Processing System
It is otherwise called as streaming processing. It is a snappy execution of information in brief timeframe giving a quick output. It includes constant input, process and output of the data. ATMs and traffic control are few cases of real time processing system.

Advantages of real-time processing system
• Brisk react
• Mistake adjustment is done instantly
• Data is prepared as request

Disadvantages of real-time processing system
• Not institutionalized
• Hardware and software of the system are costly
• Requires a reinforcement when there is data defilement

The hardware that is required supporting Transaction Processing System includes:
1. Barcode Reader

It is electronic equipment that can read out printed standardized tag to a computer. It will encode various types of data, for example, patient’s ID, the cost of a thing, website URL. With the assistance of ease scanner, barcode interpreting uses to make an insight information catch data that consistently fits the business work process.

2. Optical Character Recognition

It is an electronic gadget which will change over manually written or printed content into machine encoded content. It is use as a type of data section from printed paper to record the information for example visa report, solicitations, bank statement and mail.

ii.) Decision Support System (DSS)

Decision support system is an information system which helps an organization in decision making activities in any level. It helps individual in settling on choice about issues that quickly changing and not determined. Unstructured and semi-structured decision problems are some normal issues that an organization will face. DSS is a blend of completely mechanized or human fueled system.
DSS consist of 4 phases
1.Intelligence Searching for decision
2.Design Develop an alternative solutions
3.Choice Select an action
4.Implementation Execute the chosen course in decision situation

The hardware that is required supporting Decision Support System includes:
• RAM(Random Access Memory)

It is hardware in a computing device. It is regularly called as primary or main memory device of a computer. It is a form of computer data storage that stores and retrieves and machine code. It is a volatile memory. When the computer is turn off all the data will be lost. Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM) are two main kinds of RAMs.

• Hard Disk Drive(HDD)

It is a non-volatile memory hardware device that utilizations attractive capacity to for all time store and recover computerized information. It contain from billions to trillions of bytes of storage. It is an auxiliary storage device. A computer will not function if a hard disk is not installed.

B. Information technology makes people’s life easier; however problem arises due to ethical issue in the society. Identify the common ethical issues arises in the information system environment in hospital regarding information technology and provide solution on how to solve the security issues.

Common Ethical issues:
• Spoofing
It is a sort of scam. It can be done by anyone at any time. The purpose of spoofing is to gain unauthorized access to a user’s system by pretending to be the user. Spoofing likewise alludes to trap or cheat PC system or other PC users. Email, Caller ID, and Uniform Resource Location (URL) are couple of sorts of spoofing. For example a hacker may email parody a user by sending an email as if it originates from somebody whom we trust.

• Hacking
Hacking is an endeavor to abuse into a computer system. In other words, it is an unapproved access over a computer for some illicit purposes. A hacker can be any individual who is a talented computer expert. The motivation behind hacking the system is to take secret data of an organization keeping in mind the end goal to cut down the notoriety of the organization. Once the system has been hacked it will convey a tremendous misfortune to the organization for example deal misfortunes and information misfortune.

• Malware
It is software that can bring harm and damage a computer system.
i) Virus

A virus is a malicious software program which will be actualized into a user’s computer without the knowledge of them so as to perform noxious actions. Viruses are not occurred naturally. They are made by humans. Once a virus is discharge into the system it is not any more under the control of human. Stealing passwords or data, tainting documents and spamming all the email contact are some works of a virus.
ii) Worms

A computer worm is an independent malware computer program that reproduces itself keeping in mind the end goal to spread to other computers. Often, it utilizes a PC system to spread itself, relying on security disappointments on the objective PC to get to it. Worms quite often cause in any event some damage to the networks, even if of just by expending bandwidth, whereas infection quite often degenerate or adjust records on a focused on computer. Many worms that have been made are outlined just to spread and don’t endeavor to change the system they go through.

Method to solve the security issues:
i) Biometric security

Biometric security component used to validate and gives access to a system to view of the programmed and moment confirmation of a person’s physical characteristics. Because biometric security assesses a people substantial components or organic information it is the most grounded and most idiot proof physical security method utilized for recognize check. Biometric security based framework or motors store human body attributes that don’t change over a person’s lifetime. These incorporate fingerprints, eye texture, voice, hand examples and facial acknowledgment.

ii) Firewalls

Firewall is a system security framework intended to keep unapproved access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be actualized as both equipment and programming or a mix of both. Network firewalls regularly used to keep unapproved web clients from getting to private system associated with the internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranets go through the firewall, which inspects each message and hinders those that don’t meet the predetermined security criteria.

iii) Data Encryption

Encryption is the way toward utilizing a calculation to change to make it indistinguishable for unapproved users. This cryptographic strategy secures delicate information for example MasterCard numbers by encoding and changing data into incoherent figure text. This encoded information may just be unscrambled or made meaningful with a key. Encryption is basic for guaranteed and confided in conveyance of touchy data.

C. Information technologies are rapidly replacing traditional technologies on various real time applications. List and explain the various common related disciplines to Information Technology.

I) Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is an Information Technology (IT) worldwide that empowers universal access to shared pools of configurable framework assets and larger amount benefits that can be quickly provisioned with negligible administration exertion, regularly finished the internet. Cloud computing depends on sharing of assets to accomplish intelligibility and economies of scale, similar to an open utility. Outsider mists empower organization to center around their center business as opposed to using assets on PC framework and maintenance. Advocates take note of that distributed computing enables organizations to maintain a strategic distance from or limit in advance IT foundation costs. Proponents additionally assert that distributed computing enables ventures to get their applications up and running quicker with enhanced sensibility and less support and that it empowers IT groups to all the more quicker modify assets to meet fluctuating and capricious demand. Cloud suppliers normally utilize a “pay-as-you-go” demonstrate which can prompt unforeseen working costs if chairmen are not acclimated with cloud-pricing models.

ii) Project Management
Project Management is the utilization of information, skills, tools, and strategies to extend exercise to meet the task necessities. A project is an impermanent undertaking intended to deliver an interesting product, service or results with a characterized starting and end embraced to meet novel objectives and objectives, typically to realize gainful change or included value. The transitory nature of ventures remains conversely with the same old thing which is repetitive, permanent or semi-perpetual useful exercise to create items or services. In rehearse the administration of such unmistakable generation approaches requires the advancement of particular specialized abilities and administration techniques.
There are five phases in project management which will help to simplify the problems into a series of logical and management steps.
1.Initiation Project’s value and feasibility are measured.
2.Planning Solid plan to guide the team and keep them on time and on budget.
3.Execution Building deliverables that satisfy the customer.
4.Monitoring and Control Teams must constantly monitor their own progress.
5.Closure Delivered the finished project to the customer.

iii) Networking

Networking refers to the aggregate procedure of making and utilizing PC systems regarding hardware, protocols and programming including wired and remote innovation. It includes the utilizations of speculations from various advances fields like IT and computer science. A good example of a network is the Internet which connect millions of people all over the world together. They can share data and information. There are three types of network such as Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN) and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).

There are few advantages and disadvantages of networking
Advantages Disadvantages
Reduced hardware costs Loss of autonomy
Application sharing Lack of privacy
Sharing information resources Security threats
Data management centralization Loss of productivity
Connecting people

Conclusion

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Name: Shonalia Jhagroo Student Number: 62845276
Eng1501 – Assignment 01
Reference number: 7549NWFLSOT2N187IP48AK3TNQ7-138Question 1
The poet, Sipho Sepamla, was one of the poets who were often referred to as the “poets of the city”. Fittingly, in the poem “The loneliness beyond”, he describes the city life and how crowded it is in the city, yet people still feel alone. This is described in lines 17-19 (I’ve watched the multitudes rub shoulders And I’ve wondered what they do With the loneliness beyond;). In line 1, he compares how the people arrive at random conveys, in haste. People in the city live a very rushed life. In line 3 the word “torrent” also describes their rushed, overwhelmed lives. The word “maskless” in line 7 describes how tired the people are. They extremely exhausted that don’t have any expression on their face. In line 8 the word “maimed” tells us why they may feel so alone in this crowded city. People hurt others feelings or spirits. Sipho Sepamla compares the people in the city as cattle (Like sheep herded into a kraal – Line 14). Just as cattle are taken out into a field (city) to graze and later on they are gathered back together, so to the people in the city leave their homes in the morning, go to work or school and then back home in the evening.

In lines 1-3 the poet makes use of a similie. He compares the pattering raindrops to people. Just as raindrops patter randomly so to the people arrive randomly. Also, just as rain comes and goes so to the people come and go. It also conveys the haste with which they are moving. This gradual arrival of people ends in a ‘torrent’ which implies a rush.
By using the words ‘maskless face’ the poet describes how he sees the people of the city. The words suggest a lack of individuality because the people experience the same sense of hopelessness. The word ‘maskless’ describes how emotionally crushed the masses are. Due to their circumstances they are extremely tired that they cannot disguise their true feelings. Their raw emotions are evident.
.1 The irony in lines 17-19 is that, the speaker sees how lonely the people are, even though there are so many people together.
This shows us that even though one may be part of a crowd, one does not necessarily escape their loneliness. The loneliness isn’t physical or external therefore no matter how many people are around, the loneliness cannot be cured as it is coming from within. The crowd isn’t comforting.
The main theme of the poem is the lack of people’s individuality. This indicates that majority of the people (throngs of people) in the city feel confined in their homes (little holes of resting), even though it may be big. This is due to their loneliness, which makes them suffocated.
Question 2
In the play, The Road to Mecca by Athol Fugard, the are many themes portrayed. The theme that will be discussed is the theme of art and freedom, through Helens journey and how her community reacts to it. The mecca metaphor in the play speaks both to the freedom one can achieve through creativity and the journey personified in the artistic process itself.

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After Helens husband dies, Helen had a need for artistic expression. Helens community expected her to be the pious; however she found more inspiration, meaning and happiness in creating sculptures. Creating sculptures was Helens spirituality, rather than her going to a church. Helen creates her Mecca, which is a series of sculptures created by her. When creating the sculptures she does not ask anyone for their feedback therefore we can say that the sculptures are Helens expressions of artistic, individual freedom, her Mecca is symbolic of her religious freedom. Through Helens art she shows herself as a strong and independent woman.
Helens art consists of sculptures of figures such as owls, camels and wise-men, all facing east towards Mecca. Her sculptures can be seen as not only her struggle for artistic fulfilment but also her struggle of women and minorities for self-expression. Helens neighbours get suspicious of her eccentric sculptures. Also, Helen rejects Christian imagery for Muslim imagery in her artwork. This is also one of the reasons for the way Helen is treated in her community.

Helen comes from a Christian background, where girls are married at a young age and expected to start a family. When a woman becomes a widow, she is expected to go to church regularly and retire to a nursing home. However, Helen breaks all these society norms after her husband’s death. This obviously brings about a lot of gossip and many ridicule her. Although she faces all the negativity from the community Helen gains a sense of individuality. With the help of Elsa) Helen is able to remain at home and live her life the way she wishes to.

In the play we see how a widow seeks freedom of society norms. She finds happiness in creating sculptures and creating a Muslim imagery in her artwork. Even though her community expects something different from she continues doing what makes her happy. The play The Road to Mecca shows us how society norms can keep us from living our lives, especially as women. However when women remain head-strong, anything is possible.

DECLARATION REGARDING PLAGIARISM

DECLARATION

Name and student number: Shonalia 62845276
Assignment topic: ENG 1501 Assignment 01
I declare that this assignment is my own original work. Where secondary material has been used (either from a printed source or from the Internet), this has been carefully acknowledged and referenced in accordance with departmental requirements. I understand what plagiarism is and am aware of the department’s policy in this regard. I have not allowed anyone else to borrow or copy my work.

Signature: S.Jhagroo
Date: 14 August 2018

NAME: YAKUB HASSAN YAKUB
ID: 640469
COURSE:COM 1500

LECTURER: DR.MIKHAIL GROMOV
ASSIGNMENT: TERM PAPER
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc508830289 h 2Cultural Dimensions and How Kikuyu Relate to Them PAGEREF _Toc508830290 h 3Individualism/Collectivism PAGEREF _Toc508830291 h 3Uncertainty Avoidance PAGEREF _Toc508830292 h 3Power Distance PAGEREF _Toc508830293 h 4Masculinity/Femininity PAGEREF _Toc508830294 h 4Long- and Short-Term Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830295 h 5Human Nature Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830296 h 5Person / Nature Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830297 h 6Time Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830298 h 7Activity Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830299 h 7Relational (Social) Orientation PAGEREF _Toc508830300 h 8Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Orientations PAGEREF _Toc508830301 h 8Face and Facework PAGEREF _Toc508830302 h 9Summary PAGEREF _Toc508830303 h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc508830304 h 11References PAGEREF _Toc508830305 h 12

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IntroductionCultural dimensions are the theories and frameworks that different people use in their communication interaction within themselves as well as with other people as well the specific attributes of the culture in question. Kenya is a country that has diverse physical features as well as rich and diverse speaking people. In total the country has at least forty three tribes (cultures). In this East African country the largest tribe is the Kikuyu. In total is constitutes about 23% of the total population of about 40 million people. The essence of this essay is to clearly explain the cultural dimensions of the Kikuyu tribe of Kenya. This will be done by going through the twelve cultural dimensions. These are; Individualism/Collectivism, Uncertainty Avoidance, Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Long- and Short-Term Orientation, Human Nature Orientation, Person / Nature Orientation, Time Orientation, Activity Orientation, Relational (Social) Orientation, Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context Orientations, Face and Facework. The writer of this essay will briefly explain what is contained in each of these dimensions. This will then be followed by an explanation of how the Kikuyu culture of Kenya perceives and interact in relation to each of the above mentioned cultural dimension. The various value dimensions will be the sub heading that the writer uses to explain the Kikuyu culture.

Cultural Dimensions and How Kikuyu Relate to ThemIndividualism/CollectivismIn this section we look at whether the culture of choice looks at making group decision or love group work, or are more concentrated on looking at own self in working in the society. The individualistic societies prefer individual competition among each other, personal rights are more expressed, airing of one’s opinions is encouraged, privacy, and expression of one’s opinions is respected. On the other hand collectivists’ societies look more upon on communal collaboration, common interests, harmony, tradition, as well the public wellbeing, in addition to keeping appearance CITATION Mic02 l 1033 (Hills, 2002).

The Kikuyu who were originally found in the Central part of Kenya are now also found in Nairobi as well as most parts of the country. They are considered as a very industrious culture and are therefore engaged in business ventures all around the country. However, in their business interaction, they are seen to engage in a communal collusion with each other. It is not surprising to see family businesses clustered next to each other for support. In Addition, the Kikuyu who are business are seen to help each other to prosper in business. From an interview with some Kikuyu taxi operators who are outside USIU-Africa they confessed that they would rather see another Kikuyu prosper in business than have another tribe prosper.
Uncertainty AvoidanceUncertainty avoidance deals with a society’s acceptance of the uncertain or the ambiguous; this therefore means that it seeks to find man’s search of what is true. In essence it shows to what level a culture programs the members to feel either contented or unsatisfied inn unstructured conditions; which are considered to be unknown, surprising, unusual, novel as well as different from what is normal. Those cultures that are high uncertainty avoidance reduce the probability of such situations by enforcing strict laws, regulations on the working of the society. On the other hand low uncertainty avoidance cultures give a greater leeway on the rules and regulation that govern the unknown situation CITATION Mic02 l 1033 (Hills, 2002).
In terms of uncertainty avoidance, the Kikuyu are seen as a high uncertainty avoidance culture. They would go to great lengths to ensure that all that they engage in would prosper. They try to put strict measures that are directed at the prosperity of what they are doing. This further shown by their superstitious nature that makes them carries a lot of rituals to ensure that their ventures prosper. This is seen by the many prayers that the Christian Kikuyus engage in as well as the traditional rituals for those that follow traditional Kikuyu culture CITATION Orv08 l 1033 (Jenkins, 2008).
Power DistanceThe power distance measures the level to which the people that are less powerful members of an organization or institution accept that there is an unequal distribution of power. In this respect it looks that the inequality and whether it is more or less. This level of inequality is accepted and expressed by both the leaders and followers within that society CITATION Mak09 l 1033 (Making Sense of Cross Cultural Communication, 2009).

In relation to the power distance, the Kikuyu is one that has high power distance. This is because there is a great divide between that very rich Kikuyus and they that are very poor. There is also no interaction or very little if any interaction between those powerful Kikuyu and the less powerful on. However, the little communication that is present is such that it is not mutually beneficial but passive from the side of the powerful Kikuyus. This means that the less powerful Kikuyu though they support the rich ones they do not actually get to benefit from the relation CITATION Kik15 l 1033 (Hoppe, 2015).
Masculinity/FemininityMasculinity versus its opposite femininity refers to the level of distribution as well as the overlapping of roles between the male and the female genders within a society. It has been established that the values of women differ less among societies where men’s values are emphasized. On the other hand men’s values have been seen to be containing a touch of assertive, competitive, and generally opposing from the women’s values which have been explained to be modest, caring and nurturing CITATION Mak09 l 1033 (Making Sense of Cross Cultural Communication, 2009).
In terms of masculinity and femininity, the Kikuyu have been witnessed to be a more Masculine culture. This is because they have clear laid out roles for the males as well as the women. The male are consider mostly being the provider of the family and they are also expected to be a strong protector of the family against danger. On the other hand the woman is supposed to take care of the family and also ensure that the home is always in order. The woman is supposed to show love to the husband and ensure he has what he needs. On the other hand, the husband also has to be strong and provide the woman with both physical as well as emotional needs. This requirement may be the reason for the basic violence that has been seen in parts of Kikuyu land like Nyeri where women feel sidelined CITATION The15 l 1033 (The Gale Group, 2015).

Long- and Short-Term OrientationThe long term versus short term orientation sought to distinguish between the differences in thinking between the West and the East. They difference between the East and Confucian teaching versus the West and the belie f in tradition. The characteristics of the long term orientation culture was found to be persistent, giving and maintaining order in relationships, carefulness, and maintaining a sense of shame. The short term oriented cultures on the other hand maintain a level of personal steadiness as well as stability, keeping of face, having respect for tradition, reciprocation on greetings, favor and gifts CITATION Mic02 l 1033 (Hills, 2002).

The Kikuyu have been considered to be a more short term oriented people. This is primarily because they geared towards having relations that are steady. They have also in many instances been explained to having a strong look at the face of adversity. The Kikuyu have also been explained as a people that seek to attain favors and gifts in their working relation. They expect what in Kenya is referred to as “kitu kidogo” which is essentially a bride to be received to the help that they offered another individual. This is as the writer of this essay has experienced with Kikuyus.

Human Nature OrientationIt seeks to establish the basic nature of people. They have generally been subdivided in to three subdivisions. Evil (people cannot be trusted; they are generally evil and have to be controlled). Mixed- good and bad (There are both evil and good people in the world. There is therefore need to check and establish which they are. With the right directions, people can be changed). Good (Most people are basically good at their core, they are born with goodness) CITATION DrR00 l 1033 (Zaharna, 2000 ).

In terms of human nature the Kikuyu are seen to be people that believe that human beings are at their core evil beings. This was established from interviewing a couple of my Kikuyu friends who believe that no good come out of a person. They additionally think that all actions that people take are guided by ulterior motives. They therefore are always seeking to get the most out of every situation as quick as they can so that they do not get injured or harmed by the bad intentions of the people involved CITATION Jen03 l 1033 (Finke, 2003).

Person / Nature OrientationThis seeks out the relationship that is appropriate between man and nature. Man has been seen to take these three roles, being subordinate to nature (people really cannot alter nature; life is generally determined by external forces like fate or family. Things happen how they are supposed to). Harmony with nature (man ought to in all means be at harmony with nature). Domination over nature (it is a great human task to conqueror and direct nature; everything present that is good resulted through meeting this role) CITATION Tom01 l 1033 (Gallagher, 2001).

As previously explained, the Kikuyu are a very industrious people. They seek to exploit every profit making opportunity as quick as they can. This therefore means that they are considered to be dominating over nature, in their relations with nature. They always try to maximally exploit nature to profit in terms of money. This has had them leaving the nature in the places that they live to be in a deplorable state. The kikuyu are also explained as always wanting to the boss of each and every situation they engage in. It is no surprise that even from the time of colonization in Kenya; it is the Kikuyu that took the initiative of being the leaders of the Mau Mau rebels that fought against the colonialists. Even today one way or another, Kikuyus are found to be majority of leaders in most organizations CITATION Kik15 l 1033 (Hoppe, 2015).
Time OrientationHow well best people think about time. There are three time orientations. Past (people ought to learn from history, draw positives, and strive to continue past actions into the future). Present (the “now” is the most important in all. No need to worry about tomorrow, rejoice today. Future (Planning and preparing enables people to drastically improve what they are doing; sacrificing something will ensure the success of tomorrow) CITATION DrR00 l 1033 (Zaharna, 2000 ).

As pertains to time orientation, the Kikuyu are expressed to like to be more inclined to living in the present. They prefer to get the maximum gratification from the situations that they are at in now rather than wait for an uncertain future or a past that already ended. They concentrate in working hard to ensure that they there is continuity in the processes that they engaging in. some of the Kikuyu women interviewed explained that this is why there are many quarrel between widowers of dead Kikuyu men that failed to plan for their succession after their death. Additionally, most of the Kikuyu taxi drivers around USIU-Africa would rather get quick unfair money now from an unsuspecting client rather than foster a life time customer.

Activity OrientationThis orientation tires to establish the most important modes of activity, which are three in nature. Being (it is sufficient just to be. It is not necessary to accomplish greatness in life in order to be fulfilled). Becoming (the real reason of being in this earth is for the inner development of the specific person). Doing (in hard work and full immersion in activities there would be great success. Success in this life is a measure of the effort put in what you are doing) CITATION Tom01 l 1033 (Gallagher, 2001).

In terms of the activity orientation, the Kikuyu are explained to be people who concentrate in doing. As seen before they are a very hard working people. They are always of the belief that they would always look to work extra hard to ensure that they prosper. It is not surprising to see that there are many stories of from rugs to riches (for example the late Njenga Karume who started from being a charcoal seller to becoming an influential millionaire). This belief that hard work results in success is the belief that resonates among most Kikuyu CITATION Jen03 l 1033 (Finke, 2003).

Relational (Social) OrientationThis orientation tries to establish the best form of social organization in society. Hierarchical (there is an acceptable right order to relations, some people lead while others follow; decisions ought to follow these structures). Collateral (the best organization of a group is where everyone shares in decisions. Important decisions ought not to be made alone). Individual (Each person ought to have equal rights; each person has complete control in their fortune, each person to have one vote in decision) CITATION DrR00 l 1033 (Zaharna, 2000 ).
With regards to the Social Orientation, the kikuyus are explained to be a people that are hierarchical. This is mainly because they concentrate of having clear channels for interaction between their people. It is no wonder that from the past they have put people in age groups depending on their gender or years. Additionally, they also maintain of the structures that relate to the names with regards to a child being named after their father as well as follow the clan relations that they have had since the long past years CITATION The15 l 1033 (The Gale Group, 2015).

Hall’s High-Context and Low-Context OrientationsHigh context orientation people have close relations and connections over a long period of time. Here there are many aspects in behavior which are not made explicit since most of the members are aware of what they ought to do and think since they have had long interactions. On the other hand low context oriented people normally have many connections but for smaller durations because of varying reasons. Here the culture and beliefs ought to be clearly spelled out so as the people interacting with them has an easy time CITATION Dan08 l 1033 (Kim, 2008).

In terms of the high context or low context orientation, the Kikuyu are explained a low context orientation people. This is because; they are explained to look at relationships in terms of the present value. They would rather have very many relationships now that are of value at the moment. At the time that a relation becomes useless to them they terminate it in search of new beneficial ones. Some of the interviewed Kikuyu men explained that they at time marrying from other culture that are inclined to a more long term relationships, than some Kikuyu women who look at men in regards to how much money they have now. The writer of this essay got this information from the interaction he had with people looking for potential spouses.

Face and FaceworkThis concept seeks to establish the portrayal of the self that people are allowed to see as well means that people use to create the portrayal that they make. Therefore, in this regard individualistic society people usually speak directly and honestly so as to always give a true portrayal of them. On the other hand communal cultures seek to establish long term relations for the ultimate benefit of all they therefore seek to always be polite in communication no matter whatCITATION Fab09 l 1033 (Chevalier, 2009).

Last but not least, in terms of face and facework, the Kikuyu are explained to be people who people who are always looking to be seen as powerful from their outlook even to their perception. They always proud of being associated with the Kikuyu culture and therefore always speak in their native Kikuyu language whenever they can. It is no wonder that they were the first tribe to come up with a Kikuyu Radio Station. Additionally, the Kikuyu are also very proud of both their Kikuyu movies as well as songs which they always want to be associated with CITATION Orv08 l 1033 (Jenkins, 2008).

SummaryThe Kikuyu are a culture that primarily depend vigorously on Agriculture basically horticulture. They are engaged in the growing of bananas, sugarcane, arum lily, yams, beans, millet, maize, dark beans and an assortment of different vegetables. They likewise keep livestock which are cattle, sheep, and goats. They utilize the hides from the cows to make bedding, shoes, and conveying straps and they raise the goats and sheep to use for religious penances and cleaning. In the Kikuyu society young men and young ladies are raised in an unexpected particular way. The young ladies are brought to work up in the family and the young men for the most part work with means of provision for their families. The young ladies additionally have the obligation of dealing with a child sibling or sister furthermore helping the mother out with family unit errands. This is apart from the education expectation that both the males and females presentlyCITATION Kik15 l 1033 (Hoppe, 2015).
In the Kikuyu culture family character is carried on by naming the first kid after the father’s dad and the second after the mother’s dad. The same goes for the young ladies; the first is named after the father’s mom and the second after the mother’s mom. Taking after youngsters are named after the siblings and sisters of the grandparents, beginning with the most established and attempting to the most youthful. Alongside the naming of the youngsters was the conviction that the perished grandparent’s soul, that the kid was named after, would come into the new tyke. This conviction was lost with the increment in life-compass on the grounds that by and large the grandparents are currently still alive when the youngsters are conceived CITATION Kik15 l 1033 (Hoppe, 2015).
In spite of the fact that they are customarily agrarian individuals and have believe for being persevering individuals, a great deal of them are currently included in business. The greater part of the Kikuyu still live on little family plots however a large number of them have likewise seen the open doors in business and have moved to urban areas and distinctive zones to work. They have a yearning for learning and it is trusted that all kids ought to get a full training. They have a staggering notoriety for cash administration and it is basic for them to have numerous endeavors at one time. The Kikuyu have additionally been dynamic politically. The Kikuyu are a culture that is both diverse as well as very distinctive as seen in the above essay CITATION Kik15 l 1033 (Hoppe, 2015).

Conclusion
As seen above there are very distinctive cultural dimensions that are established in the way that they interact with each other as well as with other people. These dimension of their culture both act as a help as well as disadvantage to the Kikuyu in their interaction with each other as well as with other cultures. The writer of this essay therefore this topic could be instrumental in providing information that would enable both the Kikuyu better interact with other communities as well as other communities to interact with them.

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Chevalier, F. H. (2009). The facework of unfinished turns in French conversation. Discourse Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3,, 267-284.

Finke, J. (2003). Kikuyu – Introduction. Retrieved November 28, 2015, from bluegecko: http://www.bluegecko.org/kenya/tribes/kikuyu/
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Hills, M. D. (2002). Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Values Orientation Theory. General Psychological Issues in Cultural Perspective Personality and Values Across Cultures, 1-14 page 5.

Hoppe, K. (2015). Kikuyu (Gikuyu) People. Retrieved November 29, 2015, from Encyclopedia.com — Online dictionary and encyclopedia of facts, information, and biographies: http://www.africaguide.com/culture/tribes/kikuyu.htm
Jenkins, O. B. (2008, October 3). The Kikuyu People of Kenya. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from orvillejenkins: http://orvillejenkins.com/profiles/kikuyu.html
Kim, D. J. (2008). Self-Perception-Based versus Transference-Based Trust Determinants in Computer-Mediated Transactions: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Study. Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 4, Trust in Online Environments, 13-45 page 8.

The Gale Group, I. (2015). Kikuyu . Retrieved Novmeber 20, 2015, from encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Kikuyu.aspx
Zaharna, D. R. (2000 , January 28). Zaharna – Kluckhohn notes. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from Dr. R.S. Zaharna in the School of Communication, American University. : http://academic2.american.edu/~zaharna/kluckhohn.htm

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